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World War I in publications of publications of political parties of Russia in 1917.

antonov-Ovseenko A.A.


From the beginning of World War I the Russian periodicals which were and in difficult conditions of the strict political censorship directed to maintenance of the falling popularity of the monarchy got before to a vice of censorship military. And this censorship stretched not only far beyond editions, for example, Bolshevist which could act from "defeatist" positions and demand the end of war, but also was carried out in relation to quite provoyenno to the adjusted periodical press. Indignation of such situation was stated by the representative of the Right-wing liberal party "Union on October 17" (Octobrists) supporting preservation of the monarchy, S.I. Shidlovsky: "The press is taken in a vice. Censorship stopped being military long ago and is engaged in protection of nonexistent prestige of the power..." [8, page 37]. As "the main scourge of the Russian public life" also one of leaders of the monarchic "Union of the Russian people" V.M. Purishkevich characterized censorship, and the socialist A.F. Kerensky spoke to the tsarist government in the sense that it, "having strangled the press, having strangled all society", is guided by "contemptible Grishki Rasputin's whispering" [8, page 37].

During prolonged war the protest moods in the Russian society increased. War during this period played a key role in formation of public moods, and political struggle of various political forces resisting each other was focused exactly around a question of the relation to war. By the end of 1916 - to the beginning of 1917 the tsarist government in connection with prolonged war and directly the related deterioration in an economic situation, on the one hand, and the continuing attempts to keep backward lines of autocracy, causing reasonable irritation of supporters both parties right, and left the parties of a political range, on the other hand, lost possibilities of management of an internal political situation more and more.

On fronts the society was inclined to accuse of military failures (and it is not unreasonable) royal mode. In these conditions even the periodical press of moderate sense could not remain away from discussion of pressing problems. For example, the Utro Rossii newspaper which expressed views of the Moscow umerennoprogressivny party led by the industrialist Pavel Ryabushinsky in the editorial article "Last minutes" openly said: "For the sake of a victory we have to tell loudly: "With this convulsively dying off mode we go by death and death!" [2, page 443].

Among freedoms which achievements demanded at that time all oppositional to the government of party, one of main there was a cancellation of political censorship for the press. At the same time periodicals the anti-government protests constantly provoked security agencies to acceptance of prohibitive measures that in total brought closer social explosion which occurred as a result at the end of February, 1917. And as approaching February the periodicals began to use the increasing freedom from acceptable restrictions with a "attendance" order as it is visible on the example of progressivist "Morning of Russia".

Among grimaces of an agony of the royal mode in the last dates of February, 1917 it appeared and will lock on issue of periodicals. The document which was directly forbidding issue of newspapers still is not found. However there are no doubts that unique and lawful, in terms of the royal mode, the Department of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs which since fall 1916 and until the end of February, 1917 was headed by former Companion (deputy) Chairman of the State Duma, industrialist A.D. of Protopopov1 could be a source its. According to some data, in the middle of the February events, from February 27 to March 5, there was only a bulletin "News of Revolutionary Week" formed by Society (committee) of the Petrograd journalists; On March 1 in Moscow there was similar to it the bulletin "News of the Moscow Press": both editions made bold

1 Among other qualities of A.D. Protopopov also his not mediated interest in issue of the printing periodical press is known: he became a founder conceived by it for maintenance of the royal mode known, criticized both on the right, and in particular at the left, including V.I. Lenin, the Russkaya Volya newspapers. - A.A.

to report about the events. Since March 2 the few editions - "Russian Word", "Russian Sheets", etc. resumed release [9, page 40-41].

Until recently remained unknown of a condition of mass resumption of release of the press at the beginning of March, 1917. In researches it is possible to find references to a meeting of Council of working deputies from February 28 during which the commission for resumption of issue of the periodical press, on a joint meeting of Council of working deputies and State Dumas Interim committee of March 2 and also on the special commission on questions of newspapers and magazines formed by Petrosovet was formed [8, page 38-39]. The research of this question was based also on minutes of meetings of Provisional government, in particular, on minutes No. 64 of April 27, 1917 and the deciding phrases of its decision: "The press and trade in works of the press are free. Application of administrative penalties is not allowed to them" [1, page 358]. The further text of the decision of Provisional government established obligations of editions for granting prints of printing editions in the relevant public service after their issue. But by the time of adoption of this decision the print media already appeared within nearly two months and, thus, the Provisional government only very was late stated the valid state of affairs.

However still it was not known - whether there were any documents of title on the basis of which the issue of the print media was resumed. The following became clear: a part of editions, such as the mentioned "Russian words" and "The Russian sheets", resumed release independently in view of evidence established, though for a short time, anarchy and lack of any obstacles. Other, most part of editions, nevertheless expected official permission, and as for the beginning of March in Petrograd only the Executive committee of Council of working and soldier's deputies was the "firm" power, apart from Interim committee of the State Duma, exactly there printing editions also addressed for permissions to resumption of release. The certificates of Executive committee of Council of working and soldier's deputies submitted here became documents of title on the basis of which the mass issue of the printing periodical press was resumed for the first time, and after studying one of them becomes oche-

visible that for March 4, 1917 the power of Executive committee of Council stretched even for the government press. In the certificate of Executive committee of Council of March 4, 1917 it is said: "I.K. S.R. and S.D. does not meet obstacles getting to work on set, printing, issue and distribution of the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper (the signature "the Member Isp. Lump." - without interpretation, it is illegible) [7, l. 1]. The Executive committee of Council issued similar certificates that day to the publisher Kasatkin on resumption of printing of the Golos Naroda newspaper [7, l. 2], Ogoniok newspaper [7, l. 3] and to other editions. At the same time within one day both the form, and contents of the being issued certificates changed on March 4. So, the text of the certificate issued to the newspaper in Latvian "New... the leaf" (illegibly, by hand) was filled already on the typographical form of Executive committee of Council with use of the typewritten basic text "The executive Committee of Council of Working and Soldier's deputies does not meet an obstacle to enrollment and printing.", further by hand - to what edition the document was issued. It is remarkable that behind the basic text which is also printed on the machine "... if that does not contradict the interests of revolutionary movement" the hand-written line - "and printing house - not the newspaper of one of the revolutionary organizations" follows that demonstrates, at least, that in Executive committee of Council cases of occupation of printing houses were known. Besides, this document is distinguished also by the legible signature of the member of Executive committee Pyotr Aleksandrovich. [7, l. 4]. Next day, March 5, the Executive committee of Council continued issue of documents, and sometimes they appeared on forms, in other cases - only with the typewritten text and under the heading "Permission". The peak of resumption of issue of printing editions falls on these two days - March 4 and 5; the large Menshevist newspaper showed "Day" the beginning of "new life" the resumed numbering - on March 5 the newspaper appeared at number 1 (1573); in the same day, March 5, resumed release and a semi-official organ of cadets "Speech". And, certainly, the relation to war without which discussion as it will be visible further, any did not manage, even declaring nonpartisanship, the edition became the main political subject of all periodicals, apart from a question of the power.

A specific place in discussion of questions of war and peace is held by the Bolshevist press - at least and because newspapers of Bolsheviks promoted the, cardinally differing from all other range of opinions point

sight. And first, even after the February revolution, V.I. Lenina leaving in Petrograd in absence the Pravda newspaper, did not venture openly to support the war termination. And only with arrival in April, 1917 from V.I. Lenin's emigration the newspaper before expressing rather Menshevist views sharply took a new direction and led propaganda for the war termination, for the world without annexations and contributions. Views of the Lenin Pravda, negative in relation to war, were based (and it is not unreasonable) on a thesis that this war was begun by the capitalist governments for the sake of satisfaction of their imperialistic ambitions and capture of new sales markets for national productions. Besides, this war, according to Lenin, contradicted the interests of labor classes - workers and peasants and therefore it had to be stopped. Collected of the azet and published messages similar to the vision of problems of war and peace from field army. In this sense the publication in the Pravda of June 9, 1917 of the resolution of a meeting of the 540th infantry Sukhininsky regiment became indicative: "Having gathered for a meeting on May 28, all soldiers of a regiment recognized as necessary to show to S.S. and R.D. and Provisional government the following requirements: 1) We demand the immediate termination of war and the fastest conclusion of peace without annexations, contributions and on self-determination of nationalities and nations. 2) We refuse all extortionate contracts signed by the old government... (further requirements of the admission of military deputies to armies of allied powers, the equations in food of the lowest and highest ranks and so forth follow). 9) That no parcels of the Russian troops in army allied to us powers existed." [5, No. 77]. It is characteristic that at all determination of the requirements about the termination of war stated in the first paragraphs of the resolution does not follow from further requirements of need of conclusion of peace at all: otherwise, why to insist in item 10 on that "immediately to requisition all reserves of grain and the cattle at all landowners and large owners.", as not "for strengthening of fighting power of army and for improvement of food of soldiers" [5, No. 77].

The Pravda almost only, apart from the Menshevist "Working newspaper" also sometimes discussing need of the termination of war on the pages firmly stood for peace without annexations and contributions. Other editions, even congenial and on party belonging to a social democratic current, such as plekhanovsky "Unity", considered neob-

hodimy war continuation. However and in the camp of numerous supporters of continuation of war existed as it became clear, disagreements on the relation to war. And though these disagreements as it becomes obvious after nearly hundreds of years, carried rather uniform, than substantial character, from it they did not become less insuperable for those times. For supporters of continuation of war at that time the problem consisted only in interpretation of the reasons for which it should have been continued: as treated it at the time of the royal mode - that is as to an opportunity to win new territories and will catch new sales markets, or, in connection with transition in Russia of state system from a monarchic form to democratic board, - as to war "for protection of the homeland and freedom", war for defense. It became clear soon that the first structure of Provisional government including the leader of cadets P.N. Milyukov as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and A.I. Guchkov as the minister military and sea supported continuation of war on a monarchic sample and the scenario - to the bitter end, and the victory had to mean access to Bosphorus and Dardanelles for Russia (why the leader of cadets also got widely extended nickname "Milyukov-Dardanelles").

On April 20, 1917 P.N. Milyukov's note addressed to the governments of the countries of the Entente in which the determination to wage war to a victory was emphasized was published in newspapers. And this publication became the indicator of interrelation of questions of the power and war. In Petrograd, mass demonstrations began, the Provisional government tried to suppress disorders by force, having charged to the commander of the military district to bring troops to streets, but troops refused to obey to it. It is known that as a result Milyukov and Guchkov supporting continuation of war in its "royal" look and against negotiating with the left flank represented by Councils were forced to resign, and the situation was resolved by creation of the first coalition government which representatives of the Petrograd council entered.

Nevertheless, the main printing semi-official organ of the People's Freedom Party (cadets) the Rech newspaper 1 which the Pravda and after leaving the structure of Provisional government of P.N. Milyukov called "ministerial" continued to make considerable impact on public opinion. "Speech" paid to a war subject paramount attention; the big constant heading "War" included reports from fronts under the headings "Western Front", "Romanian Front", "Caucasian Front", etc. The newspaper, characteristic in the sense of the relation, to a question of continuation of war there was a publication "Speeches" of April 5: "The earth and Volya" does not agree with the view stated by us that after everything told it is necessary "to remove from turn a question of the war purposes because the talk and disputes on it are for Germans a source of hope and yields results, opposite to those which our pacifists want to reach." [6, No. 78]. Here "Speech" quotes itself, unambiguously letting know that it even does not find it possible to discuss the purposes of war, should not cause the necessity of its continuation at anybody and shadows of doubts. Such relation to war remained characteristic both for the newspaper, and for the party of cadets during all war and up to fall of 1917 when on September 2 "Speech" published the announcement: "The year-book of the Rech newspaper devoted to war. P.N. Milyukov's introduction. The price is 3 rub" [6, No. 206].

The subject of war caused disagreements not only in the political camps which were directly resisting each other; the social democratic camp was also we tear apart contradictions on this matter in ourselves. Various, and at times opposite opinions were expressed on pages of Menshevist editions - the newspapers "Edinstvo", "Den", "Rabochaya gazeta".

1 G of the azet left in A2 format, from 4 to 8 strips - depending on a current economic environment, connected not only with the increasing cost of the paper and typographical services, but also with a volume of the paid advertizing which publications sometimes as in number of April 1, occupied all first page. The cost of one copy of the Rech newspaper on retail consistently increased from 8 kopeks in March to 20 kopeks in September, 1917 - A.A.

The first issue of the Petrograd daily newspaper "Edinstvo" 1 appeared on Wednesday March 29, that is with considerable delay in comparison with other party editions which resumed release in the first of March. However from the very beginning the newspaper gained the authority and influence directly connected with those qualities of her ideological mastermind G.V. Plekhanov.

The leader of Mensheviks-oborontsev G.V. Plekhanov who arrived in Petrograd from emigration on March 31 along with other members of the editorial office among whom there were, in particular, V.I. Zasulich, L.I. Axelrod (published under the pseudonym "Orthodox") and G.A. Aleksinsky paid paramount attention to polemic with political opponents, first of all, by Bolsheviks and also to scientific explanation of the events. War continuation as G.V. Plekhanov considered, was inevitable, however its tasks after February became essentially others

>- not capture of new sales markets, and only defense of new democratic Russia against the monarchic Austro-German union. Though attention in each number, but in much smaller volumes was paid to a subject of war, than it was done, for example, by cadet "Speech" and other Menshevist newspaper - "Day"; it was not promoted, besides, by a small format and volume of the newspaper. As a result "Unity" actually gave to messages about fighting 1/4 or 1/5 pages. The relation, most characteristic of "Unity", to a subject of war is expressed in article "War and Revolution" published on March 30 in which it is among other things said: "The question of need of protection of the fatherland never excited any doubt in social democratic literature before war. And now it can be challenged only by the people alien of any scientific understanding of the phenomena of reality, groundless utopians or anarchists." [4, No. 2]. It is obvious that here the editorial article quite transparently hints at the relation to war of Bolsheviks, Lenin, in particular, and even before his return from emigration and a performance with so-called "April theses". To it plekhanovsky "Unity" is demonstrative

1 G of the azet left in A3 format no more than 4 pages. In numbers "Unities", as well as in the Pravda, absolutely there was no advertizing (only in numbers which appeared after change of the government in October, 1917, the newspaper published several paid announcements

about death). At cost the newspaper competed with others of the edition - 5 kopeks for a copy in March, unlike 8 kopeks for copies of the Pravda and "Speech" during the same period. - A.A.

adds similar to "Day" and "Speech" (though in much smaller as it was mentioned, volume) the heading "Messages about Military Operations" including messages "Western front", "The Romanian front", "The Caucasian front", "Actions of pilots", etc.

Discussion of a subject of war in the press got especially sharp forms at the beginning of July when the Russian army undertook approach at the front, and in Petrograd disorders of workers and troops of garrison began (whether the July performance was provoked by activity of Bolsheviks - a subject not of this research). In "Unity" of July 1 Plekhanov falls upon article "It Is Impossible to Postpone" published in the Menshevist "Working newspaper": "In view of, - Plekhanov writes, - that it appeared in such time when the army of the Russian revolution undertook, at last, vigorous approach. it is natural to assume that the author of article explains to the civilian population its sacred duty in every way to oppose to "frustration of the back". But laws of logic not for "The working newspaper" are written. Approach suggests it only that idea that the Russian revolutionary democracy has to begin immediately the actions able

>- as the newspaper thinks - to accelerate conclusion of peace." [4, No. 78]. Then in the publications "Unities" - "We are defeatists" of July 2 [4, No. 79] and also "Companions-soldiers!" of July 4 [4, No. 80] - Plekhanov continues propaganda against defeatist (as it was represented to it) moods and in favor of approach at the front.

Such understanding of reality Plekhanov and the "Unity" headed by it kept till the end. On October 1 the newspaper publishes a note "A new impact of Germans": "Yesterday, September 29, the German landing landed in a northern part of the island of Ezelya and in the southern part of the island of Dago. Disembarkation of Germans is, of course, first of all threat to Revel, and then a significant step forward in advance to the capital. The new impact of Germans kind of woke our Provisional government." [4, No. 153] (here "Unity" complains concerning vain attempts of Kerensky not only to bridle internal anarchy, but also to level to the best a situation at the front).

The Menshevist newspaper "Day" under A. Potresov's edition also carried on consecutive propaganda for war continuation, and with plekhanovsky "Unity" it was made related by that relation to war which included its task as

defensive war. This body of Party of social democrats (Mensheviks) - it is necessary to pay tribute - most fully lit the course of events not only on fronts, but also within the country, apart from necessary to stop information on political opponents. February events the newspaper "Day" 1, we will remind, apprehended enthusiastically, having begun new numbering since March 5. In publications on war "Day" also successfully competed with "Speech", printing considerable volumes everything able to seem rather interesting reports on events on fronts are "On the Western Theatre", "On the Italian Theatre", etc. and also notes under eloquent headings, like "Actions of pilots", "A brilliant victory of allies", etc. [3].

in general the printing periodical press during the period between the central events of 1917 served as the arena of extensive discussion of the main subjects of the political agenda in Russia - questions of war, the world, the power and property. And the press played considerable, and sometimes and a crucial role in practical consequences of discussion of these questions: it is enough to consider already mentioned example with publication on April 20, 1917 of P.N. Milyukov's note turned to the allied governments confirming readiness of Russia to continue absolute war. Milyukov's views of war were known also before this publication, but printed word provoked in this case change of structure of Provisional government and entry of representatives of Councils into it.

The question of the relation to war during the whole 1917 occupied the largest volume of publications of the party printing periodical press, especially taking into account publications which were not directly, but are anyway connected with a war subject.

In general in relation to war the Russian society and the printing periodical press were divided into supporters of its continuation whom most of civil, politically active population, and supporters of its termination concerned, these are, first of all, the Bolsheviks who are most consistently defending need of the world without annexations and contributions and being in minority on this matter apart from soldier's weight at the front.

1 Of the azet left in A2 format, of 6 strips. Retail cost like other newspapers grew from spring by fall - from 8 kopeks in March up to 20 kopeks in September, 1917. "Day", as well as cadet "Speech", published considerable, up to 1/3 numbers, advertizing volume. - A.A.

Among supporters of continuation of war disagreements also came to light. So, cadet "Speech" defended warfare to the bitter end, before receiving an exit by Russia to Bosphorus and Dardanelles which purpose actually did not differ from the warfare purposes at the royal mode. Printing bodies of Mensheviks-oborontsev, plekhanovsky "Unity", proclaimed war for "protection of the homeland and freedom", believing that change of a slogan of warfare is able to change its essence. However these positions differed only in a form, remaining identical in essence.

1. Archive of the contemporary history of Russia: minutes of Provisional government. M.: DEWS PAN, 2001.
2. E.V. Akhmadullin. Press of legal political parties of Russia beginnings of the XX century: istorikotipologichesky research: yew. .d-ra filol. sciences. Rostov / n-D, Rostov State University, 2001.
3. RGB newspaper fund. Day. 1917.
4. RGB newspaper fund. Unity. 1917.
5. RGB newspaper fund. Really. 1917.
6. RGB newspaper fund. Speech. 1917.
7. State archive of the Russian Federation (HECTARE of the Russian Federation). T. 1235. Op. 53. 45.
8. V.A. Zhuravlev. Without belief, the tsar and the Fatherland. The Russian periodicals and army in March-October, 1917 SPb, 1999.
9. O.D. Minayeva. February revolution of 1917 and Russian press//Scientific notes. Issue 2. Journalism. M.: URAO publishing house, 2003.
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