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"Oil makes national wealth, and the national wealth is force state"



266

NEW PUBLICATIONS

L.N. Denisova, M.A. Denisova

"OIL MAKES NATIONAL WEALTH,

And the NATIONAL WEALTH is FORCE STATE"

To issue of the collective monograph "Oil of the country of Councils. Problems of history of oil industry of the USSR (1917-1991)" under the general edition of the full member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, the Doctor of Economics V.Yu. Alekperov. M. Drevlekhranilishche. 2005. 618 pages

The value of hydrocarbon raw materials in economy and policy is so important that the modern civilization designated one of sides of a polygon of century as "an oil and gas century".

Rich history of oil, since Babylon and the most ancient states of Urartu and Assyria, gradually concerned also Ancient Russia. I mentioned the Russian monument of the history "Story of Temporary Years" (1113) battle to rusichy and their meeting with the Greek (infernal) fire made on the basis of oil.

Russia, opening spaces of the North, Siberia, Sakhalin, faced the natural phenomenon "throwing up from the earth" of fiery liquid - Prikaspy, from water depths - the district of Ukhta which is flowing down from mountains - Siberia. Geographical discoveries of pioneers, selfless service to the Fatherland of the best people of Russia: F.S. Pryadunova, N.I. Vos-koboynikova, M.K. Sidorova, A.N. Novosiltsev, brothers Dubininykh, V.A. Kokoreva, P.I. Gubonina, V.I. Ragozina and many others put an oil industry in a row with mining of coal and peat, metallurgy, metal working.

Technological opening, improvement of ways of production and distillation of oil, unusual efficiency of oil industry workers contributed to the accelerated development of oil business, manifestation of interest in the industry of industrialists and the governments. In the 20th century Russia entered, having the most powerful in the world oil industry: in 1901 53% (11.9 million t) of world oil production gave oil fields of the Russian Empire, and only the small part of open oil-bearing lands was operated.

Also the developing mountain legislation contributed to the development of oil industry. Its foundation was laid Names -

ny decree of December 10, 1719 Peter I "About Bsrg-Kollegiuma Institution for Maintaining in It Cases of Ores and Minerals". The mountain regaliya existed not long - Ekaterina the Second in 1782 entered the right of a private property both for the earth, and for subsoil again. The mountain charter of RossiyskoyImperiya, vyshedshiychetyrmyaizdaniye (1832,1842,1857 and 1893), confirmed the right of a private property for subsoil. The main statutory act regulating all parties of oil business from investigation before processing was an ego.

Revolutionary shocks of 1917 broke progress of Russia, cast the country into chaos and horrors of Civil war, rejected economy back. The oil industry appeared among the most injured and is longest restored.

The decree about the earth proclaimed on October 26, 1917 state ownership on the earth and subsoil that all Soviet period remained. The constitution of the Russian Federation revised 1993 this situation and opened other opportunities of development of the oil industry with attraction of the private capital, foreign investments and possession, joint with the state, uses and orders of the subsoil of Russia.

In a temporary cut the oil industry was always graphically maintained as progressively developing, as well as in technological. In political - it endured the constant take-off and falling connected with change of the power so, and the legal framework that directly affected its development and value in the international community. After development peak at the beginning of the 20th century the sharp slowdown, decrease in interest of the state and government in an oil source of economy followed, then - gradually increased volumes in Soviet period, though gave the USSR on one of the main places in the world on oil production, but underestimation of sources of raw materials and opportunities of their rational use gradually led to exhaustion, appear, of not exhausted resources of hydrocarbon raw materials.

The difficult and contradictory present stage of development of oil matter in Russia, despite existence of the private sector, private initiative and the private capital, first of all needs the guaranteed and stable public policy in this area and studying the past - history "take-off and falling of extraction of "black gold" because in knowledge of the past answers to current issues are.

The scientific collective monograph "Oil of the Country of Councils" is the first generalizing research covering all parties of oil history of a long time span: since 1917 and prior to the beginning of the 1990th years. The book multilaterally lights stages of formation of oil matter in Russia, the USSR, technological development of the industry, personnel support, discussions about the prospects of development of oil industry, "ocean" of plans, possible and their real performance.

Professional group of authors of historians and economists widely famous to readers for many works in a research of problems of history of development of oil industry: doctor of historical sciences of A.A. Igolkin, doctor of historical sciences. Yu.N. Zhukov, Doctor of Engineering G.G. Vakhitov, Doctor of Economics V.N. Kostornichenko, candidate of historical sciences of A.A. Matveychuk and other famous researchers with deep arguments, with attraction of new archival documents of the leading Russian archives: RGASPI, RGAE, GARF, CAMO and local storages, a broad statistical base recreated a complete picture of history of the oil industry in the 20th century.

The book is supplemented with 12 important documentary supplements which completely were not published earlier. The most interesting are: "The decree about nationalization of oil industry" of June 20, 1918, the Resolution of TsKVKP (b) "About situation in oil industry" of November 15, 1930, the Resolution of the Commission of the Soviet control at SNK USSR "About the course of exploration on oil in Tatar the ASSR" of April 4, 1940, the Report of the management of All-Union oil and gas scientific research institute (All-Russian Research Institute) to the minister of oil industry of the USSR H.A. To Maltsev "About the prospects of oil production on Samotlorsky month-torozhdsnii" of November 2, 1977

The collection of scientific works is constructed by problem chronologically principle and covers all main parties of development of oil matter in the 20th century, consistently opening pages of formation of the industry and difficult rounds of its development. Besides an economic and historical problem of studying oil industry, authors set a goal, without challenging debatability of a number of the new research provisions, "to understand past lessons for development of the subsequent effective solutions for future problems" what it is told in the preface to the edition about.

Various on the volume and the importance of article of the scientific collection give to the reader complete idea of the oil industry of the country of Councils and its role in industry modernization, influence on development of economic capacity of the USSR, world oil leadership.

The book is opened by article of the doctor of political sciences A.B. Vasilenko "The Caspian oil in the geopolitical strategy of the leadership of the Soviet Russia (1917-1922)". The ego is natural as this region played in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century the leading role in oil production of the country: in 1915 from 571.9 million poods of oil extracted in the Russian Empire, 453.7 million, or nearly 80% it was the share of oil fields of Absheron. After the end of World War I it became clear that development of world economy in the 20th century will be defined by degree of security with oil, oil products and their uninterrupted deliveries. The author of hundred -

t are consistently stated by the course of the all-Russian and Transcaucasian events, allocating the main political and economic moments of history: seizure of power by Bolsheviks, formation of the republics in Transcaucasia, nationalization of oil industry.

The Soviet power needed oil as political and economic weapon in fight for the existence, from the one who will own oil reserves of Transcaucasia, the fate of revolution actually depended what Bolsheviks directly spoke about. The international isolation of Russia and also the developed Civil war and economic ruin strengthened this position. The author of the scientific article, being guided by historical documents, repeatedly emphasizes that oil is not only economic component of the country, but also political. The Transcaucasian region studied earlier as an element of history, economy, culture, the principal value got with opening of huge reserves of oil. The economy closely intertwined with policy, and the political component became main. Oil becomes the main argument of capture and deduction of the power in Transcaucasia, loss of oil sources threatened Russia with a stop of the industry, transport, equipment of the Red Army what the Bolsheviks who came to the power openly declared. Both the international recognition, and economic support of Russia taking into account sale of raw materials and purchases of the equipment depended on supply of the Russian oil. Having received the Baku oil, the Bolshevist government created for Russia "an economic basis which can recover all our industry. Thus, our transport and the industry will receive very substantial assistance from the Baku oil fields" (p. 30). By 1922 Russia received strategic raw materials - the Transcaucasian oil which was convertible that promoted economic and its political international consolidation, and Transcaucasia, having been a part of the USSR at the end of 1922, strengthened its borders and the state prestige.

History of the Russian oil in the 1920th years is considered in article of the doctor of historical sciences Yu.N. Zhukov "An oil factor in policy of the Soviet ruling elite (1921-1929)". Chronologically it is possible to call this period time of "new economic policy". A country exit from long crisis of Civil war and economic ruin after "military and communistic" innovations is decided to be carried out at the government level, being guided by quite economically reasonable ideas. The expected world revolution was postponed, but the Politburo focused on its management changed a vector of the activity and not just began to be crossed with Council of People's Commissars in the solution of all economic questions, but also to replace and substitute SNK RSFSR, USSR. Originally it was talked only of single questions, and then, having divided narcomats into two groups, the party country leaders in the person

The politburo conducted and controlled all economic and social parameters of development of the state. Carried narcomats of foreign affairs to the highest group, on military and sea affairs, foreign trade and finance, the Others led by VSNKh of the USSR left OGPU under the authority of SNK USSR and HUNDRED. The questions controlled by the Politburo were submitted for consideration by people's commissars and their deputies and also heads of lower link. It led to education of the higher authority in the country - "ruling elite".

Constant collision of groups in race for power without necessary competence for the solution of economic questions of the state level did not contribute to the fast and effective development of national economy. Time of the New Economic Policy is a possibility of concession development of a number of industries, oil including. The author emphasizes: oil was a serious argument in fight for easing of international tension, attraction on the party of Councils of the significant states in the economic and political relation. Opposing Soviet groups which members quite often poorly understood oil business tried to support the interests of various countries for permission of concessions, though pursued economically justified for the state as it seemed to them, the purposes. The statesmen involved in this sphere, such as JI. Trotsky, JI. Krasin, M. Litvinov and others, had different views on a support in the international cooperation. However the state purpose was uniform: oil is a currency and a possibility of influence on between national policy. The author evidential, with a support on earlier not published archive materials, tells about establishing foreign policy contacts, signing of trade agreements and opening of concessions as to a concession for strengthening of Russia on the world scene, strengthenings of her authority in the world.

The period of the first three five-years periods found historical and economic reflection in volume production article of the doctor of historical sciences A.A. Igolkina of "Feature of development of oil industry of the USSR in days of the first five-years periods (1928-1940)". The author paid attention to the main issues of a problem: to power policy when carrying out industrialization in the USSR, development and to implementation of plans of the first five-years period (1928-1932), the plan of GOELRO, the second and third five-year plans and fight for oil indicators (1933-1938 and 1938-1940), to hardware of the industry and management of oil industry. Article is based on new archival documents, equipped with 26 interesting statistical tables, including about plans of oil production, extraction of crude oil, production of kerosene, structure of oil refining, commissioning of objects of oil processing, etc.

Article A.A. Igolkina covers the period of the first five-years periods to the USSR, time of heroism, national enthusiasm and time of violence and terro-

ra, raising of economic indicators and "great" buildings and additions and the real low standard of living of the main part of the population - the peasantry. The author managed to show all range of political and economic realities in development of oil industry in the 1920-1930th years, take-off and falling, miscalculations and the ideas which were almost unrealizable, like "electroplough", the taken high boundaries and the price of such victories for future oil business. The author is convincing in a conclusion that oil was an important component of export policy of the USSR, but development of national economy demanded increase in consumption of this type of fuel in domestic market of the country which increased in the course of carrying out industrialization.

Article of the doctor of historical sciences B.M. Shpotov of "A problem of modernization of oil industry of the USSR in the 20-30th of the 20th century" opens the most important questions of technical and technological "breakthrough" of the industry. It is known that restoration and reconstruction of oil economy after Civil war were carried out with use of American "help". It concerned first of all investigation, production, processing and transportation of oil in the districts of Baku, Grozny, Maykop where about 90% of these raw materials were concentrated. The American technical and technological achievements took root in the oil field between Volga and Ural later.

In the 1920-1930th the development of the latest foreign opening went in all branches of economy of the USSR. Engineers, technicians, scientists went to business trips to Europe and the USA, the USSR imported the equipment, concessions appeared. Let's note that in oil industry they did not become widespread, however the American kerosene concession in Batumi and Japanese oil-extracting at Sakhalin worked also in 1930 when the majority them was liquidated.

With "demolition" of the New Economic Policy it was decided to form socialist economy with a support generally on own resources. Nevertheless the western technical achievements were actively used by the Soviet industry, especially in days of the first five-years period (1928-1932). Unlike the chemical or aviation industry oil had an economic basis for development, it did not need to be created anew. Both shots, and a part not ruined by war and ruin of the production equipment remained. Prikaspy always remained attractive to foreign businessmen, for all modes, all governments and the states. In 1920 the degradation of this oil area was stopped. Since 1922 the introduction of the American experience of oil business began. As the author of article considers, "attempts to project and build independently quickly both qualitatively large and technically complex enterprises were not successful" (p. 195), examples of that: - Magnitogorsk, Stalingrad and Chelyabinsk tractor plants. The reasons he sees directive requirements of acceleration of terms

input in operation, introduction of the modern equipment. The ego forced the USSR to ask for technical assistance the western countries. Its conclusion: in the years of industrialization of the USSR the crucial role was played by the choice of foreign partners from whom on acceptable conditions it was possible to receive "the paid help" though it does not belittle labor enthusiasm and the mobilization nature of national economy. The author notes that for pre-war years oil industry reached high boundaries in the development. Technical assistance of the USA was required also at development of the Volga-Ural oil district. Hardware of the industry and technology developed on the American samples (and not only this industry), they quite adapted to an economic complex and were improved by the Soviet engineers and scientists. On volumes of the extracted and processed USSR oil ranked second in the world at this time.

Developing studying concession policy in the Soviet Russia, analytical article of the Doctor of Economics V.N. Kostornichenko "Concession policy of soviet leadership in oil industry in the 20-30th of the 20th century" is presented in the collection. In volume article the author uses not only a domestic historiography, a rich complex of documentary materials of the leading state archives - RGAE, GARF, but also foreign editions, in details stating historical concepts. It is known that introduction of concessions in economic life of the country falls on the 1920th years. The ego allowed to accelerate recovery of the industry of the ruined state and to give a serious impulse of modernization of oil industry. In days of "new economic policy", using earlier found fields, first of all the Baku oil fields, the industry became the strong base of the Soviet economy. In the late thirties of concession were liquidated. The new stage of development of economy of the USSR began: the curtailed official cooperation and "concessions" to the western capital were replaced with the forced industrial construction, based on mobilization structure of government, communistic enthusiasm, use of work of prisoners GULAG and. A long time Russian translation of "concession" from Latin as "concession" was perceived only by direct permission to foreign businessmen to interfere with economic life of the USSR, benefit of the country which "conceded" tried not to notice. The world economic practice proves that corporate efforts increase possibilities of various industries, strengthen the international cooperation and allow to resolve not only financial, trade, but also political problems.

All-union material is well illustrated and added in articles of Candidate of Technical Sciences of O.A. Raman "The first -

syatiletiye of the Perm oil (1929-1939)" and the candidate of historical sciences L.G. Borozinets "From the history of creation of an oil and gas complex in the Northwest of the USSR (the end of the 30th - the middle of the 70th of the 20th century)". Two major oil regions of the USSR - Perm and the Komi ASSR are an epic of development and formation of the industry and the edge. It is necessary to highlight the local history nature of statement of research material which is expanded the historical and economic analysis of the oil industry.

The words of the academician I.M. Gubkin were prophetical: "Undoubtedly one - oil on a slope of Ural Ridge is available, besides, on the basis of preliminary data, it is available in the quantities having industrial value" (p. 356). The main oil opening - the Upper Chusovsky oil well and the Krasnokamsk field in the 1930th contributed to the development of the oil industry of the country, and Perm Krai made a huge contribution to development of the industry of the USSR.

The Ukhta oil was known long since and brought not to one pioneer economic and moral disappointments that brought to Ukhta sad glory and partly slowed down oil developments. Soviet 1930-1940th years became the most fruitful in development of the Pechora district and Severnaya Neft, laid the foundation for strategic development of the region of Komi. It is worth recognizing that one of basic productive forces of the region of Komi was work of prisoners GULAG and and special settlers.

Article consistently states problems of development of oil fields during the pre-war period, development of the oil industry of edge, a contribution of oil industry workers of the Komi ASSR to the Victory in the Great Patriotic War and industrial development of the region in the 1950-1970th years. The Timano-Pechorsky territorial and production complex created in the territory of the Soviet North was large fuel and energy base of many regions of the country. Opening of new fields, in particular Usinsk oil, construction of gas pipelines, transportation of natural gas to the central regions of the country not only developed economic and social infrastructure of the Komi Republic, but also made a big contribution to development of the national economy of the USSR.

The period of the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet historiography is one of the most studied. However A.A offered by the candidate of historical sciences. Matveychuk article "Oil Component of a Lend-lease" opens the important page of the economic help of the countries allies in 1941-1945. It should be noted that the Russian and foreign researchers interpret the western deliveries to the USSR in different ways. In a domestic historiography, as a rule, note small or insignificant economic a contribution of allies

in the Victory whereas foreign historians and political scientists, obviously exaggerating, consider this contribution in separate branches of economy decisive. On the basis of archival sources, in the main RGAE, with attraction of various publications, including documentary, the author convincingly and consistently showed stages of folding of the political and economic union of the states of the anti-Hitlerite coalition, creation of the concept of a lend-lease and its real realization. It is important that the author concentrated attention on an oil component of this economic aid program. The first deliveries to the USSR on the terms of a lend-lease began to be carried out since November, 1941 and by June 21, 1942 167,995 t of oil products were delivered. Allies delivered aviation gasoline, automobile gasoline, kerosene, lubricating oils, paraffin, fuel oil. In difficult conditions of the Great Patriotic War of the state - allies managed to realize the principle of the international mutual aid, having united political and economic efforts of the states in a name of the Great Victory.

Article of the candidate of historical sciences S.I. Degtev "The external economic aspects of economic reform of 1965 (on the example of oil industry of the USSR)" discloses important aspects of preparation and realization of the so-called kosyginsky economic reform undertaken by the government within the 1960th. It covers also problems of providing member countries of the Comecon (C) with the Soviet oil that in a historiography was practically not considered. It should be noted that the author, having studied first of all new archival sources of RGAE, convincingly proved that the Soviet Union throughout action the Comecon always and in large volumes satisfied the growing needs of these countries for raw materials and fuel, at the same time the difference of the prices in foreign market became covered at the expense of the supplying country, i.e. the USSR. In reply there were deliveries of consumer goods, food, mechanical engineering which the Soviet Union traditionally with guarantee accepted, is not dependent on economic feasibility and requirement. Let's tell directly, the economic feasibility very often was not seen in such contracts, but the political component of the international relations prevailed. It should be noted that experience between it is national go cooperation collected during the developing and operation of oil fields, a construction of gas fields, compressor stations. Exchange of production and technical experience promoted improvement of work of the industry. Also the prospects of further international cooperation taking into account modern times and new understanding of the international economic cooperation, cooperation, and not just the help were possible. It is not surprising that after the collapse of the USSR, the former sevovets did not receive dissolution of Comecon, the real economic help from the countries of the West and the USA because them

technologies, qualitative level did not maintain standards of new partners.

Final article of the Doctor of Engineering G.G. Vakhitov "Half a century of domestic oil production: from take-off to falling" sums up the economic and political result of development of oil industry of the USSR, covering the 1950-1990th years. The author analyzed opportunities, realities and prospects of the oil industry in national economy, having paid much attention of "The concept of the 50th of development of oil fields".

The post-war period was characterized by strengthening of attention to fuel and energy complex, both oil and gas in particular. Government decisions were supported with huge financial injections in the industry that led to the sharp growth of production and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials. Having lost a priority in oil industry, the Soviet Russia only in the mid-seventies overtook the USA and came out on top on the level of total production of all types of liquid hydrocarbons. The championship of the USSR held an ego more than 15 years. The maximum volume of oil production was reached in 1988-624.326 million t, including 569.0 million t extracted in RSFSR that made 91.1% of an all-union indicator.

However the Russian economy after the collapse of the USSR did not manage to hold high boundaries. Experts define crisis of oil industry as "system". Within the 1990th, oil production fell (1992 - 385.4 million t of oil), the water content increased (1,963 billion t of liquid), having reached 80.5% including Samotlor "pearls" - 91.6% on the industry. The Initial Recoverable Reserves (IRR) of Samotlor was exhausted for 63.9%, the Romashkinsky field - for 89.1%. For January 1, 1993 the average output of wells of oil made 9.3 t a day, on liquid - 47.5 t a day. The number of the operated wells made 147 thousand. In the next 1990th, oil production continued to decrease.

The author professionally analyzes the system of the organization of oil works and technology of extraction of hydrocarbon raw materials. He claims that in the USSR in the early fifties in difference, for example, from the USA as "a basis of the public technical policy" "primary flooding" was accepted. In wide scales it was applied only in the Soviet Union, in one country in such scales it was not used. Consequences of this technology began to affect in the subsequent negatively development rather of stagnation, and then led to decline of the oil branch of national economy.

Developed for growth of the oil industry "Concept of the 50th" developments of oil fields" in fact more carried political, than economic character. The main criteria of development of the oil industry had to become: planned requirement of oil;

high efficiency of capital investments; the increased coefficients of petroextraction (p. 503). The industry had to work and worked for full satisfaction of requirements of the state for oil at the smallest expenses, but at the fullest selection of oil from stocks. The economic logic receded before huge plans of communistic buildings, the ecological component was absent per se. Future prospects were replaced with today's records which quickly were replaced by reduction, and then a sharp slowdown of indicators of the oil industry.

Outstanding opening in Western Siberia - Samotlor, Fedorovsky, Mamontovsky, Ob instead of deep and comprehensive study and gradual development were started very quickly up in operation by primary flooding. As a result by the beginning of the 1990th in the USSR more than 90%, and in other areas up to 98% of oil extracted due to water injection. Not only the lack of financial investments, technological omissions, but also technically unjustified ways of oil production led to its sharp reduction. The author allocates the main reasons for crisis of oil industry: suspense of social problems, insufficiently developed infrastructure in oil-extracting areas, the ruined plans of modernization of the industry, a conclusion from under control of the USSR in communication by disintegration of the state of the found fields which are in other states now, for example in Kazakhstan, use technically and technologically unjustified ways of oil production, as primary flooding, decrease in volumes of exploration works, etc. The reasons which at the thought-over and economically reasonable policy of the state and the oil companies can be quite gradually eliminated.

Oil is richness of the country. It is a political and economic argument in the international relations which in new conditions of the Russian reality gradually becomes effective.

Issue of the book "Oil of the Country of Councils" - a bright scientific event in studying history of oil matter in the USSR, formation and development of the industry of the Soviet state.

Masini Giuseppa Valentina
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