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Modernization of agriculture of Mordovia: formation of a collective-farm system

v. S. Kablyuk


Work is presented by department of history of Research institute of the humanities at the Government of the Republic of Mordovia.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.A. Yurchenkov

Article is devoted to development of agricultural production during formation of a collective-farm system. The author considers processes of collectivization and development of agricultural production in the context of the modernization processes happening in our country. Special attention is paid to crop production, livestock production, machine and tractor stations which process of formation is studied on the basis of archive materials, many of which are for the first time introduced for scientific use.

The article is consecrated to the development of agricultural industry in the period of establishing of the collective farm system. The author scrutinizes the collectivization process and the progress of agricultural industry in the context of modernization processes, which took place in Russia. Special attention is paid to plant and cattle breeding, machine and tractor stations, whose establishing process is studied on the basis of archive materials; many of them are put in scientific practice for the first time.

The end of the 20th of the 20th century required from the management of the country the solution of the imminent problems in the sphere of economy. The management got up before a dilemma: "We lagged behind the advanced countries for 50-100 years. We have to run this distance in ten years. Or we will make it, or we will be crumpled" 1. The Soviet state developed a formula of modernization which in some aspects differed from model of the western countries (a priority of the state over society, a collective priority over the personality, restriction of personal freedom, centralization, planning, operation of national enthusiasm), and in others - reminded it (formation of the rational, educated, secular focused personality, industrialization, an urbanization, democratic family, emancipation of women and children). In other words, the Soviet modernization was based on the traditionalist bases characteristic of pre-revolutionary Russian reefficient community owing to what across the nation

the social system obshchiny2 was in many respects reproduced. Problems of collectivization were facilitated by the fact that rural society did not think of itself out of spheres of the state influence. Here affected, probably, not only the dependence of peasants on the power which is purposefully formed in Soviet period, but also the back of traditional conciliarity consisting in easing of personal responsibility and initiative, indirect promotion of inertness and izhdivenchestva3.

Just created collective farms in the majority still were very weak in the economic and organizational relations. There were not enough qualified heads, experts, there was no experience of maintaining large-scale collective farm. Obezlichka of cars, horses, lack of personal interest in work weakened collective-farm business, reduced revenues of collective farms. The lack of the property right formed the irresponsible, thriftless relation to prirod-

to ny riches, the activity environment surrounding them. In archives of the Republic of Mordovia there are documents which contain complaints of village assemblies to local authorities, to their inability to dispose of property, to conduct economy. They focused attention on not thrifty, negligent attitude to property, carelessness in work. Brought up in the spirit of respect of a private property, respect for the diligent, thrifty owner, peasants did not accept the new principles of the economic relations. The lack of effective measures of accounting of work of each person and the leveling principles undermined desire to work well. The labor productivity in the created collective farms was lower, than at individualists, the collectivized peasants paid more attention to the subsidiary farm. These circumstances involved poor organization of work in collective farms, lax labor discipline, failure to follow plans of production of agricultural products. In official documents of the studied period it was regularly noted that "melkosobstvennichesky moods" of collective farmers were not eradicated (plunders, ignoring of labor discipline, refusal of work, etc.) 4 which contradicted the idea of collective farms as voluntary form of joint organization of labor and life of rural toilers. The above-stated reasons negatively affected all industries of agricultural production: livestock production, crop production, the system of the machine and tractor stations (MTS) during all studied period.

The condition of livestock commodity farms by the beginning of the second five-years period was extremely serious. Due to the plunder of the cattle, forages, with sale of the cattle in the markets, considerable reduction of a livestock of the cattle on farms happened distribution to collective farmers. The facts of delivery of the cattle on myaso5 were observed, withdrawal of the cattle was noted (cows,

sheep, pigs) from the livestock collective-farm commodity farms (LCFCF) machine and tractor stations administratively for the organization of the subsidiary farms and for slaughter on meat. Paid attention to the similar facts of hauling of ZhKTF as allied, regional governing bodies, and oblastnye6. For years of the second five-years period, thanks to efforts of the state the number of collective-farm commodity farms increased. As a percentage of 1933 it made: on dairy farms - 237% (in 1933 278 farms, in 1937 - 659 farms), on pig-breeding - 238.1% (according to 294 farms - 700 farms), on sheep-breeding - 685.1% (91 farms - 624 farms). At the same time, despite the general growth of number of ZhKTF, 198 collective farms of Mordovia of livestock farms had no vovse7. Annually many regions of Mordovia did not implement plans for development of KTF. The main reasons was the fact that "ranking officers did not take on Bolshevist in hand business of livestock production", plans of sluchny campaigns were not implemented; the big murrain, especially young growth did not stop; bad preparation for winterings, the plans for preparation of forages leading to the forced faces of the cattle were not implemented or to its sale to collective farmers.8 the Main reason for such situation in all areas is "in lack of the concrete help to places", "in irresponsibility and ignorance of a particular case, the management in general" 9. "We try to show (about predrika. - V.K.) visibility of the management, visibility of the fact that we are in collective farms; we do not understand the basic and the main thing that any to sense from this management is not present" 10. Despite the general growth of number of livestock farms and some growth of a livestock of the cattle in separate collective farms, development of socialist livestock production in the majority of the regions of Mordovia by the end of the third five-years period was in the same "extremely a neudovletvoritel - the number a state", as well as a decade ago, -

at the beginning of the continuous collectivization. The state-planning commission at CHK MACCP specified from year to year that it was promoted by "underestimation" of importance of an issue of reproduction of herd and improvement of his breed, "insufficient fight" for the correct contents and feeding of the cattle and care for it, especially for molodnyakom11. Besides, also such reasons as turnover of staff, plunder from farms of forages in the winter and owing to this fact a constant nedoobespechennost imi12 were specified. It should be noted also such negative fact characteristic of the entire period as bad providing the socialized cattle in collective farms constructions, insufficient development of network veterinary stantsiy13.

Without denying a huge contribution of the state to development of collective-farm livestock production (dynamics of growth of number of ZhKTF of Mordovia), difficult and to overestimate the loss caused to the peasantry of Mordovia by collectivization. In 1928, prior to the mass collectivization, on the country sector of Mordovia there were 356,615 heads of KRS, 63,851 pigs, 960,983 sheep 14. For January 1, 1941 on ZhKTF, fundamentals of socialist livestock production, respectively 48,500, 55,200, 120,100 golov15. The livestock production supported and stimulated by the state could not become worthy replacement of individual economy.

Agriculture of Mordovia by the beginning of the second five-years period still remained at quite low level of development though, it is necessary to recognize, certain positive shifts were available. Changes to the best and in the field of field husbandry, the most vulnerable sector of agricultural production dependent not only from the person, but also from weather conditions were observed. If ways and methods of managing in 1933 in collective farms in the majority were the same, as in the individual sector, - "trekhpolya", then in 1934 in collective farms of Mordovia the wide-row sowing by yarovizirovanny seeds, on - was for the first time applied

vsemestno snow retention began to be carried out that had to lead to increase in average yield. Considerably care for crops (weeding, loosening, earthing up) improved. All these agrotechnical actions, certainly, affected productivity of various cultures. So, in 1933 Mordovia collected 9.4 c grain with hectare instead of 6.9 c/hectare in 1932 16 the quantity and quality of a harvest were affected first of all by weather conditions and also the general cultural condition of the soil of any given collective farm or the area, agrotechnical actions, in particular appropriate care behind pure vapors for winter crops, and for summer - terms and quality of plowing of a ploughland, timeliness of carrying out spring sowing works, etc. Most those collective farms which honestly and carefully carried out various agrotechnical actions (snow retention, use of fertilizers, etc.) achieved good results generally and also where there were rather best weather conditions. The productivity of the advanced collective farms considerably exceeded regional average indicators, having reached in 1933 on some cultures of the record sizes: so, on a rye - up to 26 c/hectare, on spring-sown field - up to 25.6 c/hectare, on oats - up to 22 c/hectare, on peas - 20 c/hectare, on a millet - up to 40 c/hectare. 17 Results of the second five-years period was the fact that, for this period there were notable changes both in the sizes of acreage, and in their structure. If in 1932 the sotssektor had 2/3 acreage, then in 1936 it occupies already 97% of all acreage. In the structure of sown areas the area under the most valuable of grain crops sharply increased - under winter and summer pshenitsey18. The dependence of productivity of kolkhoz fields on weather conditions and in the third five-years period was high and "is not obsolete completely". So, in gross collecting, adverse on weather conditions of 1938, grain (summer and winter) from the area of 855,511 hectares. made 496,214 c/hectare, in

average only 5.8 c/hectare. were collected that was almost twice lower previous goda19. In comparison with an average on productivity of 1939 the harvest of 1940 in collective farms was much higher. The average yield of leguminous cultures was 9.1 c/hectare, it is twice more than productivity of previous year which equaled 4.3 c/hectare. However collective farms could not develop the established plan of productivity in 10.2 c/hectare because of low-quality performance of agrotechnical actions, extensions of terms of spring sowing, existence of considerable losses during the period uborki20. By the beginning of 1941 in 1074 the kolkhozakhmordoviya from 1526 collective farms were applied the latest agrotechnical receptions, in particular, are entered paropropashny, - 7-polny crop rotations, and in other farms - 8-10-polnye that was promoted by equipment of the collective-farm village of an agricultural front line tekhnikoy21.

In the resolution of the Mordovian regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) the question of creation in Mordovia two MTC22 was for the first time raised on December 5, 1929. The first MTS was created first of all in areas where the Mordovian population made the majority and where collectivization took place more difficultly and more slowly. So, in 1931 from 13 MTS 9 were located in national areas with prevalence of the Mordovian population, in 1932 from 22 their MTS was 15, in 1934 - 17 MTS from 27, in 1935 - 18 MTS from 30. In areas with the Russian population the number of MTS remained stable for 1933-1935 - 9 MTS which worked rather successfully. In 1934 the first MTS in the Tatar area where in 1935 one more MTC23 appeared was created. On the project of expansion of MTS in MAO for 1932 it was planned to bring their number to 42, in that h isle13 acting which specialized in various directions of agricultural activity: konoplevodchesky, linen, vegetable, potatoes - stock-raising, potatoes - pig-breeding, tobacco, i.e., since

1932 of MTS was gradually passed to service of all industries of collective-farm production, and not just grain farm as it was at the beginning of the first five-years period. It was supposed to create 29 MTS: by spring
1932 -20 MTS and 9 MTS - to fall of 1932. Really them was for January 1
1933 about 2424. Situation with the organization in Mordovia of new MTS and in the next years did not improve. For example, in 1937 in MACCP it was planned to organize 11 new, it was actually organized 5 25. The main reason - insufficiency material and technical sredstv26. By the beginning of 1941. The Mordovian republic had 52 MTS, within a year it was planned to create 5 new MTS, having disaggregated already existing taking into account creation minimum a mustache - loviya for performance of agricultural works in the established agrotechnical terms and also taking into account the available opportunities rayonov27.

Performance of agricultural works directly depended on existence and a condition of the machine and tractor park of MTS. Its power grew, however remained insufficient. If in 1933 there were 589 (522) tractors, 18 combines, 31 cars, then by the end of the second five-years period (1937) their number increased respectively: tractors - 2138 (2013 with a power of 35 thousand horsepowers), combines - cars - 309, and in their 1942 became 312: tractors-4144, combines - 1812, cars - 977 (the number of lorries in 1933 made 11 units, in 1935 - 49, 1936 - 207,

1937 -400 units and 200 engines, in
1938 -345 units).

However in work of MTS of Mordovia in 1933-1341 there was a number of very large shortcomings which had an adverse effect on all their activity. Financial security of MTS for 19331941 was obviously insufficient and irregular. It first of all affected how it was already noted, on the organization of new MTS which it was required more, than already was available. Means on -

16 1

Mordovia received pitalny repair neregulyarno28. In MTS of Mordovia the overexpenditure of means which went generally under such articles as salary to personnel, repair tekhniki29 was often allowed. The material resources of MTS were so insufficient that there were cases when the tractor park stopped for an indefinite term as there were no means to redeem goryuchee30.

The state, having concentrated agricultural machinery in the hands represented by MTS, completely subordinated peasants to himself, having turned them into the landless and bestekhnichesky worker who in many respects lost interest in work. From the very first days the existence MTS was shown that such situation is fraught with serious problems. Coefficient of their useful effect

it was insufficiently high, and did not manage to provide to MTS good rates of development of agriculture of the republic.

The peasant, having become actually hired worker, but not the owner, it was not terribly interested in increase in labor productivity. It is necessary also learn - to tyvat feature of agrarian production which is strongly dependent on climatic conditions that together with the passive resistance of the peasantry affected all economic activity of the agrarian sector of Mordovia. But dreams-naya the objective was achieved: large agriculture which, even if at the price of impoverishment of the peasantry, helped to give for nothing that minimum of the products necessary for the cities and export are created.

1 Stalin I.V. Soch. M.: Gospolitizdat, 1952. T. 13. Page 39.
2 B.N. Mironov. The social history of Russia of the period of the empire (XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century). Genesis of the personality. Democratic family, civil society and constitutional state: In 2 t. the 2nd prod., ispr. SPb.: Dmitry Bulanin publishing house. Page 333-334.
3 A.Ya. Livshin, I.B. Orlov. Power and society: Dialogue in letters. M.: ROSSPEN, 2002. Page 50.
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7 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 31. L. 71.
8 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 15. L. 18.
9 CGA RM. T. 228. Op. 1. 228. L. 59.
10 CGA RM. T. 228. Op. 1. 228. L. 62.
11 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 66. L. 44.
12 In the same place. L. 34, 37.
13 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 31. L. 78.
14 M.V. Ageev. A victory of a collective-farm system in Mordovian the ASSR. Saransk, 1960. Page 133.
15 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 66. L. 42.
16 CGA RM. T. 662. Op. 1. 539. L. 13.
17 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 15. L. 14.
18 CGA RM. T. 318. Op. 1. 328. L. 6. 19TsGARM. T. 1566. Op. 1. 19. L. 212.
20 CGA RM. T. 1566. Op.1. 76. L. 27.
21 History of the Soviet peasantry of Mordovia. Saransk, 1987. Part 2. Page 12.
22 A victory of a collective-farm system in MACCP. Saransk, 1970. Page 160.
23 CGA RM. T. 318. Op. 1. 287. L. 61-62.
24 In the same place.
25 CGA RM. T. 516. Op. 1. 262. L. 56.
26 In the same place.
27 In the same place. 528. L. 39.
28 CGA RM. T. 228. Op. 1. 176. L. 219.
29 CGA RM. T. 516. Op. 1. 88. L. 42.
30 CGA RM. T. 222. Op. 1. 176. L. 202.
John Simpson
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