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To the history of Chistopolsky medical workers' faculty of the Kazan state medical institute

zheniye of autotransplantation of skin gave the chance to keep body. Other direction developed by O.A. Ru-stitsky was hallo - and a ksenotransplanta-tion. According to the scientists of that period who achieved the first certain success, treatment of the extensive granulating wounds by skin transplantation from the amputated extremities from just died people who did not have infectious diseases could result in real success. Attempts of skin transplantation and from animals became, nevertheless O.A. Rustits-ky considered that it is better to form a transplant of skin of the most sick. In this direction he developed ways pe-

UDC 61 (091)

skin resadka on eyelids and mucous membranes from cheeks on lips thanks to what their functions and external forms remained.

Thus, at assessment of activity of outstanding representatives of the Kazan surgical school it is possible to state their considerable achievements in plastic maxillofacial surgery with all thoroughness. And if it is impossible to nominate only them maxillofacial surgeons, nevertheless owing to the talent and erudition they rendered the highly skilled help to patients with pathology of the face and jaws. They by right can be considered founders of plastic surgery in Kazan.

Arrived 27.01.07.


S.N. Krasilnikov

Department of history, sociology, philosophy, political science (manager. - prof. L.M. Mukharyamov) Kazan state medical university.

An important role in preparation for receipt in higher educational institutions was played by the working faculties which appeared in 1919. The resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of May 16, 1930 defined the main directions of radical reorganization of workers' faculties. The existing diverse offices which were in the structure of each large workers' faculty needed to be turned into independent workers' faculties (industrial and technical, agricultural, economic, medical, pedagogical, etc.) and to attach to the relevant higher education institutions as independent offices. If as a part of workers' faculty there were no registered offices then the students had to be united in groups depending on to what universities they wanted to go subsequently. The workers' faculties which were located in places where there were no higher education institutions had to be attached to higher education institutions for which they trained pupils. The term of training at day workers' faculties was reduced to three years, by evening - up to 4. In the fall of 1930 on

state workers' faculty of the Kazan university three special offices were allocated: technical, social and economic and medical. At the Kazan medical institute the workers' faculty was created along with institute. With allocation of medical faculty from the structure of the Kazan state university and education on its basis of the Kazan medical institute to it listeners of two groups of the first course were transferred, to one — the second and one — a third year of state workers' faculty of KGU, only 127 listeners [1]. Therefore the day workers' faculty of medical institute from the very beginning existed as a part of three courses. Within December, 1930 on day workers' faculty, new listeners were accepted, and by the beginning of 1931 on workers' faculty there were already 169 people. In December, 1930 A.Z. Miftakhov was appointed the manager of day workers' faculty of medical institute [2].

Emergence of new higher educational institutions, technical schools, schools, opening of new faculties, offices at sharp

need in educational rooms forced to look for new ways. On August 29, 1931 at a meeting of Council of People's Commissars of TACCP the report of the government commission on the project of placement of technical schools and higher education institutions in Kazan was heard. Taking into account need of additional study of this question and specification of placement of higher education institutions and technical schools on certain buildings the commission, it was entrusted to them to work and submit in five-day time for approval of Council of People's Commissars the project of placement of higher education institutions and technical schools in Kazan was created. A number of provisions, one of which was carrying out transfer of workers' faculties to areas [3], had to find reflection in this project. As a result the government commission decided all day workers' faculties, except final groups, to throw to areas. The workers' faculty of the Kazan university and Kazan medical institute was thrown to Chistopol, workers' faculty zoovetinstitu-that, agricultural and timber institutes - to Yelabuga [4].

The organization of workers' faculty of the Kazan medical institute in Chistopol began in September, 1931. At the beginning of October, 1931 the state on Chistopolsky office of workers' faculty of KGMI as a part of 5 people was established: the manager of a teaching department managing an economic part, the secretary-clerk, the accountant and the commandant. To the middle of October, 1931 the staff of Chistopolsky workers' faculty already totaled 26 people, including 18 teachers [9]. The organization of educational process assumed also security of students with faculty members. By 1940 16 teachers from whom 8 had the highest and 8th incomplete higher education worked at medical workers' faculty. Reduction of faculty members was connected with reduction of number of students of Chistopolsky medical workers' faculty.

New 1932 — 1933 academic year began with creation of the divisions necessary for the rational organization of uchebnometodichesky work. In September, 1932 the council of workers' faculty, educational and methodical bureau, cyclic a subject - were organized

ny commissions. Obshchestvovedchesko-literaturnaya the commission united language and literature (both Russian, and Tatar), socioeconomic disciplines, the German and Latin languages, military science and physical education, physical and mathematical - physics, mathematics and graphics, chemical and biological - chemistry, biology, physical geography and hygiene. The following tasks were assigned to these commissions: a) the leadership in teaching in all objects of this cycle; b) consideration of educational production plans and tasks in objects of this cycle; c) instructions to certain teachers of educational and methodical tasks.

Search of methods of teaching was at the same time carried out that was a problem not only for medical workers' faculty, but also for all high and higher school. Big distribution those years was received by a brigade and laboratory method which became a universal method of teaching all objects. It led to superficial studying disciplines and decrease in personal responsibility of each pupil before the teacher. Special attention was paid on mastering pupils skills of independent work. In 1932 — 1933 academic year on medical workers' faculty refused a laboratornobrigadny method as "the teacher giving an obezlichka in work and reducing a role". The main form of the organization of study was the lesson with group of a certain structure on the approved schedule. Much attention was paid to development of skills of work with the book. Laboratory researches alternated with the teacher's lectures. Holding excursions to the local plants — ship-repair and the metal working plant was planned.

In May, 1933 the sector of shots of NKZ RSFSR suggested to organize final examinations of students of workers' faculty with that calculation that they were at the same time reception in this institute in the following objects — the native language and literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry and public disciplines. Were only allowed to final tests podgo-

tovlenny students. The persons which for various reasons did not acquire program material had to remain on workers' faculty, and let out them only to enrollment in medical institute in 1934. Reception of offsets was carried out publicly, and presence of students of all group was obligatory. Offsets were accepted by the commission as a part of two people which was appointed a teaching department and was approved by the director of medical workers' faculty.

It is necessary to mark out also heads of Chistopolsky medical workers' faculty. In archives, only personal records of some of them remained. And in these affairs there are neither autobiographies, nor leaves on registration of personnel, nor labor lists therefore it is not possible to supply about them with the fullest information. Therefore we are forced to be limited to their arrangement in a chronological order. For all the time of existence of medical workers' faculty in Chistopol supervised its work A.Ya. Hvatkov (from 1931 to March 26, 1933), I.D. Yuda-nov (from March 26, 1933 to August 22, 1935), S.M. Prokhorov (from August 22, 1935 to January 15, 1936), I.S. Yangnayev (from January 15 to April 1, 1936), O.A. Permyakova (from April 1, 1936 to 1941).

One of the most popular average special educational institutions of Chistopol and now is the medical school. The history of this establishment is conducted, as a rule, from medical polytechnic which was created by the order of the national commissioner of health care Tatar the ASSR in 1932. Existence in the city of medical workers' faculty of the Kazan medical institute it is not even mentioned [5]. At the same time history and medical school and the most medical polytechnic is closely connected with medical workers' faculty. By October, 1932 in Chistopol, except workers' faculty of the Kazan medical institute, there were a workers' faculty of the Kazan university and 4 technical schools: socialist agriculture, pedagogical, medical and FZS. From the moment of the creation the medical polytechnic existed together with medical workers' faculty under one management. The director of medical workers' faculty was at the same time and the director of medical polytechnic. Prika-

the deputy of the director of medical workers' faculty teachers were enlisted at once and on medical workers' faculty and medical polytechnic. The teaching department of medical workers' faculty was recommended to provide performance data of students both medical-workers' faculty, and medical polytechnic, and an administrative part had to carry out check of stock and property of medical workers' faculty and medical polytechnic. To all pedagogical and to the technicians which are at work in medical workers' faculty and medical polytechnic, it was necessary to fill out with the order of the director the questionnaire and to attach the documents validating data. Orders of the director of medical workers' faculty carried out transfer and expel of students, transfer on a grant, terms of vacation, etc. were established

In 1941 by order of Narkomzdrava the Chistopolsky medical workers' faculty was liquidated by RSFSR. In July, 1941, according to the drawn-up statements, the Chistopolsky rayzdrav property, furniture and stocks of food were transferred. The transfer of a part of property of medical workers' faculty (4 educational offices, library and a part of the equipment) medical assistant's and obstetric school which came to the end on July 30, 1941 with transfer of library of medical workers' faculty which contained 12294 names by then was at the same time carried out.

On August 14, 1941 documents of Chistopolsky medical workers' faculty for 1937 — 1941 were transferred to archive of the Kazan state medical institute according to inventories [6].


1. S.N. Krasilnikov, M.S. Krasilnikova. The beginning of a new stage in the history of the Kazan state medical university / Current problems of a dezinfektologiya and epidemiology in the medical industry. - Kazan, 2005. - Page 78.
2. KGMU archive. Op. 1-l. Unit hr. 1. L. 31.
3. National archive of the Republic of Tatarstan F. 128. Op.1. 1528. L. 81.
4. Transfer of workers' faculties to areas//Red Tataria. - September 1931, 1.
5. Chistopol and chistopolets. From the past and the present. Popular scientific edition. - Kazan, 2004. — Page 296 — 297.
6. National archive of the Republic of Tatarstan F. 6446. Op. 1. 191. L. 49-53.
Sharon Lily
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