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2005. 01. 024. R.F. Ivanov. Confederative States of America (1861-1865): in 2 Ch. - M.: Ying t soldier. History of RAS, 2002. - Part 1. - 275 pages; Part 2. - 254 with



obshchestvenno-political views of educators of Russia of the second half of the 18th century" are presented by V.I. Moryakov. The author allocates two stages in development of the Russian Education: the 60-70th years (fight against a serfdom) and the 80-90th years (decomposition of a feudal system in Russia and radicalization of views of the Russian educators). In the separate section M.V. Lomonosov's views are considered. The Russian Education, the author concludes, was a component of the all-European educational camp. Education in Russia was imbued progressive rationalistic ideas, belief in the human mind capable to move apart limits of knowledge, to enrich the person with the new ideas and opening, to move it on the way of progress.

I.E. Eman

of the Country of North America

2005.01.024. R.F. Ivanov. CONFEDERATIVE STATES of AMERICA (1861-1865): In 2 h - M.: Ying t soldier. history of RAS, 2002. - Part 1. - 275 pages; Part 2. - 254 pages
the Latest book in life of the famous historian-Americanist R.F. Ivanov is devoted by

to Confederation of 11 southern states which rose and left the Federal Union in the summer of 1861. The work lighting poorly studied history of "the rebellious South" consists of two parts (on the war periods). In it prerequisites of secession (office) of slaveholding states, the war reasons, fighting, internal political problems of the South and North are lit. The important place is given to economy and social problems, earlier slaboizuchenny question of blockade and smuggling is taken up. Telling about foreign policy and diplomacy of Confederation, the author especially allocates a progressive role of policy of Russia which supported fight against slaveholding while England and France were on the side of slaveholders.

In a new way the researcher approached

a so-called Black problem, noting that free Blacks, especially well-founded, actively helped slaveholders. Moreover, emphasizing that the North and

114

the South monolitna were not p>

2005.01.024, as there, and major confrontation of various social and political forces was established there, the author notes cruelty and complexity of liberation war of the American people. So, for example, lighting democracy role in Civil war, the author writes that she was born in the USA with such powerful, strong roots that neither the North, nor the South managed to chop off them. Belligerent parties had to reckon with freedom of speech (press) in the north or sovereignty, the rights of separate states in the south, sustaining sometimes from it big losses. The analysis of such examples brought the author to more large-scale problem - typology of civil wars. R.F. Ivanov calls a number of the characteristic features inherent in them and shown in England in the 17th century, in France in XVIII, in the USA in the 19th century. One of features of civil wars, according to the author, is unusually broad involvement in armed conflict of a people at large, and sometimes and all population. Seldom who could sit out, but almost everyone, sooner or later, had to decide on whom he. From here "mass, truly national structure of the armed forces created during these wars" (1 h, page 190).

One more feature - continuous changes of positions of social groups, sometimes contrary to their social nature. So, the devotion personally to the owner pushed the African Americans to oppose at some stage of collision the liberators, but once conditions changed wars, installations changed (2 h, page 111-123).

the Detailed analysis of similar details allows the author to answer with

important questions: why the civil war in the USA lasted long four years (1861-1865) why it became the most bloody and very expensive in the history of the USA. The author provides data on huge superiority of the North over the South, known in literature, in development of economy, first of all the industry, population, the saved-up wealth, shows highly moral spiritual power of federat, progressive value of their business - rescue of the union and elimination of the become obsolete social and economic system of work. The overweight of the North more than is obvious. But why this overweight has an effect only after four years of wearisome fight? In what a secret of this historical paradox? R.F. Ivanov sees this solution in the sphere spiritual, first of all in

subjective human and psychological factors, believing that moral and political unity of the most part (but at all not all) helped them to stick to the population so long. The South for these people was Rodina, and they wanted to protect it from aggression of northerners. Of course, under this feeling there was a strong base: the aggressor threatened not only the property of slaveholders, including on slaves, but also to privileges, the status, cultural wealth and traditions. And one more aspect is marked out by the author - the steady feeling in the south was developed there is nobody the "southern" patriotism based on a racial basis (Part 2, page 222). Such conclusion, the author considers, allows to open dialectics of patriotism which led in the fight rallied in 1861. The South also, in effect, predetermined its defeat.

Of course, it is not the only reason of long fight. Along with others (rise in military economy, the help of Europe, etc.), the author notes a position of northerners who in the majority realizing need of destruction of slavery, at the same time tried to remove the solution of this question and to be engaged first of all in rescue of the "general house" which broke up into two parts. The constitutional warfare only prolonged bloodshed, delaying defeat of rebels as both the South, and the North already were bourgeois and strictly honored a private property including on slaves.

Much attention is paid by

to a military perspective: so, lighting the course of military operations, the author shows not only use of new military equipment (means of communication, heavy artillery, aeronautic devices, armored trains, etc.), but also achievements in fight tactics, in particular, new application of a cavalry during its independent mass attacks, far raids to the back of the enemy, use of the arising armored fleet. It is characteristic that many "innovations" in military science proceeded from the southerners trying to compensate a lack of forces and means by the ingenuity.

V.M. Solomatin's
confederation of the southern states of america 1861-1865 861-1865
Baumgartner Heiko
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