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Educational institutions of the Kuban region at the beginning of the XX century



 © 2007 of G. Davitlidze

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of the KUBAN REGION at the beginning of the XX century

In 1914 in the territory of modern Krasnodar Krai 1875 schools at which 172.8 thousand people [1] studied that made 1.5% of all general education educational institutions of the empire (124 thousand) worked. The number of pupils in Kuban was considerable big, than, for example, in Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and many other regions [2]. And the coverage of children school was higher, than on average in the country. In 1909 in 1595 the Kuban educational institutions 148,381 pupils were registered that made 5.8% of the population (from 2531051) [3]. In 1913 at elementary schools of area there were already 177,911 pupils [4, 5].

Data on area contain materials "A one-day census of elementary schools in the empire on January 18, 1911" (under the editorship of V.I. Pokrovsky). In 1917 on their basis the position of national school in Kuban was compared with other provinces of Russia. By the number of pupils (4.48% of the population) Kuban took the 36th place, at the average cost of one rural school - the 3rd, on duration of academic year (186 days) - the 16th, on percent left before the termination of a course (18.9%) - the 42nd, on percent of the sums which are released from local means (81.7%) - the 8th, on an average expense on school of one inhabitant (92.1 kopeks) - the 13th, on educational qualification of teachers (with secondary and vocational education of 32%) - the 65th place. Pokrovsky considered that the school in the Kuban region "costs above the average level" [5].

What represented this level? Elementary schools, their prevailing look - initial school were the overwhelming mass of educational institutions. In 1914 the area had 1020 one-cool (with the three-year term of training) and 250 two-cool (with a four- and five-year course) initial schools. In them studied 136,229 persons. Besides 420 parish schools from 23 thousand pupils worked. 47 schools of "the raised type" (45 city "under the provision of 1872" the highest initial and two Mariinsky schools) annually could accept only the fourth part got primary education. And other three quarters - 10 - 12 thousand children as it was told in the report of the director of national schools, "were doomed to oblivion of the elementary knowledge" [6].

The condition of national education is reflected by reports of the chief of the Kuban region. By data

the optimum, last report for 1915, 51 average educational institutions worked (gymnasiums, pro-gymnasiums, real, commercial schools). 30 of them - men's (6,558 pupils), 21 - women's (7460 schoolgirls). There was 54 highest initial schools. All of them were considered as male, but some were visited also by girls (here studied boys - 5,833, girls-1,945). Initial schools was 1784. Including men's - 1464, women's - 305. They were visited 176068 persons. There were 15 private initial educational institutions in which 489 boys and 249 girls studied. Special educational institutions - army military and medical assistant's and agricultural schools in certain villages, trade schools in Ekaterinodar and Maykop, preparatory seaworthy school in Anapa, mekhaniko-technical school in Maykop, craft and professional (sartorial, etc.) schools - in the report 26 was called. In 24 men's 2208 boys and in 2 women's - 324 girls studied. Thus, all Kuban had 1915 educational institutions from which men's was 1587, women's - 328. In them 201,134 pupils studied [7, page 86]. The high school covered about 14 thousand people (less than 7% of all pupils). The visiting educational institutions made 6.2% of the population, and about a half of children of school age. However it was exaggeration. V.I. Lenin wrote that children and teenagers of school age in Russia over 20%. "It would even not be difficult for misters Kasso and Kokovtsev to learn this figure through the departmental officials. So, children of school age of 22%, and the studying 4.7%, that is almost five times it is less!!" [8, page 127]. If to accept this percent true and for Kuban, then it from the population of the area in 1915 3,122,905 people make 687 thousand. That is actually the school in Kuban covered less than a third of children and teenagers who could study. Growth of number of pupils happened, but in a slowed-up way: from 1909 to 1915 their quantity in relation to population increased by 0.4%. Relative number of pupils: in 1909 one pupil fell on 18.3 inhabitants, in 1913 - on 15.6 [9].

The condition of school "above the average level" in the empire was explained Kuban by the fact that the local Cossacks had the preferential right to education. In 1914 760 Kuban-educational institutions

sky area were Cossack, that is belonged to the Cossack communities. Cossacks had a large number of two-great initial schools [10]. In 1914 under the authority of regional directorate of national schools, taking into account schools for Cossacks of the preparatory category, dress-making courses, craft offices, etc. 161,720 pupils were registered (boys - 110,224). Children of Cossacks among them was 109,646 (67.8%) [11]. According to the reporting elementary school was visited by 70% of all children of school age of army estate and 40% of all children of non Cossacks. In the Kuban Aleksandrovsky real school, Ekaterinodarsky diocesan school, Mariinsky school (institute) children of Cossacks mainly were accepted. In 1914 in the Vladikavkaz military school, in military colleges there were over 500 Kuban army grants - Borodino, Alekseevsky "for children of Cossacks, the killed and wounded in the war with Japan and at suppression of disorders in the empire" and also nominal charitable, including appointed on behalf of the tsar and the queen. In 1909 the government provision "About the Termination of Reception of Faces Not of Army Estate in the Kuban Aleksandrovsky Real School" took effect [12]. The impetus to strengthening of military education was given by world war. In 1915 in different military schools 75,562 Kuban Cossacks, including in military academy 3 people, the others consisted - at officer schools, yunkersky schools, military schools [7, page 94]. The facts testify to special attention to Kuban. In 1904. The Kuban Cossack army (according to petitions of the Caucasian educational and army administration, the decision of the Council of War, at the consent of the Minister of War), allocated 40 thousand rubles for construction of women's teacher's seminary in Ekaterinodar. To army the vacancy "up to 40 army schoolgirls" was established. "On a vacancy of the Kuban army in women's teacher's seminary maidens whose parents belong to the Kuban Cossack army in such gradualness are accepted: a) orphans, b) the orphans who lost the father or mother c) the children at living parents who passed the established examination..." [13].

In February, 1911 the trustee of the Caucasian educational district raised the question "About a Holiday of 200,000 Rubles of an Interest-free Loan for Construction of Own Building for the 2nd Ekaterinodarsky Female Gymnasium". In the report he noted that the narrowness existing in the leased building does "harm of educational put also a sanitary condition of a gymnasium. So: 1) in the absence of free, at the entrance, rooms for undressing it is necessary the studying children, without taking off an overcoat, in the winter and in the fall often wet or in snow, with dirty galoshes to take place in hands in the top corridors. Dirt from galoshes and the water which is flowing down from a wet dress is polluted by corridors.". The City Council assumed obligation to annually pay 6,000 rubles on account of repayment of a loan what confirmed enclosed

"Vypis from the Ekaterinodarskoy magazine of City Council" [14].

Since June 1, 1911 in the Caucasian educational district nine new positions of inspectors of national schools were established. The relevant bill of the State Duma approved by the State Council was adopted. In the report on the bill it was noted: ".v lately the number of elementary schools in the Caucasus grows so quickly that in one year is established different type of the lowest educational institutions more, than before in the whole decade" that "presses for increases in school inspection". As a result there was "A law on establishment in the Caucasian educational district of nine positions of the inspector of national schools" approved by the State Council and the State Duma". "On Own hand of its Imperial Majesty it is written: "To be on this. On raid in the Standard yacht. On July 5, 1912 года"". On the basis of the law the inspection positions were distributed: as a part of directorates Baku, Elizavetpolsky, Tersky, in the Sukhumi district and the Black Sea province - on one, in the Kuban directorate - four. In 1912 the state treasury released for new officials 11,400 rubles, and since 1913 - on 34,200 rubles a year [15].

The fact that in "The report of the budgetary commission on the estimate of expenses of the Ministry of national education for 1913" in which the corresponding expenses across all Russia were distributed in the section "Maintenance of Average Educational Institutions" "the credit of 6000 rubles for delivery of a grant of a men's gymnasium in the village of the Labinsk Kuban region is asked, by the way, attracts attention. This gymnasium exists since 1906. The village served by this gymnasium Labinsk will be spaced from the railroad on 60 versts and contains over 30,000 souls of both sexes with the prevailing structure of the Russian population" [16, l. 1, 16 about.]. Continuation of a grant the next years was supposed. In the section more any gymnasium of the empire is not called.

In 1913 the trustee of the Caucasian educational district excited the petition for establishment in the district of 13 teacher's seminaries "in memory of the 300 anniversary of reign of House of Romanovs", including in Anapa the Kuban region [17] (three teacher's seminaries - women's in Ekaterinodar and two men's then worked at Kuban). According to the draft of the estimate of the Caucasian educational district for 1914, "in types of elimination of inconveniences and severe conditions of existence of educational institutions in hired buildings, it is very desirable and allocation is necessary... credits". Including for the Yeysk female gymnasium - 28,725 rubles 50 kopeks, on expansion of the building of the 2nd Ekaterinodarsky female gymnasium - 10,000 rubles, - It was offered to 2nd Ekaterinodarsky real school to release 62,000 rubles: To Ekaterinodarsky 2nd real school 1,000, the Yeysk female gymnasium - 27,244 rubles [16, l. 87, 110].

In average educational institutions the insignificant number of children from the Cossack families studied. The bulk of the Cossacks who remained by the nature of classes the peasantry was content with elementary school. In 1915 in initial schools of Kuban 110,188 children of Cossacks against 65,880 non-residents studied. In the highest initial schools this difference was almost not felt - here was children of Cossacks

3 970, non-residents - 3,808, and in average educational institutions not army youth prevailed: non Cossacks - 10,466, Cossacks - 3,552. At special schools - craft, seminaries - 1,033 Cossacks and 1,499 non-residents studied. In private educational institutions of pupils from Cossacks there was only 29 of 73 8 persons. In total in 1915 at the Kuban school 118,772 children of Cossacks and 82,362 - non-residents were registered [7, page 94].

For January 1, 1915 from 32 men's gymnasiums of the Caucasian educational district and pro-gymnasiums it was the share of the Kuban region 6 (Anapa; Armavir; Ekaterinodarsky the 1st and 2nd; Labinsk; Raman) with number of grammar-school boys 2,329 persons. From 56 female gymnasiums and pro-gymnasiums of the district - 16 (Anapa; Armavir; Batalpashinskaya; Yeysk; Ekaterinodarsky the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th; Labinsk; Maykop; Raman; Slavic, Temryuk, Tikhoretsk, Umansky, Ust-Labinsky) with number of grammar-school girls

4 704 people [18, page 7, 258].

Russia knew one more type of educational institutions - commercial. They began to open at the beginning of the 90th of the 19th century. These institutions were subordinated by the law of 1894 to the Ministry of Finance. It developed "the normal provision on commercial educational institutions which... received legislative approval on April 15, 1896". Types of institutions were established by it: trade classes, trade schools, commercial schools, courses of commercial knowledge. In Situation it was said: "Commercial schools, seven-cool and three-cool, aim: the first - to give to pupils the general and commercial education, and the second - only commercial education; that and others belong to the category of average educational institutions" [19]. The commercial school was open also in Ekaterinodar. There was it in 1908 according to the petition of local merchant society. In 1912 laying of the building of school was consecrated. In it besides general education objects were taught: commercial arithmetics, accounts department, commercial correspondence in Russian and foreign languages, political economy, the history of trade, jurisprudence, merchandizing, commercial geography, shorthand, the letter on the typewriter, drawing, a calligraphy and also singing, dances, music, foreign languages. Graduates received the certificate and "received a rank of the personal honourable citizen", and excellent students - ranks of "the candidate of commerce" [20].

Financial security of national education was combined: educational institutions were financed treasury, the Cossack army, rural societies. In 1915 on national education in Ku -

bansky area it was spent: from treasury of-127 0621 rubles, from army - 464,280 rubles, from public money (from collecting on the right of the doctrine) - 4,057,820 rubles, and only 5,792,721 rivers [7, page 94]. That is up to 70% of funds it was raised by the population. And at the expense of local opportunities also the high school was paid not only initial, but considerably. In the Russian state library the report of the Board of trustees of the Tikhoretsk female pro-gymnasium printed by the small brochure in expenditure of the sums on the maintenance of a pro-gymnasium in 1911 - 1912 academic year remained ". The fifth year of existence" (farm Tikhoretsk, 1912). Since fall of 1912 the pro-gymnasium was transformed to a full gymnasium. During the reporting period in it 179 schoolgirls studied. "The payment for the right of the doctrine" made in the first four classes 60 rubles a year, in the 5th and 6th - 80 rubles. For teaching German as optional - 10 rubles a year. The board of trustees from a payment for study exempted 5 schoolgirls for a year and one - for a half-year. For 4 girls the payment was not brought: "Within a year 4 schoolgirls left a pro-gymnasium. For 7 schoolgirls for the second half of the year the payment was brought by Society of education of employees of the Vladikavkaz railroad. For the doctrine 11,365 rubles were brought together. To this sum "the rest of last year" - 3,697 rubles 9 increased to. All budget of a farm pro-gymnasium made 16,662 rubles 9 to. From them on "the salary of administration and including to tutors to teachers" was allocated to 8,303 rubles 2 to. Then "Extra fees" followed: the chief (her main salary with room was 1,380 rubles a year) - 600 rubles "for presidency in a faculty meeting", 60 rubles - "for performance of duties of the secretary of Council", to the teacher Yefimova for correction of notebooks, to teachers and teachers are paid to 175 rub", "a salary to the doctor" - 166 rubles 66 to. There were also expenditure for acquisition of firewood - 413 rubles 63 to., "for supply of fuel" - 26 rubles 24 to., "acquisition of kerosene, candles, matches, glasses and a match" - 55 rubles 68 to.

The administration allocated funds for repair old and construction of new schools. For these purposes 200 thousand rubles were annually released, but it was extremely insufficiently. Even in Ekaterinodar in 1915 from 33 city schools in own rooms took place only 13, the others were in hired houses in extremely adverse conditions [21]. In a local press the typical example was given: "one of the oldest" the Aleksandrovsky two-great school, its educational rooms remade from the shed worked at Pokrovka (Region of Ekaterinoda-ra) could accomodate 300 pupils, and 500 studied. Incredible narrowness and darkness, dirt - both in classes, and in a corridor. Pupils heap outerwear. "A stench from evaporating. rvanye - clothes unimaginable - to nausea", - the correspondent demonstrated [22, page 117-118].

The lack of funds was the reason of an unsatisfactory condition of many educational institutions, as always in Russia, that was already noted above. In 1914 in Kuban on primary education 3,950,744 rubles, about 1 rubles 20 were released to. per capita [23]. It is possible to note that V.I. Lenin paid attention to big backwardness of Russia in financing of education. He noted what 43 years ago, in 1870 in the USA was "pupils almost four times more, than in modern Russia". He wrote: "The estimate of the ministries of national blackout (so V.I. Lenin called the Ministry of national education. - Of D.) it is defined for 1913 in 130.7 million rubles. It makes on one inhabitant on 80 kopeks.... In Belgium, England, Germany the sum of expenses on national education is 2 - 3 rub and even 3 rub 50 kopeks on one inhabitant. In America in 1910 it was spent for national education of 426 million dollars, i.e. 852 million rubles, i.e. on 9 rub 24 kopeks on 1 inhabitant" [8, page 128-129].

The list of educational institutions will be not full if not to tell about church schools. In 1908 - 1909 academic year 199 schools of the diploma of the Stavropol diocese worked: in Batalpashinsky department - 17, Yeysk - 22, Ekaterinodarsk - 35, etc. "From these schools of diploma 68 huddling in inconvenient rooms church storozhek and hired houses. Are closed by diocesan Uchilishchny Council, the others 131, the having satisfactory and good buildings and the same situation, are transformed to one-cool" [24, page 3]. That is the number of schools (more precisely a shkolok on 30 - 50 pupils) was unstable and depended on monetary support of arrivals which, as a rule, was scanty. Model church establishment was described: "The Ust-Labinsky women's second-class school has own brick two-storeyed building. In the building volume and house church which priest the manager of school consists. Apartments of teachers in a separate wing; is at school and necessary services - the shed, a bath, a barn, a cellar. The school in 1899 is constructed and the total cost of all school buildings reaches 34,000 rubles. Lands the school has 5 tithes which are taken away by society. There were 77 schoolgirls: in the 1st class-30, in the 20th - 35, in the 3rd - 12. Age of schoolgirls from 13 to 21 years, and estates they either country, or Cossack, or petty-bourgeois, only one their spiritual" [24, page 53-54]. Such school was in singular. Also treated church department: men's spiritual school, the Kuban corrective shelter and already mentioned women's diocesan school.

In 1908 - 1909 academic year of one-great schools there were 655. It was the peak of their development. The efficiency of activity of church schools was low. From the reporting: "From 453 people (287 boys and 166 girls) studying. at two-great schools of the diocese, ended a full course 28 (18 boys and 10 girls), i.e. 6.18%. From 28,864 people (18,707 boys and 10,157 girls) studying in one -

great schools, ended a course and received the established certificates 2,757 (1,913 boys and 844 girls), or 9.55% all studying". [24, page 19-20].

In 1911 in the Kuban region there were 417 elementary church schools, from them two-cool only 4. There were 62 men's schools, women's - 69, mixed - 286. In the 1st office (class) there were 11,590 their total number of their pupils, in the 2nd - 7,448, in the 3rd - 3,255, and in the 4th - only 63 pupils [25].

The situation was explained by the fact that the main contingent of church schools was made by children of the poor for whom study was inaccessible. In 1912 N.K. Krupskaya studied position of children of workers in Moscow. They began to help about the house from four-year age. Under the carried-out questionnaire 85% of girls and 54% of boys were busy. A half of the interviewed children never heard fairy tales, 76% did not happen on country walk, many did not know names of fathers and mothers, the name of streets on which lived [26]. With confidence it is possible to tell what in the remote cities, villages and the settlements of Kuban was to children of the poor not better. They nursed younger brothers and sisters, grazed the cattle, a considerable hindrance for the doctrine was the lack of clothes and footwear.

Situation in usual stanitsa school was not better. There is a poor to define the child in school, had to get permission of stanitsa board, bring the required payment. The famous Kuban publicist, referring to the materials "Ku — Bansky Regional Sheets", wrote: "the .n training of the children at stanitsa school, despite of different payments in stanitsa income, the right from another town is no. Non-residents are admitted to stanitsa schools only after all children of Cossacks whom wished to send them to the doctrine are accepted and then there are at school available seats. At ministerial school it is necessary to pay for the right of training: 1) in the school capital, 2) in a social income and 3). to the teacher. And all this will make about a half of a payment for the doctrine in a gymnasium of the coming pupil". For example, in the village of Shkurinskaya in one-great school the non-residents were forced to pay 20 rub for training. "The most part of non-residents, after begging" and even the auction, took with regret the children from school [27]. The Kubansky Kuryer newspaper for September 17, 1911 wrote: ".skhod the piece of a zemlitsa under school refused to non-residents a request to allocate Cossacks of the village of Giaginskoy". In the Kubanets newspaper for January 5, 1912 in article "The Kuban School in 1911" the stanichnik say: "Cossack school for Cossacks". The fact that the way to school was closed by the non-resident, the White Russian P. Su-lyatitsky recognized [28].

Many children of the poorest parents to whom has the luck to get to schools mainly because of financial position of the families were forced to give up study, without having studied up. In 1914 in the Kuban region the initial schools ended 15,348 people, and left "before the termination of hens -

sa" 17,110. Previous 1913 this ratio was sharper: 15 thousand which gave up study [23] were the share of 10 thousand which ended.

In response to the spreading protests which with a special force sounded in days of the first Russian revolution, the government for the first time increased state grants to schools. On May 3, 1908 the law "About a Holiday of 6900000 Rub for Needs of Primary Education" is adopted [29]. During the subsequent period some growth of number of educational institutions is noted. In the Caucasian educational district were open: in 1908 - 107 educational institutions (among them initial-68), in 1912 - 468 (initial - 436), in 1913-840 (initial - 802). Such increase in number of schools, of course, could not change essentially coverage of children the doctrine. In 6 years after emergence of the law of May 3, 1908 the central and local pedagogical press with undisguised disappointment stated impossibility to overcome the being available difficulties - lack of means, a lack of teacher's shots, etc. that did unreal the question about introduction of universal primary school education [22, page 105, 116].

It is necessary to mention that on places the liberal bourgeois circles supported a solution, understanding its relevance, and even took certain steps. In 1910. The ESA-terinodarsky town council came to a conclusion about an opportunity to enter training of all children of school age in the city, the program document was published: "About introduction in Ekaterinodar of general initial level. Report of town council". It was planned to complete on condition of receiving the credits the work in 1918. But in 1915 in spite of the fact that the number of pupils increased up to 9,342 (on 110 thousand population), the solution of a question had to be postponed for indefinite time [21, page 3-4].

On the All-Russian census of 1897 among the population of the Kuban region (1,918,881 people) competent there were 16.77%, including among urban population - 29.16%, rural - 15.15%. In Ekate-rinodar competent men 49.06%, women - 24.76% were registered [30]. According to L.V. Makedonov, by 1907 among Cossacks competent was: in the Maykop department - 16.3% (men - 27.8%, women of-4.9%), in Ekaterinodarsky department - 21.4% (men - 35.8%, women - 7.3%), in the Labinsk department of-14.3% (men - 25.7%, women - 2.5%), etc. At non-residents the level of literacy was lower: in the Maykop department - 10.5%, in Ekaterinodarsky-19.8%, in Labinsk - 0.8% [31]. Level of literacy of the population of dews, but slowly. By 1916 only 43.1% of Cossacks of area were able to read and write (men - 68.8%, women - 30.2%) [7, page 96].

Results of pedagogical work of educational institutions left much to be desired. They, certainly, conducted the activity, providing distribution of education and the moral truth in possible scales. But there were statements: "The success of pupils in city schools was expressed sle-

the blowing percentage of number of the pupils transferred to the following highest offices or ended a course to total number: in 1879 - 52.7%, in the following then 15 years (1880 - 1894) - from 65 to 70%, and in the next four years (1895 - 1898) - from 73 to 77%, and on average a conclusion during all the time - 68.3%. The average of the lessons missed a year by one pupil does not exceed 24.4 from which due to illness - 16.3" [32]. Certificates that in many educational institutions the setting of educational business from the point of view of officials remained unsatisfactory quite often occur in documents of the beginning of the 20th century. In auditing records of inspectors of rural areas, sometimes, statements became: "In the 1st office (two-great school of the village Penza). to read children, except for repeaters, are not able. neither figures, nor arithmetic signs to write. are not able"; the message of the inspector of the 4th area - "progress of pupils... weak" [33].

Low level of progress was not only in initial, but also at high school. Were published as absolutely usual, surprising nobody data: in 1911 without re-examinations it is transferred to the following classes on men's gymnasiums - ESA-terinodarsky to the 1st - 59.3%, Ekaterinodarsky the 2nd - 56.5, Labinsk - 46.8, to the Pashkovsky pro-gymnasium - 56, to the Romanovsky pro-gymnasium - 49.1% of pupils [34].

In 1914 only "slightly best general average success" was fixed [18, page 16, 128129]. Below, than in ministerial, there was progress level at private schools and boarding houses. Schools often had no necessary literature, on hand even city teaching was not available sufficient number of visual aids [35].

For the first century of formation of a system of national education in Kuban powerful results were achieved. Creation of this system was the organic party in development of edge, new to Russia, which final inclusion took place in the 60th of the 19th century. Genesis of network of national education in Kuban is of keen interest as gives the infrequent chance to track its organizational forms, the directions and pithiness of work, from "a zero mark" - from the moment of creation of the first educational institution and before formation of the developed system of local school in intensively becoming populated region, its states and functioning during the different periods.

Work in the sphere of national education developed and conducted under the leading influence of the relevant institutes of the empire which became more and more notable. In creation and activity of some educational institutions the contribution was made by representatives of the reigning dynasty and the highest aristocracy. The branched structure of the public high-ranking administration by school business publishing directives, kontro-was put

lirovavshy their execution, helping in places. Gradually financial, other material bases, personnel prerequisites of development of education became stronger. Over time types of educational institutions became complicated and diversified, their types which were available in the old centers were reproduced. Together with it features of the area and the Russian colonization of Western Caucasus could not but affect. It is known that in vanguard of its development there were the Kuban Cossacks. Its administrative structures laid the foundation for school network, initiated and considerably supported its growth financially. These efforts relied on the centralized help of the state, local patrons.

The expanding school network in Kuban kept the most primitive forms of initial training and education. By the boundary of the XIX-XX centuries the system of education as a part of which there were all types of the educational institutions known in the country developed and worked (except for the higher school). In their work the orientations dictated by the Ministry of national education, the Caucasian educational district repeated. In the cities and villages, sound buildings of various educational institutions appeared. And though the coverage of children was school institutions not full, a result of activity of a system of education was also more and more strong rooting in public consciousness of generality of understanding of importance of school business, need of familiarizing to it of children and youthes.

At the same time the Kuban school all lines of national education characteristic of tsarist Russia were inherent. She had strictly outlined class and class character, was equitable to interests and inquiries of the dominating forces - the nobility, the Cossack estate, enterprise layers, the intellectuals serving them. The mass of common people - workers of the young local industry, the stanitsa poor, farm work - continued to live in lack of culture, their children at schools often could not count on study. The reason of it was not only in craftiness selfish, klassovo the programmed policy of "tops", but, obviously, not in a smaller measure, - in habitual conventionalism inherited from last production of that time, generally - agricultural. The tsarism and bourgeois and landowner society were not able to correct a situation in the sphere of national education. For this purpose not only efforts of an educational order, but radical deepest modernization of all socio-political and economic life of the country were required. At the beginning of the 20th century "poverty and running wild, at absolute power of landowners - landlords" (V.I. Lenin) became in the empire very noticeable factor of aggravation in the empire of antagonistic contradictions.

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