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95.03.013. VANINA E. BB. The IDEAS and SOCIETY IN INDIA the 16-18th Centuries / RAS. Ying t of oriental studies. - M.: Science, 1993. - 231 pages - the Cut. into English language Bibliogr.: page 213-228.



ROSSIYSKAYA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

INSTITUTE of SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION ON SOCIAL SCIENCES

SOCIAL BOTH HUMANITIES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN LITERATURE

ABSTRACT MAGAZINE SERIES 5

HISTORY 3

it is published since 1973 there are 4 times a year the RZh 3 index the index of series 3.5 papers 95.03.001 - 95.03.045

MOSCOW 1995

and individual savings; considerably also consumption, including the western sample increased; quantitatively middle class increased.

The last (third) period which began in the seventies and proceeding, according to a number of researchers, and until now, yet did not become history and therefore it is quite difficult to estimate it comprehensively.

Already at the very beginning of this stage of development of the country various circles, including also ruling, began to bring up a question of expediency of the anti-Communist union with. USA. Nevertheless Japan continued to remain the inconvenient American ally in the Pacific Rim. Hot discussions concerning two the main internal political & #34 continued; послевоенных" problems: & #34; legitimacies of the peace constitution and role monarchic институтов" (page 451). In 1989 and 1990 these questions became in the center of attention of a wide circle in the form of the debate on coming to power of the new emperor and discussion of limits of legality & #34; самообороны" according to the peace constitution during the period after the termination & #34; cold войны".

B.S. Tupov

95.03.013. VANINA E. BB. The IDEAS AND SOCIETY IN INDIA the 16-18th Centuries / RAS. Ying t of oriental studies. - M.: Nkuka, 1993. - 231 pages - the Cut. into English language Bibliogr. x. 213-228.

Having constructed the research on the analysis of official documents, chronicles and treatises (& #34; Артхашастры" Kautilya, & #34; Шукранити" & #34; Fatava-i Dzhahandari" Barani, & #34; Futukhat-i фирузшахи" Firuz-shakha; works Abu l Fazla Alami, Mukhummad Hashim Hafi Khan, Dara Shukokha, Harkarana, Sri Ragkhunatkh Pandit; & #34; Hussite хроники" Lavrenti from Brzhezova, etc.); works of an epistolary and biographic genre (letters of Aurangzeba, Kishore Das Munshi, political letters of Shah Valiulla Dekhlavi, chosen letters to Sultan's Type, & #34; Letters from Mogolsky двора" J. Correa Affonso; Hindu hagiography; records of private conversations

Anand Ranga Pillai with Joseph Francois Duplex; Mirza's travel of Abu of the Talib across Asia, Africa and Europe; Payrarda de Lavala to the East Indies, etc.; religious and reformatory exercises and literature of the studied period (a sagun-bkhakta - Vidyapati Tkhakura, Surdasa, Ramdasa, Tulsidasa; nir1un-bkhakt - & #34; Dabistan-i мазахиб"; Sufism - Sufi kavya sangra; Sikhism there is Collections of the chosen anthems of Sikh gurus, Sri to the guru's dasha grantkh sakhib; Nazir Akbarabadi, World Mira, Somadeva, etc.), edging. east. sciences, the medievalist, the senior research associate of the Center of the Indian researches of Institute of oriental studies of RAS of E.Yu. Vanin sees a task of the work in that & #34; to begin a research of the least studied Indology perspective - ideological processes and their connection with social development of India with HU1-HUSh of centuries & #34; having taken as a basis of the book composition (consisting of introduction, four chapters and the conclusion) problems, & #34; on which Indian thinkers of that time worked: view of the nature and role of the state; religious and cultural relationship of Hindus and Muslims; social processes and religious reformation; perception of tragic realities of the 18th century - disintegration of the empire of Great Moguls and colonial подчинения". On the basis of comparison of concepts of statehood, social utopias and religious and reformatory movements in India and Europe features of formation of specifically Indian type medieval collective and individual (at the level of representatives of feudal intellectual circles) the mentality which was harmoniously combining components of the past and the present are investigated; the internal organization of Hindu society, customs, beliefs, values and Muslim standard and value formations developing on the basis of interference in the course of Indo-Muslim cultural contact and the formed producing basis for historical dynamics of social development of India, readiness of Indians for cultural contact with the European tradition and to perception of the socio-political innovations introduced by colonialists.

The author recognizes that a historical prerequisite of interaction & #34; индусской" (i.e. people of the Indian subcontinent) and & #34; мусульманской" (the people of the Arab countries, Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey) cultures there was a Muslim conquest of India and education in the territory of Northern and Western India at the end of XII - the beginning of the 13th century. Delhi sultanate. This interaction laid the foundation for cultural contact steady Indo-Muslim on social (household) and intellectual (mental) levels, (page 30, 55, 56) which gained further development during existence of the empire of Great Moguls (HUHUSh of centuries).

The Indian Muslims, it is noted in the book, being not uniform neither in ethnic, nor in cultural, nor in the social plan and also are rather small in comparison with local community, having kept the traditions brought From native places, cultural achievements, a way of life, beliefs, acquiring at the same time Indian culture, language, customs, household skills, joined the processes which were taking place throughout centuries in the precolonial history of the Indian society which cornerstone the changes in policy, culture, economy affecting very largely the social sphere, especially caste hierarchy were: division of craft castes into numerous podcasts and increase in the public status of castes of city handicraftsmen - the weavers, jewelers, armorers, skinners, printers (who were considered as untouchable in the early Middle Ages) whose elders and the most prosperous handicraftsmen entered a city top and also dealers (yredstavitel of merchants not only owned huge riches, but began to play an active role in political cases); allocation and feudalization of a top in rural community at simultaneous degradation of a part of brahmen (transition to the classes incompatible with traditional situation in society, in particular, salesmen in merchant benches). These processes at

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caste limitation of traditional Hindu society & gt; and impossibility of the address to Hinduism led to creation & #34; almost at all steps of a social ladder of parallel caste divisions - Hindu and мусульманских" (page 59-60.120).

The author notes dialectically contradictory nature of development of this process as, on the one hand, such stratification was one of the dissociation reasons in socially uniform population, with another, - in spite of the fact that orthodox approach to religion trebog ui. to avoid communication with gentiles, in real life it was not succeeded to achieve it: at Hindus and Muslims, equal on the status, gradually appeared much general not only in life, the standard of living (especially as a considerable part of Muslims included the locals who accepted Islam who did not refuse former customs and habits, and for the notable Hindu feudal lord, especially court, the Muslim emir was closer than many brothers in faith), but also at the mental level, owing to the outlined prerequisite of creation of linguistic community (as the Arab-Persian and Turkic vocabulary joined the Indian languages, and learning Farsi became necessary and prestigious for many Hindus, first of all to the court nobility, officials, copyists, translators and also merchants) that promoted penetration of doctrines of Islam and the related cultural traditions into various layers of Hindu society which, in turn, made not less strong impact on Muslims - as among educated citizens in popular at the time of Akbar (1556-1605, the third representative of a dynasty of Great Moguls. - Ref.) literary circles and salons where poets and scientists, Muslims and Hindus gathered, and among various religious sects and movements, it is wide p pulyarny in the people (page 58-61.122).

Such approach to the considered problem allows the author of Eastleigh to donat evolution of historically labile forms of public consciousness (which within medieval mentality cannot

not to be religious, but the religiousness becomes other), found reflection in ideology of religious and reformatory currents of Hinduism (bkhakta), Islam (Sufism) and Sikhism (at the initial stage it is close both bkhakt, and to Sufism), at two levels which were in continuous interaction.

At the level of a people at large where experience of social and economic development led to a contradiction between traditionally low caste status and the growing consciousness of handicraftsmen, dealers, & rural elite that was complemented with understanding of community of destinies by the Hindu and Muslims and fed the ideas of unity, religious and reformatory currents, the author considers, as well as possible satisfied the growing consciousness and reflected dynamics and feature of the social stratification which developed in India as specifics of a bkhakta and Sufism consist that & #34; each current was a complex (the ideas. - Ref.) which components developed side by side, interacting, but not passing the friend in друга" (page 123.208-209).

The feature of the Indian cultural and religious substrate of this ideological complex developing in acculturation process is as follows. First, throughout all Middle Ages from three ways to knowledge of god offered the adherents by ancient Hindu theological literature - a karma (steady performance of all ceremonies, life in full accordance with instructions of sacred books), a dzhnyan (knowledge of god through philosophical reflection, studying sacred texts) and bkhakt (the love, devotion to god based on deeply emotional relation to external), those who, without having access to в$дам (as to shudra and untouchable it was on pain of death forbidden to read them and to learn), needing in & #34; своей" religions, & #34; своих" sacred texts, & #34; своих" religious teachers, gave preference to the last & which the exercises considering the main way of a bogopoznaniye of a bkhakta evolved and developed. Secondly, having subjected to critical revision

idea, traditional for Hinduism, that & #34; the world is illusion (Maya), and is real only бог" ideologists of a bkhakta rethought the idea of god who & #34; kind of dissolved in wordly бытие". However, Vanina considers, following the principles of monotheism, each of two directions - & #34; сагун" (letters, & #34; having качества") and & #34; ниргун" (letters, & #34; not having качеств") - depending on a specification of the idea of god offered the adherents various ways of honoring of god: or in an anthropomorphous form of the herdboy Krishna or the noble knight Rama which kind of absorbed in themselves all huge pantheon of gods, mentally turning in deep comprehensive feeling of the devoted sagun-bkhakt & into gently loving baby Krishna of parents, into his beautiful beloved - shepherdesses, into Hanuman - the devoted servant of Ramy" or - as the highest absolute which does not have neither the visible form, nor a life story and being honored under different names (Rama, Krishna, Allah) in representation of adherents of a nirgun-bkhakta, and itself nirgun-bkhakt & #34; inevitably acted rather as the center, philosophical размышление" what correlated the principles of a bogopoznaniye and formed the relation to a religious cult. In representation of adherents of the first direction, & #34; if god & #34; сагун" has the human embodiment, so it is possible to represent, create it his biographies, and therefore temples, god's statues, жрецы" are necessary; and ideologists of this direction considered a necessary lever on feelings of believers & #34; the rituals performed before a statue бога" whereas for ideologists of a nirgun-bkhakta Absolute god dissolved in all nature, & #34; did not need temples, ceremonies, жрецах" in external manifestations of a religious cult (page 100, 104-106, 108,121,142).

Such opposition of an external form of religion of its internal essence, инкорпорирующее&в the razvtiya of the idea of Islamic monotheism, in many cases considerably was removed from official Hinduism and was very close as early Sikhism, i of joint stock company and Sufism which as Islam, & #34; India received kind of already in

& #34; ready виде". This similarity, according to the author, speaks as & #34; mutual influence of a bkhakta and developing on the Indian soil суфизма" (in particular, & #34; & #34; for some sufiyev god was deprived of any external manifestations and a tangible form, others, on the contrary, called him the living being and even in something approached Hindu ideas of the deity having human облик"), and initial proximity of their ideological bases, as & #34; Sufi preachers considered that the main way to connection good luck and to rescue - not studying sacred texts, not strict following to ceremonies, but sincere, self-sacrificing feeling of love to богу" which, as opposed to orthodox representations of Islam, turned from the terrible, punishing force into merciful, loving the creations (page 100-102,106,119).

The most characteristic example of cultural symbiosis, according to the author, is the doctrine of ideologists of the sect acting in the Area of Sinda and Gudzharata satpantkh (letters, & #34; true путь"), in which Hinduism and Islam - & #34; equal steps to knowledge бога" appearing under a Muslim name (Harm), under Hindu (Brahma, Parameshvara), and Sufism doctrines (Quranic ideas of the Doomsday, hell and paradise) and bkhakt (the doctrine about resettlement of souls which Islam strictly condemns) & #34; fancifully merge and переплетаются" (page 63).

For familiarizing to & #34; братствам" & #34; общинам" & #34; awards! м" on the principles & #34; улучшенной" religions of a people at large and reached the situation thanks to spiritual qualities, learning, high degree of a bogopostizheniye of their spiritual mentors - the guru at bkhakt and sheikhs at sufiyev, - many of which came from trade and craft layers, & #34; the modest, devout, generous householder with his honest poverty and moderated достатком" was an ethical ideal, & #34; to opposed both the greedy rich men, and beggars аскетам". At the same time approach to social problems finds deep differences in views of ideologists of a bkhakta on the ideals of social system reflected in utopias: Begampur -

& #34; Город-без-несчастий" & #34; where it is strong state власть" and abhorrence to caste inequality in Ravidas's representation (15th century) - one of the most famous preachers of a nirgun-bkhakta belonging to an untouchable caste of tanners-chamarov; the village of Gokul - the world limited to a framework of country community sincerely devoted to Krishna - & #34; to god of the poor and обездоленных" - residents of the village, where & #34; live in full harmony with the nature and the friend with другом" and & #34; everything copes kind of itself собой" - in utopias & #34; Сурсагар" Surdasa (16th century), impoverished brahman, adherent of a sagun-bkhakta; an ideal of the state in & #34; Рамаяне" Tulsidasa (sagun-bkhakt, 16th century) - & #34; kingdom Ramy" in which god appears kind of in two forms: the defender of the bkhakt betrayed to him before whom all are equal, and the fair sovereign protecting a Dharma - the caste laws (page 101-102,110,112-116) ordered by god.

Without absolutizing result of process of Indo-Muslim cultural interaction, the author notes that & #34; at unconditional maintaining distinctive features peculiar to each religious community, uniform cultural values were created, idea of need of unity of Hindus and мусульман" developed; (page 63).

As, the author, the fundamental principles both a bkhakta, and Sufism considers (monotheism, recognition of all religions, a priority & #34; internal сути" religions over external ceremonialism, criticism of fanaticism) were the general, comprehensive and flexible, and both concepts included a wide range of ideological currents as ideologists as bkhakt (the weaver Kabir, the tanner Ravidas, the dealer Nanak, impoverished brahmen Surdas and Tulsidas, etc.), and Sufism (padishahs Akbar, Aurangzeb, court Akhyad Sirkhindi, the crown prince Dara Shukokh, vazir Abu l Fazl Alami, the son Hassu Tel and, etc. maslodet) were representatives of various social groups, they gave a scope for any religious, social and philosophical and ethical interpretations (page 62, 63, 77, 81, 89-91, 102, 110.117).

So, getting & #34; наверх" in circles of educated elite, these ideas received the new boost connected with the rationalistic relation, on the one hand, to belief and to differences between religions that promoted emergence & #34; some kind of spiritual вакуума" which in medieval society, at impossibility to resolve contradictions within & #34; official религии" generated aspiration or & #34; очистить" & #34; улучшить" old belief or to create something new; with another - to change of the political theory and concept of the government (page 61,81-82,94,206).

Respectively, the author considers, ideas of the state as one of elements of public structure - a complex of the ideas, socio-political theories and views, - being integrally connected with those spiritual processes which developed in the Indian society throughout all Middle Ages, were formed under influence & #34; индусской" and & #34; мусульманской" cultural traditions in interference of political concepts (page 17-18, 75-76).

According to the basic principles recorded by i & #34; индусских" political and administrative treatises (& #34; Артхашастра" Kautilya, & #34; Шукранити"), the state considered as a certain uniform organism, the system including seven basic elements: the tsar (in the concept of divine origin of throne the divinity of institute of throne, río not of the sovereign), ministers, army, the earth or the country (subsequently as well citizens was emphasized), fortresses, treasury, the ally or subject sovereign, - was represented to the Indian thinkers as territorial structure of concentric circles (mandala) in which the remoteness from the center is directly proportional to weakening of the power of the sovereign and where the tsar - the central element of a system - built the relations with citizens on the basis of the contract according to which obedience of citizens and payment of taxes by them were carried out in exchange for the tsar's duties, main of which - support and protection in the society of internal stability - the general ratio between

castes, the developed their hierarchy based on strict observance by each person and each caste of the Dharma, & #34; understood in narrow sense as the way of life ordered by ancient customs and establishments of sacred books (the tsar. - Ref.), each caste, each sort, and through them - each person (svadharma, i.e. the Dharma), and in a broad sense - as social system, the general law according to which each caste and each person has all sum of the duties and rights corresponding his caste статусу". In maintenance of the Dharma prevailing over a .obshchestvo and subordinating itself the sovereign - sense & #34; sciences политики" by which the tsar is obliged to be guided, without having opportunities and the right neither to create, nor to change, nor to regulate internal life of a caste. & #34; The Policy of the state was designed to protect and strengthen an established order, but it did not get into depth, and human life was regulated more by community and a caste, than laws государства" (page 18-19, 21-22,24,28-29).

Similarity & #34; индусской" and & #34; мусульманской" political concepts (protection by the sovereign of the public order consecrated with religion; a duty of citizens to obey the divine law - Sharia or a Dharma; existence in the state of ruling community, belonging to which causes a privileged position, and community of the subordinate) was, according to the author, one of the reasons of stability of so-called Muslim board in India through many centuries. However to rule India, the government of Muslims (which throughout all Middle Ages remained minority in spite of the fact that Islam encourages the address to the belief, at least and violently) had to is deeper to get into life of the subject population, but at the same time it was impossible without preservation and use of the traditional institutes existing in Ancient India (therefore Barani is a chronicler of the Delhi sultans of the 16th century, proved need

hierarchies of hereditary professional and class groups, as a matter of fact, castes though Islam considers all Muslims equal) (page 32-33).

During existence of the empire of Great Moguls Abu l Fazl Alami (vazir, the theorist and the conductor of policy of the padishah Akbar), pursuing the aim of the greatest possible penetration of the government to all spheres of life of society, developed the ideas of interaction & #34; индусской" and & #34; мусульманской" cultures on the basis of incorporation of the fundamental principles of a bkhakta and Sufism to the course of public policy. Having borrowed the idea of divine power institution of the monarch from the predecessors, Abu l Fazl builds the political theory in which through recognition of divinity of the sanction of acts of the fair sovereign proceeding not from Allah - god of privileged ruling community, and from uniform for Muslims and Absolute god's Hindus that is equivalent as to recognition of a rank of the just sovereign is higher than a rank of a mudzhtakhid (& #34; comprehended sacred закон"), and to violation of one of the most important principles of Hindu and Muslim political theories, two provisions, essentially new to India, are proved: 1) a priority of temporal power over spiritual, will of the sovereign acting for the sake of the general benefit over the sacred law, 2) the sovereign - the secular and spiritual head not of privileged community of the brothers in faith, and all citizens without distinction of religious affiliation (с34-35.37-39, 83).

These ideas, the author, in combination with the ideas extended in those days that each live body consists of four equivalent elements (fire, air, water and the earth) considers, formed the basis of the concept of social system developed by Abu l Fazl according to which all society - the uniform organism consisting of four basic elements: & #34; Soldiers similar to fire..., handicraftsmen and merchants similar to air..., scientific..., similar to water..., farmers and workers, similar земле" (tsit. on: page 39-40). The monarch - the central point of a system, -

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acting on behalf of all the citizens, a way of justice all society in which & #34 directs and направляет&на; the people belonging to different social groups are not equal each other, but their contribution to prosperity of the state is equivalent, and prosperity is possible as result of unity of various social groups (and both feudal lords, and other population groups), and the state (acting through the monarch) - entirely Muslim, Hindu, standing above religious distinctions and aspiring become the policy & #34; to a sulkh-a кул" (letters, & #34; the world for всех"), i.e. really general benefit (that for the first time in the history of India broke the principle of domination of one religious community over another) is the main unifying force (page 38, 40, 66).

Imsno in this regard the author is inclined to consider religious policy and Akbar's reform which central position is the concept developed by Abu l Fal & #34; new религии"-" dynes - and иллахи" (& #34; divine веры"), the bkhakta which is ideologically uniting postulates and practice of all religions of India and at the same time accumulating doctrines and Sufism, and many lines inherent in the religion organizationally correlated to Sufi awards and brotherhoods of bkhakt, but not having at the same time (concepts of god and the universe operated by him, the Scripture, mythology) considering reason and divine will identical - in the general context of mentality of that time and Akbar's reforms (attempts to liquidate military lennuyu a system, unification of a control system - the partition of the territory of the empire into 15 provinces-suba with a control system, uniform for all, introduction of uniform taxation, the calendar, table of measures and scales) aimed at creation of the centralized state (page 53, 79).

However considering that: 1) India represented not the country, but the whole continent which inhabitants spoke different languages, practised different religions and, the main thing, were at the different levels of social development; 2) The Mogolsky empire (also to (1k N the Delhi sultanate preceding it) was obliged

(as, besides the general traditions, categories, values created to the middle of the 16th century at the mental level) only the tendency to formation of the market in empire scales existed the emergence not to unifying trends in the most Indian society: production of the Bengalese muslin depended on supply of the Gujarati cotton whereas Gujarat could not do without supply of grain from the neighboring areas) but only to gain, and conquerors came from the countries enduring the period of feudal fragmentation; 3) traditional & #34; индусская" and & #34; мусульманская" political theories reflected the state to which were peculiar substantially amorphy, friability, instability and instability, Abu l Fazl put forward and Akbar tried to carry out only the idea of the strong centralized state and by that to rise on a step above the predecessors both in development of political doctrines, and in practice of reforms. The fragile balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces which was expressed, on the one hand, in strengthening of the Mogolsky empire and expansion of a social base of the power became result of the undertaken reforms (& #34; uzky слой" Akbar's supporters was first of all in the circle of ruling class, at the same time supported reforms generally & #34; неортодоксальная" part & #34; feudal интеллигенции" both Hindu, and Muslim and also representatives of trade and craft layers what was promoted Akbar's refusal of discrimination of not Muslims: cancellation are hated! dzhiz - the extraordinary tax paid & #34; неверными" in exchange for protection from the Muslim sovereign, and a number of taxes on the trade and craft population, administrative and financial reforms), with another - in steadily remaining tendency to decentralization as Akbar, considering a political position of lennikov-dzhagirdar and Hindu feudal lords (mainly the Rajputs who recognized dependence on the Delhi throne having only obeyed to force and resisting reform policy), could not liquidate military lyonnuyu a system, and

seeking to subordinate to the government all traditional public institutes, Akbar nevertheless could not go too far because otherwise he risked to restore against himself both Hindus, and Muslims, and not only the nobility, but also broad masses, the author comes to conclusion that & #34; all this created in the empire of Moguls such type of the state which significantly differed from centralized in the true sense it слова" (page 41, 43-47, 52).

As, the author considers, traditions of rationalistic approach to a problem of Indo-Muslim unity continued to live in contradictory interaction and confrontation of the factors influencing stadial and formational development of the Indian society at the level of intellectual elite (comparison of various religious systems, & #34; the scientifically based analysis of distinctions between религиями"), during the posleakbarovsky period the hypothetical possibility of development of mogolsky society towards centralization remained that at Dara Shukokha (1615-1659, the eldest son and Shah Jahan's successor) found reflection in the comparative research undertaken by it as main religious and philosophical categories of Vedanta (one of the largest religious and philosophical schools of Hinduism) and faithful categories of Sufism, and the Quran, Gospel, Topo, David's psalms and the most ancient sacred books by Hindus among which it found only in the last & #34; accurate explanation of the principles монотеизма" also developed into attempt to revive the political doctrine of Akbar; and at Prannatkh (1618-1694) who analyzed the same knug and came to a conclusion about a uniform source of all religions having a lot of similar led to the idea of unity of all people of India (page 88-93).

Inertia of political centralization continued to work within several decades after the death of the padishah Akbar so Jahangir (1605-1627) who was in opposition to undertakings of the father rejected a religious potitika of Akbar only in the basic principles showing

the tolerance concerning not Muslims, continuing to patronize dealers and trying to resist to separatist ambitions of feudal lords, Shah Jahan (1627-1658), despite revision of the state concept which in the conditions of the beginning of crisis of the empire was aimed at the statement of a Muslim theocracy could not be torn with Akbar's (page 48-49.53) heritage sharply.

But gradually, to the middle of the 17th century, the mogolsky power, having refused a core element of akbarovsky reform policy - the concept & #34; dynes - and иллахи" - undermined the inertia of policy of centralization which is not supported with economic integration of the regions/principalities which were besides at the different levels of social and economic development and, being the rent tax interested only in receiving and a tribute, waging the wars of conquest which were followed by mutinies and retaliatory expeditions got into internal life of subject territories less, and upon transition of the same territory throughout life of one generation from hand to hand, strengthened, at the mental level, on the one hand, the attitude of Indians to it as to foreign, inoverchesky domination, with another - reanimating the attitude towards community, a caste, кла^у as to the only stabilizing obshchost with which the person could identify himself, in combination with development of elements of national community (in certain regions. - Ref.), provoked mass consciousness to be guided by the religious and reformatory ideology which is transformed to ideology of great antimogolsky movements that inevitably promoted & #34; to the approval by that of archaic state model which Akbar" tried to reject;. & #34; Connected with powerful development of liberation movements in which the antimogolsky orientation was combined with the ideas religious реформации" (various directions. - Ref.), the process of disintegration of the Mogolsky empire in many respects determined by specifics and

level of social and economic and cultural development of concrete regions (in this research Maharashtra and Punjab are considered), showed emergence of various models of further development of the certain areas (page 53-54, 162-163) which were its part.

In the conditions of rural, patriarchal Maharashtra (on socio-economic indexes lagged behind the Areas of Gujarat and Agra-Delhi) conquered by Moguls much later than other regions of India (the capital of maratkh was occupied by Moguls in 1621 - Raf.), and already by 17th century of the reached considerable extent of ethnic consolidation (in HI-HSH of centuries the Marathi language strongly pressed Sanskrit in administrative and literary spheres) that was followed & #34; rough process of feudalization of a rural top which fought for the place in feudal and caste иерархии" the antimogolsky movement headed by maratkheky feudal lords (farmers, impoverished brahmen played a major role in the movement) and received acting through Shivadzhi (15527-1680) of the brave and talented head, as well as possible, according to the author, suited the ideology of one of mentors of Shivadzhi, the poet and the thinker Ramdas (1608-1681) which connected & #34; patriotic бхакти" resulted from reconsideration of the number of the fundamental principles professed by it sagun-bkhakt (denial of humility and humility, the idea vital активности&, vigorous efforts for achievement of the goals in wordly life, recognition of human right to aspire fortunately and glory), the associating word & #34; свободный" with independence of Moguls and treating fight for freedom as a religious debt, with values of a traditional caste system as the idea of national release - & #34; Makharashra дхарма" - & #34; it was perceived as restoration of that ancient, primordial, consecrated with Hinduism order which was broken because of invasion & #34; варваров" - Muslims. At the same time, creating soldered by the ideas of liberating fight, ethnically uniform state,

Shivadzhi, the author, & #34 considers; made a start from mogolsky samples, and not only on - a form, but also on содержанию". However after Shivadzhi's death the transformation of the centralized state aside more traditional & #34 took place; индусской" models-" манады" & #34; representing the confederation, quite rare for the medieval East, consisting of five states: actually Maharashtra, Indore, Gwalior, Nagpur and Barody" which governors recognized the power of the Supreme governor - a peshva only so as far as it was favorable to them (page 125-129.170-173).

In Punjab which was a part of the Mogolsky empire in the period of Babur's government (1526-1530, the ancestor of a dynasty of Great Moguls. - Ref.), crossing of a vector of the reached level of social and economic and religious and cultural development of community of Sikhs (initial adherents of a nirgun-bkhakta), where as the author considers, process of formation of statehood of Sikhs in which the temporal and spiritual power gurus belonged • & #34; to hereditary religious teachers and live божествам" & #34; concentrated in the hands large land grants and казну" being replenished at the expense of the taxes paid by all members and collected by the agents-masandami appointed by the guru who gradually turned into the feudal lords keeping down ordinary Sikhs - personally free community members whose number constantly grew at the expense of handicraftsmen, dealers, farmers-dzhatov migrating to Punjab from other regions of Northern India which reached by 17th century of level theocratic & #34; the states in государстве" where trends of feudal anarchy, with a vector of decentralizatorsky trends in the center which consequence strengthening of Muslim fundamentalism, increase in tax burden and retaliatory expeditions turned out to be are looked through, introduced feudal values in Sikh ethics and a psykhologiya of the peaceful householder and led to reconsideration of the basic principles of Sikhism. Having rejected put in bkhakt and early

Sikhism the idea of humility and humility, considering ethnic heterogeneity of adherents of Sikhism, the Guru Gobind (1660-1708) in essence directs the psychological mechanism of group self-identification of Sikhs to strengthening of municipal community through democratization of community (cancellation of institute of collectors of a tax; elimination of a post of the guru and transfer of the real power to the community-halse solving all cases at a general meeting) and religious reform (introduction of a ceremony of dedication and distinctions; denial of traditions, the customs understood as denial of castes) that promoted transformation of Sikhism into separate religion and also development of process of short circuit of the Sikh community and, having given the divine sanction to liberating fight of Sikhs, increase of antimogolsky moods and creation of the solid efficient army consisting of personally free full community members farmers, handicraftsmen and small traders, & #34; not persons interested to give a ruinous rent to Moguls, to pay humiliating джизью" seeking to create own, based on religious and cultural unity and the egalitarian principles & #34; gosudartvo хальсы" (page 129-131.133-137.148).

With the beginning of the 18th century, the author considers, in development of mogolsky statehood two trends are distinctly traced. The first - attempt of the mogolsky aristocracy to revive the empire which spokesman of views was a hereditary scientist-theologian and the thinker Shah Valiulla Dekhlavi (1703-1762). Seeing the main reason of crisis and disintegration of the empire in the developed social and economic and political disproportions, & #34; in balance violation (tavazzun) between the standard of living and a real contribution of the nobility and people to public wealth (as, on the one hand, huge number of people - theologians-ulama, & #34; pious суфии" poets, soldiers - applied for a reward and various payments from treasury, were a consequence of what & #34; greed and corruption of those who were called to care for the benefit?

Jimmy White
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