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The Caucasian emigration in plans of Nazi German leaders on the eve of war against the USSR



abramyan E.A.

The CAUCASIAN EMIGRATION IN PLANS of the NAZI LEADERSHIP of GERMANY ON THE EVE OF WAR

AGAINST the USSR

Beginning in 1941 war against the Soviet Union, the military-political management Nazi of an ermaniya of one of the main tasks put before itself destruction of the multinational Soviet state and attraction on the party of representatives of ethnic minorities. The German strategists believed that they easily will manage to create enmity between the people, to cause the international conflicts, to stir the non-russian people to action against the Soviet power and, thereby, to facilitate the victory over the USSR. On its ruins the Nazis assumed to create a number of territorial national educations which would become conductors of the German policy, promoting distribution of its influence on the Middle, Middle and Far East.

The special rate at the same time became on the people of the Caucasus that, considering far going plans of Germany for gaining world supremacy, it is represented not accidental. Possession of the Caucasus opened to Wehrmacht a way to the Middle East which, in turn, could become the base for development of the German expansion as to the countries of the Southern Asia and the Far East, and to North Africa. The ideologist of Nazis A. Rosenberg wrote about it: "... Purpose of the German policy: domination over the Caucasus and over the countries adjoining from the South, as in political, and militarily" 1.

For implementation of the far-reaching plans the Germans beforehand trained the allies necessary for them for war with Great Britain in the east, conquest of India and Tibet. The German aspirations connected with plans of gaining the East were not new: even in the years of World War I in m Vyunsdorf, in 20 km from Berlin, was created large prisoner-of-war camp of Muslims which was the center of preparation of the Muslim "fifth column" from among natives of Russia and a number of colonies of England and France.

Therefore emergence of the directive of the main command of Wehrmacht No. 80 Middle East some days before the beginning of war with the Soviet Union was not casual. In it was defined that after lightning capture of the USSR,

development of approach to the East has to be carried out through the Caucasus. The plan included carrying out simultaneous blows also from Egypt and Turkey, i.e. represented so-called "threefold pincers" for the countries of the Middle East.

Already during the Great Patriotic War the German colonial ambitions found confirmation in the statements of any given heads of various rank more than once. So, July 24, 1942, after mastering the German troops Rostov, the commander of the 17th field army of Wehrmacht colonel general R. Ruoff invited to the destroyed bridge through Don the Japanese military attache and, pointing by a hand to the East, said: "Gate to the Caucasus are open. Hour when the German troops and troops of your emperor meet in India" 4 approaches.

Among the national formations which were in the period of the Great Patriotic War a part of Wehrmacht, the noticeable place was taken by the Caucasian legions

>- Azerbaijani, Armenian, Georgian and also North Caucasian paramilitary groups. Sources of their emergence leave by years of World War I and also the Civil war in Russia and cardinal reorganization of national-state life of Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijanians and people of the North Caucasus which is far not unambiguously apprehended by various population groups followed after it. Not accidentally, therefore, so significant role in formation of the Caucasian national legions was played by the political refugees adhering, as a rule, to the expressed nationalist views. Among a part of prisoners of war from whom the Caucasian legions were mainly completed with staff emigrant forces could reanimate, in particular, slogans about independence of the Transcaucasian republics. It is known that these ideas in 1917-1920 had huge political sounding in the Caucasus. Nationalist programs those years most actively defended in Azerbaijan Musavat party, in Armenia - Dashnaktsutyun party, in Georgia

>- Mensheviks.

On the history of creation and activity of society "Prometheus" and also in general activities of the Polish leaders for consolidation of emigrant circles for fight against the Soviet Russia, in our opinion, need to dwell. The idea of creation of "association of emigrant groups of Russia" was put forward in Warsaw in 1925. Originally the North - was succeeded to come into contacts between representatives of emigrant groups of Ukrainians, Georgians, the people

a leg of the Caucasus and two emigrant groups from representatives of the people of Central Asia. In the mid-twenties the Polish leaders developed active work among leaders of the Caucasian emigration. At the same time the Polish the eneral-ny headquarters intended to support in every possible way the idea of independence of the Caucasus and, considering possibilities of rendering influence on the Caucasian diasporas, believed to act as "the patron of liberation movement" 5, pursuing, naturally, own aims of weakening of the east neighbor.

It should be noted that the Polish General Staff was forced to refuse close cooperation with the Russian emigration, Russia, not concordant from "independence" of a row of the ideas of territories. Moreover, keeping a certain influence on any given Caucasian circles, the Russian emigration actively opposed the organization created by Poles. All this led to the fact that since February, 1938 the Polish bodies continued work mainly with the organizations of pantyurkistsky orientation which frame was in Istanbul. At the same time their leaders - Bayramov and Hasmamedov - said that they do not intend to cooperate neither with Rasoul back, nor with a number of the Armenian and Georgian leaders.

In spite of the fact that efforts of Poland to destabilize the situation in the Caucasus by means of emigres eventually were not crowned with success, their results and also contacts and experience with representatives of various nationalities inhabiting the Caucasus were demanded further, but any more not Poles. After occupation of Poland the German intelligence agencies "inherited" an agency of society "Prometheus" from Difenziva and came into contacts with fighting Azerbaijani emigre organization of Istiklal ("Independence") 6.

Ambiguously there were relations of the German authorities with numerous Armenian diaspora which in the 20th years of the XX century played a noticeable role in Berlin where around their compact accommodation there were even national schools and printing houses. At the Berlin university such famous scientists of the Armenian origin as K. Neumann, A. Muradyan taught, and doctor A. Abegyan from 1926 to 1936 headed capital institute of oriental studies. After coming to power of Nazis the dashnakist and also some representatives of other emigrant parties at another general meeting in Cairo did not approve the plan of cooperation with Nazi Germany in spite of the fact that a part of Dashnaktsutyun party leadership already came by this time into contacts with representatives of higher levels of this country. Perhaps, on

such decision of a meeting affected also the fact that with coming to power of Nazis in Germany and also in some other European countries the publication of materials that Armenians are the Semitic people began, and, as well as Jews, are liable to destruction. In Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania the authorities were not limited to persecution in the press, but also promoted mass repressions concerning the Armenian colonies in these countries.

Development of the situation in Germany had other character. In the mid-thirties of the XX century some figures of the Armenian party Dashnaktsutyun as it was already noted, came into contact with the Nazi management, and a part of party broke away from the main kernel. One of the Armenian leaders Garegin Ndzhe during the meeting with A. Rosenberg found out that Armenians were ranked by authorities as Semites under the influence of Turkey and also the Georgian nationalist Alexander Nikuradze. For the termination of repressions against Armenians in the European countries and also their prevention in Germany G. Nzhde took a number of response for justification of accessory of Armenians to other, namely Indo-European family of the people, i.e. to Aryans.

During this period doctor A. Abegyan and some other scientists at the request of A. Rosenberg created special committee on studying the Armenian people and her history. Members of the committee actively appeared in print. Besides, the report submitted by Rosenberg to A. Hitler in which, with a support on reliable sources, Armenian accessory to Indo-European, and the people to Aryan was proved, i.e. to having uniform ancestors - ariyev became one of results of their work. The set of historical evidences among which and ancient Persian written sources about the Armenian troops in Darius's armies in which about them it is told as about "army of Aryans from the earth Armenia" 8 was given in a note.

As a result the faith of Nazis in the ally Turkey financing the anti-Armenian propaganda was considerably undermined, and the Armenian diaspora in Germany which part not only political refugees were, even prior to World War II received the status of "Aryan refugees". To Armenians in Germany special certificates which were called "documents for Aryan refugees" were issued.

Such attitude towards Armenians in Nazi Germany continued to remain until the end of World War II. Dozens knig9 about Armenians, their ancient history, culture and genocide of Armenians of 1915 were published.

The counteraction rendered to the Turkish attempts to discredit Armenians before the Nazi management resulted in one result. G. Ndzhe Rasoul back managed to convince one of leaders of the Azerbaijani emigration that blind following to the ideas of a pantyurkizm finally will lead not to creation of independent Azerbaijan, and to absorption by its Turkey and destruction of identity of Azerbaijanians. The possible union of Armenians and Azerbaijanians as opposed to the Turkish aspirations in the Caucasus suited also A. Rosenberg who presented even the project "The main commissariat Armenia" — a peculiar buffer education under the German protectorate on the way of distribution of the Turkish influence on Kavkaze10.

Cooperation of the German authorities with the Georgian nationalists has an old story. Interest in Georgia as to the outpost on strategically important site of northwest border of Europe and Asia opening a way to Persia and further to "a pearl of the British Empire" - India, it was dictated by far going plans of Germany for creation of own colonial empire. Achievement of this purpose, according to Germans, was also promoted by support of nationalist aspirations as the people which were in colonial dependence, and certain circles of "the national outskirts" of the Russian Empire and its successor - the Soviet Union. Active work among emigrant circles for use them in own interests was carried out still by the Kayzerovsky management during World War I, and subsequently and Weimar pravitelstvo11.

The special rate in implementation of the German plans concerning the Caucasus became to Georgia and the Georgian princely houses which were in emigration in Germany. In 1915 in Berlin an attempt of creation of "the government of Georgia in exile" as a part of a number of heads of the Georgian nationalists was made. After a while under the German patronage "The committee of liberation of Georgia" was created. At the same time it was meant that Georgia needs "release from under the power of the Russian Empire".

In the middle of World War I, in 1915, the German General Staff developed the plan for creation of the Caucasian paramilitary group which originally had to consist of Georgians, and then be completed also with representatives of other Caucasian people. In the formation called "The Georgian legion" the set of volunteers from among opponents of finding of Georgia as a part of the Russian Empire was announced. However wishing vstu-

to drink in it it appeared a little. Propaganda efforts of Germany under the slogan "Liberation of Georgia from the Russian Yoke" which conductors were including, and the Georgian emigrants nationalists, were directed to the Georgians who were at war as a part of the Russian army. During this period, as, however, and during World War II, command of a legion was not entrusted actually Georgians: the German officer major general baron Krejss von Kressenstein was at the head of it. Moreover, and divisions of a legion the German officers also ordered. Active participation in formation and the management of a legion from the Georgian emigration was accepted by the general Leo Kereselidze.

From Germany in 1918 the legion was sent to Georgia where the German troops invited by the Georgian government were already deployed. The German instructors in Georgia carried out sovetnichesky functions during creation of national armed forces. The Georgian port of Poti was transferred to Germany to long-term rent. However existence of "independent" Georgia and close contacts of the Georgian and German authorities continued not for long. Soon Georgia was a part of the Soviet Russia. Being afraid of repressions from the Soviet authorities, a part of legionaries, officers of "national" army and representatives of nationalists from among the local intellectuals emigrated, having filled up the Georgian colonies in Paris, Warsaw and in some cities of others

countries. In armed forces of France and Poland found application by the zna-

12

to niya being the cadet of Tiflissky yunkersky school.

needs to stop also on activity of the Georgian emigration in Poland, considering that further it was put under control of Germany. Cooperation of Poland with Georgia in the military sphere began in 1920 after recognition of independence of this Caucasian republic by Warsaw. Contacts were continued also after emigration of the Georgian government to Paris. Regular exchange of information between the government and military structures of Poland and representatives of the Georgian colony was carried out. In March, 1922 the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of "government" of Georgia in exile informed the 2nd department of the General Staff of Poland that between the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani emigrations the agreement on the organization of a joint performance against the Soviet authorities is reached. Representatives of the Georgian emigrant circles planned to adjust contracts with the military attache of Poland in Paris for receiving military aid, weapon and ammunition.

For training in the contract of Georgian emigrants in the personal order Peele-sudsky 42 officers and 48 corporals in ranks podhorunzhy were admitted to the Polish army in 1922. At the same time the Georgian military personnel remained in submission of the commander of armed forces of government in exile of Georgia general A. Zakhariadze. They were trained in several military-training centers of Poland: at engineering and officer infantry schools, the center of training of automobile troops, the Higher military school, Military and geographical institute, the Higher artillery school and school of pilots in Toruni13.

The General Staff of the Polish armed forces, despite positive development of the Soviet-Polish relations, and did not refuse further contacts with the Georgian emigration. In January, 1924 the Minister of War of Poland in the letter addressed to the chief of the 2nd department of the General Staff so defined the position on this question: "Cooperation with Georgia during the war is valuable and desirable, the help to Georgia at the moment has to exclude political and extreme measures. Sending an informal Polish mission to the Caucasus can concern those..." 14.

In the 1920th years the Georgian and Armenian nationalists made attempts to develop uniform approaches to questions of fight against the Soviet Russia. By this time the first contacts of the Caucasian emigration with the fascist modes, in particular with Italy in 1926 belong. Since 1933 some emigrant groups expanded active cooperation with Nazi Germany. It was promoted also by the fact that else during formation of national socialism some representatives of the Caucasian people who appeared at a boundary of the first and second decades of the XX century for one reason or another including for receiving military education, in Germany joined ranks of Nazis. Among them: V. Gabliani, Sh. Nuridze, And. Sarkisyan15, A. Muradyan, Dimemedov and others.

Besides, since 1933, the organizations of nationalist sense from representatives of the Caucasian emigration which were guided by the German national socialists were created also in other countries of Europe. In particular, in France was many Georgians connecting the return to Georgia with Nazi Germany. Besides, the Georgians and also Armenians entering into the Prometheus organization operating under the Polish leaders as it was already noted, sought for establishment of closer relations with Germany. After occupation of Poland in 1939, along with emigrant colonies of others kav-

the kazsky people, Germany put under the control and the Georgian diaspora in this country.

The second half of the 1930th g is noted by attempts of consolidation of the Caucasian emigrant circles on anti-Soviet positions. Since 1936, various meetings and conferences in which work most of the nationalist people of the organization of the Caucasus took part were periodically held.

In December, 1938 the representatives from a number of the Georgian emigrant groups of several countries gathered in Paris for development of joint policy and activization of anti-Soviet actions. The opening speech was made by M. Ke-diya who raised a question of dissolution of all existing organizations and expediency of creation of "the uniform National Georgian Party" 16. Some participants of a forum of this offer did not support, having agreed at the same time with need of closer contacts at the decision long-term poly-

17

tichesky tasks. A row acting, for example D. Vachnadze, supported coordination of efforts of the emigrant centers of Georgia and Armenia. Participants unanimously decided to expand communications with Armenians and to conduct the coordinated policy.

In 1938 in Berlin for registration of the Georgian emigrants and control over activity of their organizations "The Georgian bureau" which in was founded

1939 it was transformed to "The Caucasian bureau" ("by Kavkazishe fertrauyernshtel-le"). The bureau was headed by doctor Akhmeteli. The emigrant magazine Caucasus reported, concerning purpose of this body: "... The competent German government authorities assured us that this bureau performs only police duties of administrative character and resolutely does not possess any political functions" 18.

For consolidation of various groups of the Georgian emigration on pro-German positions the congress of representatives of the Georgian fascist organizations of Berlin, Prague and Warsaw which is carried out in 1939 in Rome became landmark. The congress made the decision on association which was officially issued in January

1940 in Paris where it was declared creation of "The Georgian national committee". An active role in creation of committee was played by the leader of the Georgian national democrats Alexander Asatiani who was elected it the head. Subsequently it was replaced by the general Spiridon of Chavchavadze19.

At this time attempts of creation and the all-Caucasian multinational fascist organization were made. For this purpose at the end of July, 1940 the Georgian fascists who conducted negotiations on it in -

gathered in Rome again

to a millet with the leader of mountain emigration Lezgian Heydar Bamat. Negotiators did not come to the agreement. The main disputes erupted around election of the head of the new organization: Georgians intended to nominate him from the environment, G. Bamat did not agree with it, having announced own claims for the leading role.

Thus, planning attack on the Soviet Union, the military-political leadership of Nazi Germany set the task of destruction of the multinational Soviet state and creation in its territory of a number of new territorial national educations which became

conductors of the German policy, promoting its distribution vliya-

20

a niya to the Middle East. Considering a unique geographical location of the Caucasus on a cross hairs of the ways connecting the North and the South, the West and the East of Eurasia, a considerable part in these plans it was assigned to maintenance and strengthening of contacts with the Caucasian emigration for search of forms and ways of the most effective application of its opportunities in pre-war and wartime.

>! See: Nuremberg process: collection of materials: in the 8th TM, 1989. T. 3. Page 455.

2 S.G. Chuyev. Caucasian Germany map//Voyen. - an east. archive. 2004. No. 1. Page 35.
3 V.G. Evnevich. The battle of the Caucasus in the history of World War II//Materials of the International conference devoted to the 60 anniversary of battle of the Caucasus (1942 - 1943). Vladikavkaz: Iriston, 2003. Page 11.
4 Tsit. on: Battle of the Caucasus. M.: Triada-f, 2002. Page 14.
5 Gorlitz W. Der Zweite Weltkrieg 1939-1945. Frankfurt, 1953. River 121.
6 S.G. Chuyev. Caucasian Germany map. Page 38.
7 Leer Von, Abeghian, Stier Roth. Armeniertum - Ariertum. Potsdam, 1934. P. 49.
8 Blomm T. Macedonians in War. Part II. Sidney, 1971. River 211.
9 Among them: Armyanstvo-Ariystvo, "Armenians and Armenia", "Narekatsi", "Armenians in the general fight", Zeytun, "Historical friendship of Armenians and Germans", "Look at you Aryans", "A historical role of our volunteers". Cm: Leer Von, Abeghian, Stier Roth. Armeniertum - Ariertum. Potsdam, 1934. P. 106.
10 S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 42.
11 L. Bezymensky. Special archive. Third front. M, 2003. Page 89.
12 S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 47.
13 S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 47-48.
14 Tsit. on: S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 48.
15 R. Martirosyan. Antinational activity of the party Dashnaktsutyun in the years of World War II. Yerevan, 1987. Page 84. (on an automated workplace. language).
16 BA-MA. Freiburg/Wehrmacht. 1945. 26.03. (Der Vorsitzende des Kaukasischen Kommitees Dr. Gabliani). 9s.
17 L. Sotskov. Unknown separatism. Page 103.
18 Tsit. on: S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 48-49.
19 S.G. Chuyev. Decree. soch. Page 48-49.
20 S. Drobyazko, A. Karashchuk. East legions and the Cossack parts in Wehrmacht. M, 2001. Page 3.
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