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Implementation of the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church" in Bashkir ASSR in the 1920th.

n. A. Kireeva


Work is presented by department of tourism and hospitality of the Ufa state academy of economy and service.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, professor S.A. Halfin

In article features of implementation of the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church" in BASSR in the 1920th are stated. Violations of the decree by the power in political, administrative and other relations are shown. Violations of the decree are revealed and from religious societies.

The article reveals the peculiarities of realization of the decree "On separation of church from state and school from church" in the Bashkir ASSR in the 1920s. The author shows political, administrative and other violations of the decree by the authorities and violations of the decree by religious groups.

The decree of Council of People's Commissars "About disestablishment and schools from church" of January 20 (on February 2), 1918 became a turning point in relationship of the state and church (it is published on January 23 (on February 5)). He deprived church of the legal rights, nationalized its property, proclaimed freedom of conscience, forbade teaching religious dogmas in general education educational zavedeniyakh1. The justice narcomat adopted on August 24, 1918 the instruction "About carrying out order in life of the decree & #34; About disestablishment and schools from tser-

& #34; 2 kv" 2.

Performance of the decree in the Ufa province began in 1918 when it was liquidated Ufa Uspensky men's monastyr3. Civil war suspended nationalization of monastic property, implementation of the decree was resumed after the termination in the territory of the province of fighting (June-July, 1919). For preservation of monasteries, under the Law on socialization of the earth (on February 19, 1918), their population began to create selkhozarteli4. So, summer of 1919 land department of Ufgub-

executive committee organized agricultural artel in Ufa Blagoveshchensk women's monastyre5, and by the beginning of the 1920th they acted on base of all convents of the province. According to the decree, citizens could sign the contract with the power on use of houses of worship and cult objects only after registration. In the Ufa province it began after the resolution of a gubispolkom of February 7, 1920 of 6 V August, 1919 Ufgubrevkom's decision in Ufa orthodox and Muslim spiritual educational zavedeniya7 closed all.

In BASSR numerous violations of the decree by party, state, Komsomol and public organizations in political, administrative, economic and other relations were allowed.

Having proclaimed freedom of conscience, in practice the decree laid the atheism policy foundation which the party and the state began to carry out actively, having created Advocacy department (August, 1920) and the Antireligious commission (October, 1922) at the Central Committee of RCP(b). The atheistic work in the fields of education, educations, cultures focused on different

1 15


age and social groups of the population, it was carried out through circles, clubs, the unions of atheists, reading rooms, preschool, educational institutions, etc. The authorities used various forms of promotion: the edition of antireligious leaflets, magazines (since 1922 Bashobk RCP(b) and RKSM began to publish the antireligious magazine "Svet") and literature, the organization of debates, lectures, introduction of new life (a christening and weddings were replaced with "oktyabrina" and "red weddings"), the device in the cities (Ufa, Birsk, etc.) the dramatized representations ("Komsomol Christmas" and "Komsomol Easter") 8. Thus, in defiance of the decree about freedom of conscience the state pursued policy of violent planting of atheism.

The ideology and policy of militant atheism led to numerous violations of the decree of administrative character. First of all similar on - rusheniye were allowed by the power at before - che to groups of believers of prayful buildings. So, in the report BASHNKVD of October 30, 1926 it was reported that the volispol-coma when signing the contracts with believers among more than 50 people about transfer to it in use of prayful buildings is demanded by charters, including them already religious societies. And it in spite of the fact that the decree granted the believer option: to sign the contract as group (20 people and more) or as religious society (50 people and more) 9. During distribution of obnovlenchesky split the power, violating the decree, in every possible way supported dissenters and carried out registration of the religious communities for transfer of temples to them "on legal grounds". Attempt of Orthodox Christians to return itself temples, having registered the communities, faced active counteraction of the authorities. So, in 1923 the fight for the Ufa cathedral Resurrection Cathedral which clergy refused service with an obnovlenchesky epis-began

cop Nikolay of Orlovym10. In the 1920th an arbitrariness of local authorities concerning clergy and laymen was mass: priests were interrogated and beaten (the report on the Sterlitamak canton for 1925) 11; selected and profaned cult objects, burned books and icons, embittering thereby veruyushchikh12.

Economic violations of the decree had widespread character. In particular, they included collection by local government for commission of ceremonies and registry offices at delivery vypisy except stamp also additional local sborov13. In a note of members of the party of the Ufa canton in SNK USSR of May 23, 1924 it was noted that similar violations were brightly expressed in the village where "antireligious bacchanalia VIKOV" (volost executive committees) was made and for commission of sacraments and ceremonies the large payment was raised (though under the decree the power could not have income from departure of a religious cult). Punished for non-execution of instructions of guilty persons. And local authorities tried "the matter not to bring to court", without wishing that learned about violations of the decree higher organy14. As a result oppressions of this sort undermined economy of the believers giving the last for departure of a paid ceremony. Long before the collectivization in BASSR numerous cases of eviction by the Village Councils of clergy from parish and even personal houses under the pretext of placement of kultprosvetuchrezh-deniye in them were noted. Also the power illegal taxation of clergy taxes with the purpose to force to refuse a dignity practiced, and the amount of taxes was appointed by the Village Councils randomly, and quite often same tax was demanded to pay a little raz15.

Religious societies actively expressed indignation of violations of the decree by the power in numerous applications, letters in central and local authorities. Protesting against policy of militant atheism, believing otkazyva-

Implementation of the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church ".,

foxes to visit reading rooms, antireligious holidays and even organized sabotage. So, in the Belebey canton in 1925 on the eve of November 7 during the antireligious play the icon was up and down thrown and oplevyvatsya; next day peasants arranged sabotage October demonstratsii16. According to instructions BASHTSIKA BASHNKVD charged investigation of complaints to kantispolkoma which directed additional instructions an ox executive committees on realization dekreta17.

We will note that certain violations of the decree (generally about separation of school from church) were also from groups of believers and religious societies. So, the Ufkant-department of management in the circular of volispolko-mothers (on May 14, 1923) noted that attendants of cults organize in villages and villages of school with teaching religious veroucheniy18. Due to the mass nature of these violations on December 10, 1923 BashTsIK forbade teaching dogma in educational institutions and at home to groups of children and teenagers up to 18 let19. For training of clergy the religious societies could suit in prayful buildings liturgical courses for persons from 18 years only with the permission of kantispolko-m and the City Councils. Let's emphasize that the power pursued the differentiated policy for religious faiths.

So, the circular of RCP(b) of the Central Committee of May 3, 1924 suggested Bashobky not to interfere with opening of Muslim religious schools and teaching dogma in mosques to the children who graduated the Soviet school I of a step or reached 14 years - that was forbidden pravoslavnym20. However by the end of the New Economic Policy the differentiated policy of the power for confessional schools disappeared, and on September 3, 1928 Bashobk "campaign" on all religious shkoly21 urged party and public authorities to begin the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks).

Summing up the result, we will note that during implementation of the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church" in the 1920th in BASSR the power allowed mass violations. However it did not bring to an otkra - to ty performances of the believers making a protest against infringement of the religious rights and freedoms in the peace and lawful ways - through appeals to local, republican and central governing bodies. In reply the last adopted the additional instructions sent for the management on places and only in rare instances began investigation of the conflicts. Thus, as a result of implementation of the decree the church did not receive the promised freedom, fell into a powerless state and was under strict control and pressure from the state.

1 Decrees of the Soviet power. M, 1957. T. 1. Page 373-374.
2 Meeting of legalizations and orders of the working and country government. 1918. No. 62. Page 759.
3 O.V. Vasilyeva, etc. Way to truth. History of religious institutions of Ufa. Ufa, 1993. Page 56.
4 Decrees of the Soviet power. T. 1. Page 407.
5 O.V. Vasilyeva, etc. Decree. soch. Page 58.
6 The central state historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan (further - CGIA RB). F. R-1252. Op. 1. 54. L. 1-2.
7 O.V. Vasilyeva, etc. Decree. soch. Page 62, 64, 67, 95, 97.
8 The central state archive of public associations of the Republic of Bashkortostan (further - TSGAOO RB). F. P-122. Op. 1. 84. L. 23.
9 In the same place. 527. L. 23.
10 CGIA RB. F. R-1252. Op. 1. 266. L. 41-41ob.
11 TSGAOO RB. F. P-122. Op. 4. 35. L. 222ob.
12 CGIA RB. F. R-1252. Op. 4. 426. L. 15.
13 In the same place. L. 5, 79.


14 In the same place. L. 14.
15 N.P. Zimina. Orthodox Saints of the Bashkir earth: hieromartyr Pyotr Varlamov//Russians of Bashkortostan: history and culture: Sb. nauch. tr. Ufa, 2003. Page 269-286.
16TsGIA RB. F. R-1252. Op. 3. 41. L. 115.
17 In the same place. 416. L. 69.
18 CGIA RB. F. R-251. Op. 1. 358. L. 132.
19 In the same place. F. R-1252. Op. 3. 427. L. 69.
20 TSGAOO RB. F. P-122. Op. 3. 24. L. 174; 129. L. 3, 4.
21 In the same place. Op. 7. 112. L. 93.
Norman Johnson
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