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Features of the Russian emigration of the XVIII century (historical essay)



UDK 360.01

The I FEATURES of the RUSSIAN EMIGRATION of the XVIII CENTURY

I (historical essay)

K.A. Mazin,

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, info@itig.ru, director of Institute of tourism and hospitality, FGOUVPO branch "Russian state university of tourism and service", Moscow

The author describes the history of the Russian emigrants during the 18 th century, forced to leave Russia under the pressure of both objective circumstances and subjective (unconscious) motives.

In article features of history of the Russian emigration within the 18th age, the fate of the Russian emigrants as forced to leave Russia under pressure of objective circumstances or subjective are considered (subconscious rushes).

Considering emigration from Russia in the 18th century, it is necessary to consider very important fact: the Russian emigrants of that time is the phenomenon which did not have mass character. Emigration cases — are single, at each emigrant — the, very difficult history, and the fact of emigration was characterized by "formula": "case or destiny". And "case" prevailed over "destiny". "Occasionally" became emigrants much more often than those who were forced to leave the country because of some difficult peripetias of own destiny or evolution of the country. The concrete fate of the Russian citizens demonstrates to it.

To "emigrants necessarily" can carry, for example, A.A. Vinius, the son famous manufacturer A.D. Vinius. Since 1701 he managed the Artillery order, but in 1703 is degraded for sluggishness, and in 1706 is even accused of plunders. For such crimes during a Petrovsky era punished ruthlessly, and Vinius fled for royal anger to Holland. Only in two years, in 1708, Peter I forgave, probably, not so guilty citizen that allowed it to return home [5, page 389].

A.P. Veselovsky also got into a similar situation. The graduate of the Moscow gymnasium of E. Gluck, he since young years was active on diplomatic

service, accompanying the baron Mr. Gyuysen and the prince B.I. Kurakin in 1705 — 1708. Desire to use diplomatic secrets for replenishment of own budget brought the diplomat. Possibly, he began to sell the Russian secrets. In 1719 Veselovsky was exposed, and he disappeared. Understanding that the way to Russia to it is ordered, in 1724 he tried to receive citizenship in England, but his application was rejected by parliament. From 30th years of the 18th century the emigrant lived in Geneva where he ended the days [5, page 376].

M.A. Golitsyn's fate is tragic. In 1715 he secretly got married to the Italian and passed into Catholicism that was considered in Russia of that time as a criminal offense. In Anna Ivanovna Golitsyn's reign it was caused home and for the offense underwent humiliating disgrace — he was made the court clown with the shameful nickname "Samoyed khan". In 1740 Golitsyn was married to the cracker of A.I. Buzheninova together with which he became the central character of a so-called wedding in "the ice house" [6, page 579].

Among participants there are wars of independence of the USA — the estlyandsky nobleman Werther von Rosenthal [7, page 213]. He got to America in 22 years and in 1775 voluntarily joined army of Washington where he served to the major, being D. Jackson's aide-de-camp. For military zaslu-

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gi Rosenthal was awarded the awards Cincinnati. After war he returned home [7, page 218].

In the list of participants of the American events of the 1770th years — the former officer of the Russian army of Rubenay as it is told in documents — "Baltic Fleet sailor" by origin [7, page 214]; the Russian traveler — Korzukhin [7, page 218]; Karl Kist (either Charles Thiele, or Karl Til), the druggist from St. Petersburg. The last delivered drugs in army of Washington, succeeded in this enterprise and after war was engaged in publishing [7, page 217].

There were former Russian citizens and on the opposite (anti-separatist) side is a jeweler from Revel Z.I. Bokhus. In Russia he custom-made diamond works of Catherine II and counts Orlov, but, probably, was caught stealing and was forced to flee to England from where he got to army of royalists.

Our compatriots witnessed also revolutionary shocks in France. S.R. Dolgova wrote: "Catherine's agents informed her on the Russians participating in present of the addresses to the Constituent assembly. Among deputies of "all Universe" at demonstration on June 17, 1790 there were also Russians" [2, page 50]. But it is not necessary to speak about participation of any significant amount of Russians in revolutionary events in France after all. It is known of proximity to the most radical revolutionary circles of the count P.A. Stroganov. On the advice of the mentor, Frenchman Gilbert Romm, he undertook in 1786 — 1790 a travel abroad for completion of education. After visit of Germany and Switzerland Stroganov probably in December, 1788 arrived in Paris. And Stroganov was here incognito under the citizen Ocher's pseudonym [8, page 48-50].

To pass by significant events from which the whole Europe was shaken the young man could not, and since summer of 1789 attended meetings of the Estates General in Versailles, was interested in the press and journalism [8, page 51]. On August 7, 1790 he even gained the diploma of the member of Jacobin club [8, page 50]. But it was rather youthful rush made under the influence of the teacher Romm, really entirely plunged into political struggle after his pupil at insistance of the old count in August, 1790 left Paris [8, page 55]. So the Jacobin diploma of Stroganov is rather an exhibit for a collection of delusions young -

st, than certificate of a revolutionary spirit of the aristocrat-rich man.

In days of the French revolution it is possible to carry the introduction in ranks of National guard of the pensioner of Academy of Arts of the architect Komisa-rov to the most radical acts of Russians [8, page 50]. However it is unknown whether he was involved in the combat operations conducted by this revolutionary division.

The Russian citizens were also on other side of barricades. For example, the brother of the Ekaterina's favourite count P.A. Valerian Aleksandrovich Zubova as the volunteer was involved in 1792 in war against France [6, page 298].

The destiny and a case brought Russians in the 18th century not only to Europe and America, but also to Africa. The ssylnoposelenets who ran away from Kamchatka were pioneers here. On April 27, 1771 they organized a revolt in the Bolsheretsky jail. The Hungarian count Moritz Beni-owski headed rebels (transcriptions Benyovsky and Bennovsky occur in documents). He began to serve in the Austrian army, then became the colonel of Lordly confederation in Poland, in battle against the Russian parts was taken prisoner, ran, but again was detained and, after all, is banished to Kamchatka [1, page 128].

On May 12, 1771 risen (according to different data, they were from 70 to 110 people) Saint Peter was succeeded to take state gamot and to run from Kamchatka [1, page 137, 138]. In Japan they tried to begin negotiations on the settlement in this country, but this attempt was not crowned with success that is quite natural at the closed nature of this state. Disembarkation on Formosa (Taiwan) ended even worse: there the rebellious team lost three people the dead [1, page 146]. In Macau all her members were put in prison, previously having confiscated their ship. Then rebels were divided. 11 or 12 people went together with Beniovsky to Madagascar where based the city of Luisburg. In 1786 Beniovsky fell out with the French authorities of the island and was killed in a skirmish at the age of 45 years [1, page 165]. Other party of rebels, having rounded Africa, became the first group of Russians which crossed the equator. Before the similar voyage was made only by the Russian volunteers undergoing sea practice by the ships of the British fleet [1, page 152]. They reached France and in April, 1773 arranged an alarm in the Russian Parisian mission. Exhausted with distant wanderings, rebels did not constitute danger any more, they only gave

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Features of the Russian emigration of the XVIII century (historical essay)

in the Russian Embassy the detailed "Description about an adventure and navigation". The adviser of the Russian mission N.K. Hotinsky with D.I. Fonvizin going to Russia transferred the dispatch to the count N.I. Panin in which wrote that he "accepted in protection" 16 men and one woman, asking a subsidy as "intended to transport them to the fatherland" [2, page 26]. In Russia they were sent, by a court decision, to Kamchatka — there from where they originally also ran [1, page 159].

Approximately at the same time in Africa the native of Nizhny Novgorod "Ivan Stepanov the son Seziomov" appeared. He lodged in Gottin-tonsky Holland, married and got three children [1, page 359]. At the end of the century, in 1798, the destiny brought G.S. Lebedev where it met the famous Russian traveler Yu.F. Lisyansky to South Africa. At Lisyansky the meeting left an unpleasant impression since he learned that his compatriot ran away because of unpaid debts [1, page 197, 198]. Lebedev lived in Cape Town 10 months, earning additionally concerts, and then returned home where there were no 24 years in total. Foreign wanderings changed the ordinary Russian fellow: "Lebedev left St. Petersburg the chorister of ambassadorial chorus. Arrived the founder of the Russian Indology" [1, page 212].

One more page of history of the Russian abroad — long stay of the Russian occupational troops in East Prussia (from 1758 to 1762).

News of transition by Russians of border of Prussia was received in Konigsberg in the night of January 10, 1758. The Prussian troops capable to show resistance, was not [4, page 26]. The decision was made very quickly: local authorities decided to pass "under other crown" not to subject Prussia to the real gain with its victims and destructions.

To the Russian command the delegation which had the letter signed by the high-ranking Prussian officials which contained extremely courageous conditions of "capitulation" of edge providing undoubtedly, the best living conditions, than at former, "" board went [4, page 26, 27]. For providing though some guarantees of loyalty of local community the Russian authorities resorted to the means which is already tested in Seven-year-old to a war — administration of oath of locals [4, page 30]. The procedure of adoption of the oath was begun, probably, symbolically on January 14, 1758, on a birthday

Prussian king Frederick II. In the beginning the oath was taken by the highest government ranks, then the university, professorate, all officials. In the cities and settlements of the region the administration of oath dragged on for two months [4, page 32]. In its heat, at the beginning of February, 1758 in Konigsberg there arrived Elizabeth Petrovna's decree which became practically the constitution of the new Russian province. East Prussia acquired such rights, freedoms and privileges which were not had by any internal province.

First of all, all privileges which various societies and individuals had were confirmed by the decree. Freedom of religions, freedom of domestic and foreign trade was guaranteed. Besides, the last fell under protection of the Russian fleet, and it dominated on the Baltic Sea. All income of the province came to its treasury. Confiscations were subject only those estates which owners ran, however this requirement was not fulfilled.

Was confirmed by the decree that violently nobody will be taken on the Russian service, but for persons interested the access is free. There is no need even to compare it to methods of completing of Prussian army. Those from officials who would wish to leave service, but did not want to move to Russia, could leave, having brought a quarter of the property in treasury.

The privileges of the Konigsberg university which kept all the income, and in it were especially distinguished freedom of training appeared.

The privatdozent Immanuel Kant together with all residents of East Prussia swore to the Russian throne. Signatures under the text of the oath of a kantoveda did not find yet, but Kant's application to Elizabeth Petrovna concerning a competition of a position of ordinary professor of logic and metaphysics remained [4, page 37, 38].

In fact, what occurred in East Prussia there was not an annexation of territories, not temporary military occupation, but the actual accession of area (generally with the consent of its inhabitants) to other state which occupied it by the troops [4, page 39]. It determined by a time not simple, but nevertheless rather friendly relations with local community which developed at representatives of the Russian military authorities. Konigsberg continued to do active business, despite the continuing war. Not without reason still the empress specified in the decree that "soizvolyay we and among the war I am concerned how many it is possible, about welfare of the innocent

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to a thin lot of lands and therefore not to stop their trade and commerce, but to protect and vspomoshchestvovat" [4, page 41]. The freedom of trade was limited only in relation to the cities subject to Frederick II [4, page 44].

Also the Russian merchants, especially in respect of the military deliveries promising considerable profits became more active in the region [4, page 42, 43].

The liberal board of the Russian administration was explained also by a shortcoming of the officials who are knowing German. Therefore the bureaucracy generally was replenished with locals. In the conditions of wartime they rendered assistance to the fellow citizens, softening requirements of the Russian administration. Trying to improve situation, again appointed governor of the province N.A. Korf asked for the help to St. Petersburg. In June, 1758 in Konigsberg there arrived four students and six pupils taking a preparatory course of the Moscow university.

It was supposed that students Larion Sadovsky and Pankrat Polonsky will hold positions at provincial office; Sergey Malinovsky — in Gumbinenskaya, and Ilya Semyonov — in Konigsberg kamor. Pupils brothers Sergey and Nikolay Bukhvostovy were appointed in provincial office, Hristofor Shtege — to kamorny affairs. Three more pupils are brothers princes Ivan and Nikolay Shakhmatovy and Stepan Domozhirov of profit later. However all of them did not know German fully, and Hristofor Shtege, on the contrary, as the native of the Baltics knew German, but did not know enough Russian. As a result of all sent for training to the local university. Determined by it teachers, and classes began. But it did not solve a deficiency problem of translators for the Russian administration. In 1762 the students returned to Russia [4, page 45, 46].

Many Russian people were will of circumstances in Konigsberg. Since March, 1758 there were Azov and Arkhangelogorodsky infantry regiments here, there were a hospital and commandant's office, also the Russian merchants appeared, journey to Europe civilians stopped. All of them to some extent needed departure of religious practices. For these purposes marching regimental churches which were alternately developed in the Royal castle were first used. Such churches were considered as garrison. However in the middle of the summer the Azov regiment to replace which the third, reserve battalions Not - came

had to leave

vsky, Chernihiv and Voronezh regiments. Churches and priests in them were not therefore in August, 1758 the governor Korf appealed to the empress "to send to Konigsberg, Pillau and Memel on one church with appropriate church utensils", and in April, 1759 the Synod was told to prepare in the specified cities for churches "convenient doma, or local public Lutheran churches".

The Russian priests stopped the choice on the building known as Shtayndammsky Lutheran church subsequently. It was one of the oldest Konigsberg churches founded in 1256. On September 15, 1760 solemnly, at big gathering of people, orthodox consecration of church took place. After that the liturgy took place. "In all that time — the eyewitness wrote — which proceeded from ten o'clock till midnight and to the first to hour p.m., the people watched all it with extreme surprise, the magnificence in church jewelry and constructions with church singing to a naipacha surprised them".

For the Konigsberg citizens who got used to modest furniture of Protestant Lutheran churches everything was surprising: both magnificent iconostasis and other rich church utensils. The archimandrite Yefrem who all in a year later, was replaced by the archimandrite Tikhon directed celebrations. Let's give the characteristic of the last given by the witness of events M.T Bolotov: ";... the pryamoblagochestivy husband, mild, scientific and such which did not do shame to our Russians, but all behavior got respect and from the most Prussian spiritual".

Care of morality of Russians extended not only to the high-ranking persons, but also to ordinary soldiers. The same Bolotov reported that in the city "a big set of taverns and billiards. the young women practising in disgraceful needlework and selling honor and chastity for money.". These lines are absolutely unexpectedly continued by Korf's letter to the general Panmenbakh knowing rear questions under the name "About Precautions in Military Hospitals against a Venereal Disease". In it it was reported that "sick and military attendants. are obsessed with the French disease". Also the source of diseases — "some part of female population of the city" was specified.

Korf at the same time was interested whether there are among the lowest ranks married people and how many those live in the city with wives. Business is in that,

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Features of the Russian emigration of the XVIII century (historical essay)

that "substitute" battalions of the infantry regiments billeted in Konigsberg were base for preparation of replenishment of field army. Here recruits arrived, trained them and sent further. Some part of the servicemen was in the city rather long term. These people were also equipped respectively, inviting to themselves wives from Russia. Panmenbakh reported that "the soldier's wives who are at husbands in Konigsberg", there were during this period twenty three.

So gradually there was this specific island of the Russian abroad with rather resident and temporary population, church, the Russian students of the local university, married couples, daily life and even with the love dramas. Citizens of the Russian crown here long lived, built bridges, solved complex and simple problems with local community, to them the family from Russia came to stay for a while. For example, when the lieutenant colonel (in the future — the generalissimo) A.V. Suvorov was wounded in fights with Prussian troops, he received a vacation which he spent not in the homeland, and at the father, the general-anshefa V.I. Suvorova who was in 1761 the governor of East Prussia. Daughters Anna and Maria stayed with it at this time. Here also future great commander with relatives in the Royal castle of Konigsberg spent a vacation [4, page 56].

However the unilateral act of accession of the new province which was made by Russia insufficiently from the international point of view was obvious. Such accession was required to be fixed by contracts with other states. Russia entered about it negotiations with allies, but they dragged on, and with death of the empress Elizabeth Petrovna stopped at all [4, page 40]. Peter III who replaced it on a throne already in the first treatise of May 5, 1762 unconditionally gave to Frederick II all territories before occupied by Russians. Heavy process of a conclusion of the Russian parts of East Prussia began. Situation changed also a little after the palace revolution on June 9, 1762 when to a throne there ascended Catherine II. The Prussian authorities literally "squeezed out" the Russian parts, forcing them to leave equipment and food in haste. For example, it was necessary to sell out army stocks of bread, but Prussian opponents gave too low price, referring to allegedly bad quality of bread. Even

"through the document" it is felt that they acted from force position — all the same supposedly will not take out, bread anyway will remain here therefore it was possible to offer any terms [4, page 69]. Let's note that 230 years later the German authorities with the German pedantry will repeat the similar procedure with the Russian army leaving from its territory.

And left the Russian troops the earth of East Prussia which paid back, to put it mildly, with "impoliteness" for four-year excessively liberal board in it the Russian crown. But the Russian soldiers and officers carried away with themselves not only bitterness of the crushed victories, they, having come back home, performed very important information and informative function, sharing personal experience of the European life with the compatriots.

The case and destiny took out abroad empires of representatives of one more category of the population of Russia — serfs who in the escape from landowners quite often fell into a state of emigrants.

We selectively considered materials of 50 interrogations of the detained fugitives postponed in funds of district voyevodsky and provincial offices [4, page 96]. The carried-out analysis allows to draw a number of approximate conclusions. Both men, and women, but the last, on natural causes ran abroad, was, judging by the analyzed facts, four times less. Usually peasants emigrated on one, only in six cases of escape the borders of Russia left families. The age of fugitives was various, but serfs of the working-age from 25 to 45 years, it was probably easier for them to adapt in the new country of residence considerably prevailed. Time spent in emigration, also variously — from 4 months to 45 years, but in most cases appears the term from 2 to 5 years. It, probably, is explained by difficulties of adaptation and actions in the territory of Poland (one and all interrogated exactly there ran) the Russian military teams on capture of the fugitives who amplified after the manifesto of 1762.

One and all interrogated noted extreme difficulties of the existence abroad. The most part worked for the scanty salary (from 1.5 to 3 rub a year) for large landowners; a considerable part — at prosperous peasants; got livelihood day works slightly less (the cabin

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firewood, sawing of boards, etc.). Many the destiny forced "to be fed with a wordly handout" [10, l. 2—3], and pushed some also to theft, and robberies [15, l. 3].

Materials of interrogations show that the manifesto of 1762 giving forgiveness to all Russian fugitives seriously affected a reemigration of serfs. There is a typical example. Serf Kondrat Pakhomov (Belsky the county, the landowner D.A. Yefimov) fled with family still in the early forties of the 18th century to Poland where he worked for sir Chartoryzhsky. But in 1765 "nezakhotya more there to live and pro-hearing about expulsion from abroad Russian fluent a different rank... left itself" [11, l. 3]. If to summarize testimonies of persons involved in interrogations, we will see that, despite the forgiveness granted to fugitives, the stream of emigration of serfs did not decrease.

In the analysis of these materials the question of motivation of peasants to escape is of the most great interest. Evasion from recruitments, on the second — physical mockeries of landowners is on the first place. Here constantly the surname of a dushevladelets of Belsky of the county of V.I. Berezovsky flashes — all running from it specified this reason [12, l. 1; 13, l. 3].

Unreasonable requisitions of landowners, or as fugitives spoke are on the third place, specifying the flight reason, "from burden in landowner prigona" [14, l. 2]. And only three from interrogated by the main motive of the leaving called that they came to extreme scarcity and went "to be fed" to other places. Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the described cases are not even a prototype of economic emigration which factors did not develop legally yet (became the period of blossoming of the serfdom 18th century) and economically (mass care in search of the better lot abroad of chernososhny peasants was not observed). Only in the 80th years of the XIX century the peasants living in the territory of the Russian Empire, having found freedom as from serf bondage, so in a set of cases and from the earth, a million emigratory stream will direct on the West.

Besides, emigration of runaway serfs was most often unconscious — the case laid the fugitive's route through border. One and all serfs from the cases described by us at first just ran away from the landowners, and only without having found an opportunity to gain a foothold somehow in the western counties of Russia, in search of job and livelihood passed on terri-

to thorium of Poland. Here we deal, most likely, with a peculiar type of the serf emigration close on the essence to a soslovnopolitichesky kind of leaving of the homeland. But though it was spontaneous and accidental, its scales reached the considerable sizes: according to Military board only for October, 1765 the Russian military units removed from the territory of Poland 10 198 of runaway serfs [17, l. 50].

Where only the destiny and a case of citizens of the Russian Empire in the 18th century got. Some routes of their forced travel could become a plot of the adventure novel. What is costed, for example, by wandering of the Russian sergeant Philip Efremov. In 1774 he was taken prisoner near Orenburg to pugachevets from whom Efremov managed to run away. But he was captivated again, this time the Kyrgyz who sold the Russian captive to the local official. That tortured unfortunate, declining him to transition to Islam. Three times Efremov was exposed to terrible torture: to it in a mouth poured in huge amount of salty water. The person who underwent such torture died within a day. But the purpose it is scarlet-tyka, the sergeant owning life, there was not his death, but receiving in the order of perfectly trained and brave soldier. Therefore three times restored Efremov by means of special porridge from sheep fat and millet to life and again subjected to terrible tortures. After all, the alatyk managed to incline him to the oath, but the courageous captive did not leave the belief.

Having done some fighting in Khiva and having earned arrangement of the owner, Efremov, having forged the ambassadorial diploma, fled through Tibet to India where again it was arrested by the English commandant. Only having been called the relative of the count Chernyshev, it managed to be released from captivity and to reach London, and from there after almost ten-year wandering abounding with dangers and adversities, to return to St. Petersburg [3, page 19 — 28].

Amazingly also fate of the Nizhny Novgorod merchant of the second guild Vasily Baranshchikov was. In 1780 he fell a victim of the Danish slave traders who sent his soldier slave to St. Foma's island. Then it appeared in even more pathetic fate of the slave on plantations of Puerto Rico. Here happiness for the first time smiled to it: it was fallen in love by the wife of the governor of the island. She redeemed the slave and helped it to go to Europe. On it do not finish an adventure of the Russian merchant -

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October, 1917: a look from Menshevist emigration

foxes: the ship by which it returned was seized by the Algerian pirates, and the emigrant necessarily was waited again by slave destiny, this time in Haifa. From there Baranshchikov managed to run on the Greek vessel to Constantinople. Here, to keep life, it had to accept Islam and even to arrive on service the Janissar. At last, good luck ulybnu-

las to the exile — he deserted and in 1787 returned home.

Thus, the history of the Russian emigration of the 18th century consisted of separate, but very bright episodes of long stay abroad of the Russian state of his certain citizens.

Literature

1. A.B. Davidson, V.A. Makrushin. Image of the far-away country. M.: Science, 1975. 423 pages
2. S.R. Dolgova. Career of F.V. Karzhavin. L.: Science, 1984. 245 pages
3. F. Efremov. Ten years' wandering. M.: Geografizdat, 1952.
4. KretininG.B. Under the Russian crown, or Russians in Konigsberg. 1758 — 1762. Kaliningrad: Kalingradsky book publishing house, 1996. 176 pages
5. National history. The history of Russia from the most ancient times to 1917. Encyclopedia. M.: Scientific publishing house Big Russian encyclopedia, 1994. T. 1. 688 pages
6. National history. The history of Russia from the most ancient times to 1917. Encyclopedia. M.: Scientific publishing house Big Russian encyclopedia, 1996. T. 2. 656 pages
7. V.P. Petrov. Russians in the history of America. Washington: Prod. Russian - America. east. islands, 1988. 263 pages
8. Russia and Africa. Documents and materials. 18th century — 1960 M.: IVI RAS, 1999. T. 1. 425 pages
9. Russia and France. The 18-20th centuries M.: IVI RAS, 1998. Prince 2. 237 pages
10. Russian state archive of ancient acts (R1ADA), f.239, op. 1, 23628.
11. RGADA, t. 461, op. 1, 2778.
12. RGADA, t. 461, op. 1, 2224.
13. RGADA, t. 461, op. 1, 2453.
14. RGADA, t. 461, op. 1, 1896.
15. RGADA, t. 466, op. 1, 1362.
16. RGADA, t. 469, op. 1, 69.
17. Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA), t. 1088, op. 20, 681.

UDC 360.01

The I OCTOBER, 1917:

The I LOOK FROM MENSHEVIST EMIGRATION

A.Yu. Gavrilov,

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, director of Institute of service, FGOUVPO branch "Russian state university of tourism and service", Moscow, evolga13@mail.ru

The article presents assessments from Menshevik emigrants relating to the events in Russia in October 1917 and the Bolshevik policy in the early post revolutionary years. The Menshevik analysis is objective, thorough and comprehensive, leading to noteworthy conclusions.

To the events which were taking place in Russia in October, 1917 and Bolshevist policy estimates, data the Russian Mensheviks emigrants are provided in article in the first postrevolutionary years. Estimates of Mensheviks differ in objectivity, depth of the analysis and generalizations, originality of conclusions.

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Matthew Robinson
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