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The system of school education in the 20th of the 20th century in the context of sociocultural development of the Mordovian edge



SISTEMA of SCHOOL EDUCATION In the 20th of the 20th CENTURY in the context of SOCIOCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT of the MORDOVIAN EDGE

Employed by department of the theory and cultural history of scientific research institute of the humanities at the Government of the Republic of Mordovia.

The research supervisor - the Doctor of Philosophy, professor N.G. Yurchenkova

Article is devoted to a problem of formation of a school system in the territory of Mordovia during the period from 1917 to 1928. Importance of this time in development of a school system is explained by the fact that during this period there was a replacement of an old pre-revolutionary educational system new, Soviet education type. In article the questions of relationship of the power and education are raised and also some data of quantitative and high-quality growth of school network in the region are given.

The article is devoted to the establishment of the school system in Mordovia from 1917 till 1928. The importance of this time in the school system&s development is explained by the fact that in this period the new type of Soviet education replaced the old educational system. The article touches upon the question of relations between the state power and education. The article presents some data of the quantitative and qualitative increase of the school net in the region.

Events of the last years, the political, economic and spiritual crisis of the Russian society caused by change not only forms of ownership, but also moral priorities and ethical standards promote growth of interest in the past, including revaluation of events of the Soviet reality.

In attempt to explain the phenomena of today's life the researchers address events of the spiritual life of people, the history of cultural development, and in particular education as its important component.

Polemic about ways of development of Russian education continues, scientific and public interest in a retrospective research of this problem does not run low. Studying historical experience has to help to reveal elements of similarity and difference between the past and present, to allow to carry out more effectively reconstruction of a modern educational system.

In this context the studying history of education during an initial stage of formation of the Soviet power is relevant. On this historical piece the base of a school system which developed and improved in the next decades - school which modern Russia inherited from the Soviet Union was created.

The considered period - time of rough changes, political, social, cultural. The major sociocultural layers continued to remain the city and the village making cultural space in the interrelation during this period. At the same time there are new social layers - the Soviet intellectuals and the nomenclature. It should be noted that the population of the counties which made the territory of the Mordovian district in 1928 was mainly country. Radical line of life of the peasantry continued to remain the traditional character. However the social dynamism of an era was shown also in time -

village vitiya. Therefore when maintaining steady traditional character, the peasantry was affected by innovations too. The school was one of sources of injection new in fabric of cultural traditions of the village. It is important to note that in broad masses of the peasantry the awareness of practical need of acquisition at least of elementary literacy more and more developed.

the 1920th - time of basic changes in the field of education. During this period the main directions of school education which maintenance was dictated by political needs of the new state and also the main methods of ideological impact on masses by means of network of cultural and educational institutions, the most important of which was a school during this period, were defined. Education was necessary practically for everyone, and it was talked not just of increase in number of schools, and of giving the chance to study all.

The analysis of trends of development of an educational system in the Mordovian region is at a loss the fact that till 1928 Mordovia did not exist as a separate administrative unit. Its modern territory was included in structure of four provinces. Proceeding from it, it is difficult to provide the summary data concerning all Mordovian edge.

Business of elimination of illiteracy and cultural construction countrywide and in particular in the Mordovian district was connected with development and reforming of the educational sphere. During the pre-revolutionary period the supply of the population of Mordovia with initial and average educational institutions was rather low. The state of affairs with education of non-russian nationalities was especially unsatisfactory. Mordva aspired to training the children in the diploma and craft, but these aspirations did not get due support of the authorities, encountered on vsevoz-

mozhny obstacles of legal and economic character. The researcher V.N. Maynov in 70-80 of the 19th century wrote: "Mordva... extremely regrets for absence of craft and agricultural schools, and more than once we had to hear that they willingly would pootdavat children, in particular in the last..., and... the Russian workmen reluctantly take on training of the Mordovian children who in most cases, on ignorance of Russian, bring upon masters a lot of trouble" though "... on them

to words, children Mordovian very much ponyatli-1

Vyya..."

In the Saransk County in 1889 there were 34 schools, from them 2 in the city. In total 2046 people, including 267 people in the city, 1779 people in rural areas studied. One school fell in the city area on 6968 people and in rural areas - on 4251 persons. In the city one pupil fell on 52 people and in rural areas - on the 76th persons. The number of pupils made 1.4% of all population, and percent of pupils - devo-chekravnyalsya 0.4% of female population. One girl studied for 239 women. In uyez-" "2

only 44 teachers were registered.

In the Ardatovsky County of the Simbirsk province which was a part Mordovian the ASSR, according to a household census of 1910 — 191 1, 86% of families farms had no

pupils, and 47.9% had no at all

competent members of families.

The school network, coverage of children characterize by training in 1914-1915 the following data: in total was schools 787, including initial 769, seven-year-old 9, averages 9. In total studied children of 58.0 thousand people, including at elementary schools of 54.4 thousand people, in seven-year-old - 1.2 thousand people, vsrednikh-2.4tys. persons. From 58.0 thousand pupils studied in rural areas of 49.9 thousand persons. Owing to low interest of coverage of children training tens of thousands of children of school age of Mordovia remained behind the walls of school. Teacher's shots contained that year

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1551 people

It is necessary to consider that average values of coverage of children training in the city were higher, than in rural areas. Especially low the quantity competent and studying was in the volosts and counties inhabited mainly mordvy.

In the first months of existence of the Soviet power legislative documents for the purpose of transformation of an education system are accepted.

It is natural that in the conditions of ruin and civil war of a task of education of a people at large first of all were devoted to the ideological purposes. The new power needed to strengthen the positions. Therefore the newly created school system was designed not only to form, but first of all to bring up a people at large in the spirit of the corresponding ideology.

It is directly told about it in the program of RCP(b) adopted at the VIII congress. On March 18, 1919 "... 12. In the field of national education RCP puts the task to finish the business of transformation of school begun with the October revolution of 1917 from the tool of class domination of the bourgeoisie in the tool of elimination of division of society into classes, in the tool of communistic regeneration of society". Thus, it was talked of the reorganization of society and the social relations functioning in it.

If to reject excessive ideological bias of provisions, then the practical resolutions adopted by a congress became really progressive and good not only for the sphere of national education, but also for all social development in general. The congress put forward the following tasks:

1) carrying out free and compulsory general and polytechnic education for all children of both sexes up to 17 years;
2) creation of network of preschool institutions: day nursery, gardens, etc. - for improvement of public education and liberation of the woman;
3) full implementation of the principles of uniform labor school with teaching in the native language, with coeducation of children of both sexes, certainly, secular, i.e. free from any religious influence;
4) supply of all pupils with food, clothes, footwear and manuals at the expense of the state;
5) vsestoronnya state help to self-education and self-development of workers and peasants (creation of network of institutions of out-of-school education: libraries, schools for adults, people's houses and universities, courses, lectures, cinemas, stu-

diya, etc.) -

Being guided by directives of the Soviet government, authorities on places developed a lot of work on the organization of school network, completion by its teacher's shots, to involvement of the population to participation in construction and financing of schools. In the first years after the revolution legislatively all expenses on national education were covered at the expense of the uniform government budget. However in the conditions of obviously insufficient financing from the center the local party and Soviet bodies tried to adjust by own efforts activity of schools, using any opportunities for expansion of school network for the purpose of coverage training of the maximum number of children. So, under the resolution of Ardatovsky district council from

5 July, 1918 were allocated for needs of national education of allocation in the general
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sum of 432,808 rub. At a meeting of the Saransk district council on July 16, 1918, "in view of that schools both in the city, and in the county are in very bad condition, for repair and purchase of textbooks" it was decided to impose a tax on 1 ruble with

souls men's and female "for podnya-

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Tia of school in the county on appropriate height".

Steady growth of number of schools at simultaneous increase in number of pupils was the main line razvi-

Tia of the system of school education in 1918-1921. The elementary school representing the first step of comprehensive school for children from 8 to 13 years became the most mass. The former gymnasiums, the highest initial schools operating in the cities of the Mordovian edge (Saransk, Ardatov, Krasnoslobodsk, Temnikov), were reorganized into schools of the second step with the four-year term of training.

Radically the social composition of school students began to be changed: children of workers and peasants become the main contingent gradually. The problem of coverage was solved by training of children differently. So, in some families they were not let to school, and teachers had to go on the yards, convincing parents of advantage of the diploma. However in the majority the population realized need of education. About it data of the press of that period, such as, for example, note demonstrate to a situation with education in the village of Forest Vyass: "... The population more and more begins to understand need of education. So, on August 21 villagers L. Vyass at the rural meeting, having listened to the report of local school, zavshkoly about need of repair, decided: to charge to Village council to raise urgently money and

to start repair of a roof and the device

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new schoolyard".

An important indicator of cultural level of the population is the involvement into educational processes of women and girls, literacy percent among female population. In royal time, in comparison with men, women were more backward in respect of cultural development, in particular in the sense of education, a part of the population. Sources of it should be looked for in the general traditions of patriarchal way of family, in the economic organization of country economy. Girls were taken away early from school, and even not given to it as on them education younger lay

children, housework, and even part of family earnings.

In the first post-revolutionary decade the coverage problem educational processes of a female part of the population gradually moves off dead center. However in rural areas the patriarchal view of female education still braked the solution of the matter. "More backward element among youth are girls. For years there was a view of the girl, as on future wife. She was brought up so that she was able to behave, decently to put on, be pleasant to the man and as a result of everything to leave in marriage. & lt;...> In villages and till this moment girls are not let

in school: & #34; There is nothing to study Dunke: for, 10

the husband she and illiterate will live..."

It is characteristic that in the cities the number of the studying girls was more, than in villages.

Inspection reports reveal many gaps in the developing education system of that time: the poor equipment, insufficient qualification of teachers, closing of some schools due to the lack of financing.

In the early twenties in the conditions of the New Economic Policy the financing of school institutions was generally assigned to shoulders of district and volost budgets that in the conditions of social and economic difficulties of that time became a heavy burden for local authorities. Therefore spheres of culture and education were often financed by the residual principle.

In general, despite a difficult situation, the population tried to support school. In many places the peasantry agreed to give by own efforts a felling, community work days to build school, to take away and process the site of the school earth, to feed the school worker. From a note "Seek for education" (Nikolaev. Saransk volost): "Peasants of our village do not want to leave the children illiterate. At a general meeting on September 1, having listened to the report on position of school,

decided to go for the help to school unanimously. Though rural schools pass to contents from the volbyuget, the volost is not able to cover completely all expenses and will not manage to put schools in the best conditions. Citizens... decided to offer for needs of school on 19 kopeks from soul - except for the poorest families that makes about 120 rubles. Lately among the population it is noticeable, there was a thirst for education. & lt;...> From 12 pupils who graduated from school I of a step 7 pupils decided to study further..." & #34; The Author of this note signed by the pseudonym Observing.

However refusals of peasants of self-taxation for school needs were frequent

>. The reasons of it are poverty of country farms and also the mistrustful relation to school caused by the innovations entered into the content of training.

In the most difficult social and economic conditions in the early twenties in the Mordovian region, as well as in general on RSFSR, proliferation of schools stopped and there was a reduction of students in them. The situation was so tense that the question of collection of a tuition fee at schools was brought up. This problem had basic value as limited access to education. However at this conjuncture it was the necessary measure which was temporary. There were categories of the population exempted from a tuition fee. Their list was rather extensive and included, for example, Red Army men and command and administrative structure, disabled veterans and work consisting on social security, children of the former political convicts and settlers, etc.

In the conditions of extreme complexity of the state maintenance of school network the alternative to the formed uniform labor school - private school appeared. Their emergence in many respects became possible thanks to introduction in life

New economic policy. About existence in the territory of the Mordovian region, as well as in general across Russia, private schools archival documents testify. For example, in the Penza province (which some counties were later a part of the Mordovian district) they are known till 1925-1927. In process of economic stabilization in the region and foldings of the New Economic Policy private educational institutions were transferred to the category of state.

By the end of 1923 the situation with school education in the Mordovian region began to stabilize. In the Mordovian villages in the territory of 8 provinces of Russia in 1923

there were 997 schools, including 975

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schools I of a step and 22 schools II ступени&.

In the next years the network of elementary and high schools and coverage of children training more and more increased, number grew and the qualitative structure of teacher's shots increased. In the Krasnoslobodsky County in 1923-1924 uch.godubylo 128 schools, 218uchi-tel and 7391 pupils, in 1924-1925 uch. to year respectively 144,263,12633. in 1925-1926 uch. to year - 181. 275, 17,332&3. In Saransk

the county in 1925-1926 uch. to year there were 136 schools, 149 teachers and 13623 pupils, in 1926 — 1927 uch. to year - 164 schools and 16000 pupils. In the Ruzaevka County in 1925-1926 uch. to year there were 137 schools, 246 teachers, 10,225 pupils, in 1926-1927 uch. to year respectively 159,270,1220, in 1927-1928 uch. to year-168, 303

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and 13 OOO&.

Georges Danton, being realistic about an education role in society life, told: "After bread the most important for the people - school". Time confirmed justice of this statement. Of course, by the end of the considered period it is impossible to speak about the come true formation of a system of primary education in the territory of the Mordovian region. However during this period the basis which allowed to pass rather quickly in the next years to the system of general elementary education of children was laid. The resolution on it was accepted the XVI congress on July 25, 1930 and had outstanding value for further development of national education of Mordovia and increase in cultural level of the population of the region.

& A.L. Kiselyov. Socialist culture of Mordovia. Saransk: To a muzzle of prince publishing house, 1959. Page 49. CGA RM. Book fund. Twenty-five years' activity of territorial institutions of the Penza province of 1865-1889 of Page 144.

CGA RM. Book fund. Household census Simbirsk lips. 1910-1911 of the Issue III. Arda-tovsky county. Page 8.

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T.I. Shukshina. Mordovian school of the 20-30th of the 20th century: main stages and problems of development: Monograph. Saransk: Mordov. state. ped. in-t. 2003. Page 19.

Cultural construction in Mordovian the ASSR: Sb. dock. Ch.1: 1917-1941/Sost. E.I. Bakayev. Saransk, 1986. Page 25.

6 In the same place. Page 17.
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TsGARM. F. R-40. Op. 1. 5. L. 12.

8 CDNI RM. T. 327. Op.!. 26. L. 5.

^Газета "Plant and arable land". 1923. N ° 22. ■

In the same place.

& #34; Zavod I Pashnya Newspaper. 1925. No. 98.

12 &

>! N.V. Taldin. Essays from the history of the Mordovian school. Saransk, 1956. Page 49.

TsGARM. T. 19. 269. L. 345-349; T. 21. 38. L. 13-16.

>, 4TsGARM. T. 305. 16. L. 1-8.

Laakso Kari
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