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Category "state" in the historical concept of F.K. Dalman



10. The table is made by data: GARF. T. 102. The reference book - the list of officer and ordinary structure of gendarme managements, security offices, agents of a security agency of the palace commandant and ranks of Department of police, Ministry internal

affairs of tsarist Russia. No. 790 copy. Heads. arkh. ex. of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR. M, 1940.

11. F.102. 2 Far Eastern Military District. 1887. Op. 44. 32 of Part 17. L. 52
12. F.102. 2 Far Eastern Military District. 1887. Op. 44. 32 of Part 17. L. 51
13. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7632. L. 59-60.

category "state" in the historical concept f. to. tallyman

N and. RAHMATULLINA Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of modern and contemporary history

Article is devoted to the concept of the German historian F.K. Dalman concerning category "state". F.K. Dalman one of supporters of the reunification of Germany under domination of Prussia. An ideal for it is the uniform, secular state. The most important in the state is freedom. Freedom of the certain person and society in general. The main concept of F.K. Dalman is reflected in his monograph "Policy". Which analysis is the main source for writing of article.

Friedrich K. Dalman is the German historian and the political figure of the bourgeois and liberal direction. In 1812-1829 - professor Kiel, in 18291937 - Goettingen, in 1838-1842 - Iyensky, since 1842 - Bonn the universities. In the lectures opposed absolutism and defended the constitutional forms of government. One of the main merits of Dalman is thorough study of primary sources.

In 1830 Dalman published the bibliographic reference book on the German history ("Quellekunde der deutschen Geschichte.") Subsequently, in 1869 the book was processed and added by Mr. Vayts and other historians. The latest edition of 1932, became the major bibliographic handbook on the history of Germany. In 1840-1843 Dalman published "the History of Denmark" (Geschichte von Ddnemark. Hamburg. 18411843). In 1848-1849 Dalman is the deputy of the Frankfurt National Assembly in which was one of leaders of the low-Germans supporting the reunification of Germany under domination of Prussia. After the revolution of 1848-1849 Dalman departed from political activity [2].

his negative relation to the system of German a melkoderzhaviya in the conditions of fragmentation of Germany became a starting point for development of political thinking of Dalman.

Throughout all the history the German lands sought for association. And least of all they managed it. Though it is formal all German lands were integrated within the Sacred Roman Empire the German nation, actually they existed in the form of the sovereign states - kurfyurshestvo, "the free cities". The sacred Roman Empire the German nation contained more than 300 states.

Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemberg and especially Austria dominating on extensive space of the lands inhabited mainly by Slavs and Hungarians were distinguished from the German principalities.

All these states were considered being under supervision of the emperor and imperial diet, but in practice had full independence [2].

After the French revolution and coming to power of Napoleon, he remade the Germany map. From 51 free cities he left only 5, the others gave ten the strongest states, having laid the foundation for further territorial repartition. The victory under Waterloo and Napoleon's renunciation of the power gave Germany a new chance to create the uniform state. however defeat of France did not restore the archaic German empire. Instead of it the Parisian treatise of 1814 formed the so-called German union consisting of 34 states and four free cities - Bremen, Lubeck, Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main. Each of the states which entered into the Union kept the independence.

Each German historian of H1H of a century actively dealt with a problem of the reunification of Germany. Droyzen was the deputy of the right center in working hours of the Frankfurt parliament, one of the leading figures taking active part in drawing up the draft constitution of 1849; G. Siebel was in Frankfurt "preparliament". The representative of the North German liberalism F.H. Dalman [3] became the ideologist of the low-German reunification of Germany program before revolution of 1848-1849.

Policy - the public work directed to protection of certain social interests, to gain, preservation and strengthening of the government. Development of category "policy" it is inseparably linked with development of institute of the state [4]. The situation in Germany of the beginning of H1H of a century was aggravated first of all with lack of the uniform state.

The historical and political concept Dahl-mana is reflected first of all in his monograph "Policy" ("Die Politik"). The first and only edition of the book happened in 1835 in Goettingen. This edition influenced political views of the whole generation, and long time enjoyed wide popularity. Even now the book is relevant.

"Policy" arose from intention, to give it to listeners on hands the suitable abstract of policy and

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showed a result of the academic training and political practice of the developed beliefs, views and knowledge of the state. The central theme of this work is expressed in the full title: "The policy which is brought together to a basis and the reason of estates" [5].

Already the heading of the book is very characteristic for Dahl-mana. It is practically always right the principles and ideals. Only once Dalman was incorrect to this principle. Then it was the strong political mistake. He convinced on September 5, 1848 the Frankfurt National Assembly to reject the truce in Malmö.

In Dalman's "Policy" it is about a concept and emergence of the state. Following belief that "interpretation that the state means", belongs to "the river of time", it represents the political theory only in terms of the historical sequence (Chapter 9). Influence of a historical method matters everywhere - also where the Distance manna varies traditional and political subjects (feasibility of the good constitution, the right of resistance) (Chapter 7-8). The state idea is given not from the abstract principles, and is shown in an embodiment of the historical states. To it sootves-tvut a little absorbed construction of a system which originates from the state constitutions of old times (Chapter 2), then from opposition to newer constitutions of our part of the world (Chapter 3) and, at last, in a view of "these estates" which develop own political program, a contour of the modern constitutional state (Chapter 4-6) [1].

The reasons and the purpose of the doctrine about the state. The powerful secular order, defines all human life from the birth before acquisition of the place in society. The person is obliged to serve already developed charter of the small state (federal land). Initially the mankind costs a little slantwise in relation to light. Introduction of training of religion as the main requirement of existence of the state is impossible. Proceeding from this moment it is possible to claim safely that the secular, but not religious (theological) state [4] was an ideal for Dalman.

the state, according to Dalman appears only at some point development of society. the state can appear only in the form of externally independent human union.

the state has to consist of a number of the families possessing a certain ground. The most main and main task of the state and government according to Dalman not to allow excess of some members of the state over others [1].

The most important in the state is freedom. Freedom of the certain person and society in general. Freedom of civil society - the main component of development of the state. This circumstance works constantly. irrespective of the place and time of emergence of the state.

speaking about a form of the state, it is impossible to approve something concrete. It is clear only that the main

public institutions can change only by public vote [1].

In "Policy" it does not disregard this principle. It describes constitutions of Sparta, Athens and Rome; draws the history of the English parliamentarism.

Dalman analyzes every time as these states became historical, and never did hasty conclusions. Certainly, Dalman is a conservative in the outlook. In principle, it is an essence of its theory; he investigates everything slowly and carefully before he decides to change something. At the same time liberals at first weigh everything and ask: whether this state whether it is better to change it is ideal.

the Ideal constitution of the integrated country offered by the historian as that does not seem to

especially liberal.

Its essence is as follows:

>- the hereditary royalty with executive power and the unconditional veto;

>- bicameral parliamentary system:

1. The chamber consisted of the princes of the ruling house, representatives of knights, high spiritual and secular employees appointed by the king to the post.
2. Members of the second chamber got out by a direct open voting at a certain qualification. Elections were carried out on several constituencies. The intellectuals are a part of the second chamber. It makes 1/3 electoral chambers. Besides, employees, priests, scientists, doctors were presented [6] here. Dalman paid special attention in development of the state concept to officials. The ministerial responsibility is partially political. The minister is obliged to report to the people every day. This report should not be limited to an illegality reprimand; it includes, to some extent, everything that is made or missed for a certain period.

In the concept Dalman always regards as of paramount importance a question of a priority of the state and family and household relations. the doctrine about the state should not find the reason of the ethical relations, and on the contrary has to recognize it and develop the institutions designed to reduce this contention.

The entire period of activity of F.K. Dalman as historian and public figure fell on operating time over formation of uniform German the state. Not accidentally he first of all brings up such questions as a ratio of ethnic (national) questions and nation-wide. The most important in an issue of association of the country, this solution of an ethnic question. Thus, Dalman is one of ideologists and supporters of creation of the uniform state. Unfortunately Dalman did not live up to the main period of association of federal lands in uniform the state, but predicted the main difficulties and contradictions [3] in advance.

In life and works D. it is impossible to separate history and policy from each other as it was his main belief that history and the present, is-

thorium and the love, history and policy form unsolvable communication which cannot be ignored by either history, or policy. Historical knowledge alone cannot generate works of a historiography, "communication of knowledge with a mindset and meaning of life". So it undertook the activity as the historian of history focused on the political present and as the politician historical [1].

Among historians of the time it occupies considerable, but not paramount special and scientific level. As the politician it was too limited by "policy" and the constitutional and liberal principles that can operate on practice. If at the same time it nevertheless was held in the academic and public respect, then first of all studied is extremely moral motivated communication of historical knowledge and political action for osushchestvle-

a niya of freedom, the right and the constitution, he lived with impressive conclusions and impartial civic courage [7].

list of references

1. Dachlmann F. H. Die Politik. (auf den Grund und das Maas der gegebenen Zuschtande zuruk gefuhrt). 2. Aufl. Leipzig, 1847. S. 235.
2. Deutsche biografische Enzuklopadie/Herausgegeben von Walther Killy. 2004. S. 45.
3. Historische Schriften. Bd. 7. Karlsruhe, 1838. S. 602.
4. Historians and history. Life. Destiny. Creativity. M.: Ostozhye, 1997. Page 87-92.
5. Constitutional right of foreign countries: The textbook for higher education institutions / Under a general edition of M.V. Baglaya, Yu.I. Leybo, etc. M.: Norm, 2006. Page 129-132.
6. Political encyclopedia. M.: Thought, 2000. Page 156.
7. Springer A. Friedrich Christoph Dachlmann. Leipzig, 1870-1872. S.34.

the concept of polytechnicalization of the Soviet school and a way of its realization in 1958-1966 (on the example of Central Volga area)

lake of V. RODIONOV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky

department of pedagogics

In article the author states basic provisions of the concept of the polytechnicalization directed to overcoming a lead of school from life. Content of the principle of a politekhnizm and polytechnicism reveals. Two main ways of familiarizing of the Soviet school students to productive work are stated. The author emphasizes relevance of a problem for today.

Today the Soviet concept of polytechnic education which was attempt to overcome the major problem which is still facing the Russian society - a lead of school from life is of great interest to domestic pedagogics. In the Party program of March, 1919 the VIII congress of RCP(b) adopted the concept of uniform labor school which put the reference points concerning education and education of younger generation. It was supposed in new socioeconomic conditions to bring up the new person [2]. For the purpose of successful implementation of the tasks the school became:

>-1-Uniform when all system of schools represents one continuous ladder, but at the same time the school is not same. At school the division of pupils on the profiles chosen by them proceeding from own abilities was entered, but there was an uniting factor in the form of the general objects, basic knowledge.

>-2-Labour. As a teaching basis at schools work was entered. And the labor principle was treated very widely. First, as active mobile creative acquaintance of the child to the world; secondly, as practical acquaintance of pupils with vital realities (in this case - with industrial work in all its versions). Oso-

bo it was emphasized that the new school pursues the aim of comprehensive and harmonious personal development

without harmful distortions, identification of individual abilities of each pupil without exception, education of truly wonderful person who is well socialized in new society [2]. Comprehensive and harmonious personal development provided the following:

>- blossoming of all spiritual powers and abilities of the person (intellectual, strong-willed, creative, ethical), his harmonious physical development;

>- formation of integral scientific outlook, high moral consciousness which is free from all remnants and finds the real embodiments in work, in creative activity for the benefit of society, in human relations;

>- creative relation to business, versatility of interests, active participation in all spheres of public life;

>- transformation of work into the first vital need [3].

For this reason the school system addressed realization in teaching and educational work of the principles of a politekhnizm again (a narrow system which cornerstone the studying the equipment in its various forms taken in its development, which is not is

Kevin Stone
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