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Mortaza Motakhkhari and ideology of Islamic revolution in Iran



In article the short political biography and characteristic of the ideas of the famous figure of Islamic revolution of 1978-1979 in Iran - ayatollahs Mortaza Motakhkhari (1920-1979) whose analysis allows to comprehend a role of a religioznoideologichesky factor in this revolution is given.

The short political biography and characteristic of ideas of Ayatullah Mortaza Motahhari (1920-1979) - one of the famous leaders of Islamic revolution of 1978-79 in Iran, are given in the article. Analysis of this question helps to understand the role of religious ideology in formation of the revolution.

Islamic revolution, Mortaza Motakhkhari, Iran, ideology, Islamism; Islamic revolution, Mortaza Motahhari, Iran, ideology, Islamism.

Islamic revolution of 1978 — 1979 in Iran became one of the most significant events of the second half of the 20th century. This revolution remains the paradox which did not receive due judgment in the scientific research devoted to it to this day. Various points of view about it most of which part proceeds from idea that coming to power of clerical forces had almost accidental character are offered and it was not predetermined by logic of prerevolutionary development of the Iranian society. The Islamic nature of the Iranian revolution always seemed to most of researchers a certain aberration, an aberration. Meanwhile, in a bosom of the Iranian religious tradition the new revolutionary ideology which was based on Shiite values, traditional for Iranians, was created. The Iranian thinker ayatollah Mortaza Motakhkhari (1920 — 1979) was one of the main spokesmen of this ideology.

The appeal to ideology of Islamic revolution, namely to intellectual heritage of Motakhkhari, allows to reveal the most deep spiritual and world outlook sources of this revolution, to realize interrelation between ideology of Islamic revolution and civilization bases of the Iranian society and to depart from the superficial and one-sided interpretations of Islamic revolution based on primary attention to its political and economic aspects. It is especially important for understanding of today's condition of Iran developing according to those ideological reference points which it received during the Islamic revolution.

Unfortunately, the problem considered by us did not receive due judgment in research literature both in Iran, and beyond its limits. The domestic and foreign iranistika considerably separated from studying religious and ideological aspects of Islamic revolution. For this reason the ideological heritage of Motakhkhari remains poorly studied in a domestic iranistika. Despite its role in formation of ideology of Islamic revolution, life and works of this figure practically did not become object of systematic study by domestic and foreign researchers-iranistami.

The ayatollah Mortaza Motakhkhari was born on February 3, 1920 in the small town of Fariman of the Province of Khurasan in family of the prominent representative of clergy. The time of his youth coincided over the years the most fierce fight of the shah mode against the Shiite clergy which was exposed to political repressions. Nevertheless in 1938 it naprav-

Ismagil Rustamovich GIBADULLIN — aspiranm departments of modern and contemporary history of the Kazan state university

it lyatsya to Qom which turned at that time into the main center of religious sciences in Iran. In Kuma he spends about 15 years of the life, having passed a full cycle of theological preparation and having reached degree modzhtakhi - yes. In the years of training in theological seminary Motakhkhari's interest in policy since the 40th in the history of Iran, complete uncertainties and new hopes, were the period of growth of political activity of Iranians including exempted from oppression Reza shah Pekhlevi clergy was created. With formation in 1946 of the radical organization "Fedayan-e to Esla" of Motakhkhari, as well as his many companions, maintains the regular relations with it.

In 1953 Motakhkhari moves to Tehran where he originally teaches in madrasah of "Marvi", and since 1955 gives lectures at faculty of divinity and Islamic sciences of the Tehran university. In 1955 it opens a meeting of Islamic student's society, and 1960 becomes the chief lecturer of Islamic society of doctors (till 1972). Already at this time it gains popularity as the beautiful speaker and the polemist. Around it the circle of devoted pupils grows, many of which will become revolutionary figures subsequently. In 1963 he participates in the oppositional performances of clergy headed by Khomeini and known as events "the fifteenth chorus-dada" then he is arrested for 43 days. Since this time of Motakhkhari becomes the active participant of the anti-shah movement.

In 1968 it among other prominent ulama establishes Hoseyniye ershad — special educational institution for religious education of secular youth in which it was invited as well the main ideologist of secular Islamism in Iran Ali Shariati. But in 1971 Motakhkhari leaves Hoseyniye ershad because of disagreements A. Shariati rather ideological questions and reads series of lectures on Islamic sciences in the mosque Al-Javad until in 1973 it is not closed by the authorities. Motakhkhari's lectures bring together the mass audiences consisting of students, teachers, youth. In 1975 Motakhkhari is deprived of the right of official reading sermons in mosques that gives it the chance to focus on research, and in 1977 it is forced to leave also Tehran University -

sitet. Together with ayatollahs Ali Khamenei, Bekheshti, Rafsanjani creates Combatant Clergy Association of Tehran which developed over time into the all-Iranian organization. In 1977 — 78 it goes to Khomeini, at first to the Iraqi city of Najaf twice, and then to Paris where that gets over on the eve of the return to Iran. Together with Khomeini they discuss the current issues of revolutionary fight, responsibility for formation of Islamic revolutionary council — the coordinating body of all revolutionary dvi-zheniya1 is conferred on Motakhkhari. On May 1, 1979, late at night, at an exit from the building of Islamic revolutionary council after the prolonged meeting of Mortaz Motakhkhari it was shot by fighters of the armed group "Forkan" standing on "Islamic and Marxist" positions.

Motakhkhari's biography confirms the versatile nature of its activity which is difficult for carrying to some certain sphere. The ayatollah Mortaza Motakhkhari played an enormous role in development of the main complex of the ideas lying at sources of Islamic revolution. Motakhkhari managed to synthesize these ideas in a uniform and integral ideological system which he called "Islamic (toukhidny) ideology" 2. He tried to unite potentials of traditional Shiite divinity and secular intellektualizma3.

The ideological heritage of Motakhkhari is one of sources of formation of official ideology of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and today serves as the instrument of legitimation of the policy pursued by the Islamic mode, and an additional resource of the power of ruling theocratic elite of Iran. Motakhkhari's image is to some extent mythologized, idealized and filled with contents, to the corresponding relevant problems of the current policy of the state and various political groups.

1 Zendeginame-ye Shakhid Ostad of Motakhkhari//
2 Motakhkhari M. Peyramun-e to an esla-ma engelab-a. - Tehran, 1972.
3 Mutahhari, Ayatullah Murtada. Guiding the Youth of the New Generation. World Federation of Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities, UK//
Lester Erickson
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