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Category: History

Lesson court: "Ivan the Terrible bloody tyrant or outstanding governor?"



the avtor submits the abstract of a lesson of history in the 10th class in a nonconventional form. The lesson is generalizing on Ivan the Terrible's era. This form of a lesson - a business game allows to organize problem training, gives a scope for independent activity of pupils, contributes to the development of thinking, develops abilities to conduct a discussion.

Olga Vladimirovna Pryazhnikova,

the teacher of history GOU TSO No. 641 of S. Yesenin Moscow

the Lesson court:

"Ivan the Terrible is a bloody tyrant or the outstanding governor?"

As can organize a lesson court of history?

the Explanatory note

the priority direction of development of education is Now formation of the competitive personality capable to the independent solution of the vital problems. For the solution of this task it is necessary to create conditions for mastering universal abilities or key competences, in particular, such as: ability to a research; ability to effective communication; ability to critical judgment of information. It is clear, that development of these abilities is impossible without activity of the pupil. Activization and an intensification of activity of pupils becomes the main task of the modern teacher. The solution of this task can be promoted by such form of a lesson as a lesson court. There are examples of carrying out a lesson in such form in various objects. I would like to share the experience carrying out a lesson of history in the form of court here.

as

At a historical lesson court any figure of the past whose personality is rather bright acts as the defendant, but does not cause unambiguous assessment neither in contemporaries, nor in historians. For example, I with the pupils carried out trial of Ivan the Terrible.

to the Lesson rather long preparation has to precede

(during two - three weeks). After the teacher puts a game task, and will be cast for upcoming game, participants should be acquainted with rules of conducting trial and to give them references to additional literature which can be used by preparation. it is expedient to p to divide

of Pupils into three groups. The first group is made by the accuser, "prosecution witnesses" and experts, to be exact specialists historians. Participation in process of experts is necessary for the reason that witnesses - contemporaries of the defendant cannot testify to consequences of his activity in full. Some consequences could be shown in many years after the death of the defendant, and only the historian can testify to such consequences. Historians who are negative to the historic figure, in chosen as the defendant can be on the side of charge (in this case - to the personality and Ivan the Terrible's activity). "Witnesses" have to study the biography of the characters and with their era. They should prepare brief information on people, whose role to them it is necessary to play and also theses of the indications. "Experts" study opinions and estimates of those historians on behalf of which they will speak (at the same time not necessarily the expert has to speak on behalf of one specific historian; if the role of the expert is given only to one pupil, then he can unite the points of view of several historians in the performance, give the short analysis of a range of the opinions existing in historical science on this problem). The accuser formulates counts, looks for arguments and proofs in their support, summarizes testimonies of witnesses and experts. The second group as a part of the defendant (i.e. in this case - Ivan the Terrible), the defender, "defense witnesses" and experts is engaged in the same work, but with opposite tasks. Training of the participant playing a role of the defendant has to be especially thorough. He has to try to explain to the logician of acts of the first Russian tsar and to justify his activity from the point of view of Ivan the Terrible (acquaintance to Ivan the Terrible's letters can help the prince Andrey Kurbsky with it). The third group - those who will manage court. It can be the judge and several jurors or board of judges from three people without jury (everything depends on the number of pupils in a class and on class level). In a class with in-depth study of history to children there can be uninteresting a role of jurors since it rather passive, and in this case it will be expedient to enter additional "active" roles: for example, the assistant to the accuser, the assistant attorney, - and to do without jurors. And, by the way, in such class pupils can complicate a task, having given to each of two above-stated groups a task to prepare both the line of charge, and a defense line, and at the beginning of a lesson vessels of a lot to define what group will accuse and what - to protect. I conducted this lesson in a chemical and biological class therefore at us with children it was in advance stipulated,

what group protects

and what accuses. On our process there were no jurors, there were only a judge and his assistant since the number of pupils in a class small. And as for cast, initially we with children after collective discussion chose "performers" for leading roles: members of a judiciary board, chief accuser (prosecutor), lawyer, defendant. All others were divided (mainly at will) into two groups: charge and protection (the first the prosecutor headed, the second - the lawyer, the defendant joined the same group). And in the groups the children thought out and cast already independently (i.e. defined which of historic figures could demonstrate in Ivan the Terrible's protection and who could accuse him of something then everyone chose to himself a role someone from witnesses or a role of the historian). And further in groups work on drawing up theses of performances, selection of historical sources in quality of proofs (Under the terms of a game, pupils had to try as far as it is possible to confirm the theses with references to historical documents (chronicles, acts, royal decrees, etc.) which contain the corresponding data began.

At a preparatory stage to the teacher should control a situation in groups, to check degree of their readiness, to make necessary explanations and consultations.

Some days before "process" the accuser has to acquaint the defendant and his defender with counts. In the lesson vessels option given below over Ivan the Terrible as the indictment the quote from work of the historian V.O. Klyuchevsky with which pupils were also acquainted in advance was used. "process" it is expedient to p to carry out

at a dual lesson. If there is no such opportunity and on a lesson court one class period is taken away, then it is expedient that witnesses from each party there were no more than three, and the expert-historian from each party one.

Wants to pay attention to a problem which can arise when conducting trial with in advance distributed and prepared roles. In this case there is a certain risk that some pupils will be limited to preparation only of the speech and will not begin to repeat the passable subject in general. To avoid it and to achieve stronger assimilation of a subject by all pupils, I thought up such element as authentication of the witness (his essence speaks in the abstract of a lesson given below).

in conclusion should note

that lesson of this sort will hardly turn out if pupils

had earlier no experience of participation in a business game, did not perform the tasks connected with personification. My pupils write historical compositions in which try to describe figuratively studied events in 6-7 class (In some cases it becomes from the third party, for example: "One day from life of the feudal lord", in others - from the first person: "Page from the traveling diary of a round-the-world expedition of F. Magellan"). In the 8th class the business game "Meeting of Secret Society of Decembrists" during which programs of Northern and Southern societies are discussed is held. In this game the quantity of the roles demanding preliminary preparation is very limited (these are authors of programs P. Pestel and N. Muravyev plus the representative of Northern society K. Ryleyev and the representative of the Southern society of S. Muravyev-Apostol). These roles are charged to strong pupils, and they prepare the performances under my direct management. Other pupils during the game listen to statement of programs by their authors and arguments in favor of each program from her supporter, and then have an opportunity to express the opinion on each of programs, analyzing its merits and demerits. After such game it is possible to pass to business games with a large number of roles and more independent training of pupils. It makes sense to hold at least once an improvisational business game, i.e. such to which house preparation does not precede. I, for example, held a similar game in the 10th class when studying the subject "Culture of Ancient Greece" it is aware of general history which is studied before a course of history of Russia. A game was devoted to Ancient Greek philosophers. At the beginning of a lesson the pupils were divided three into groups. Everyone was given a task to present one of the Greek philosophers and his school (one group - Thales Miletsky, another - Pythagoras, the third - Socrates). One of members of the group has to act on behalf of the philosopher and state his opinion, doctrine, and other members of the group have to tell on behalf of pupils of the philosopher about his life, about how compatriots treated his views. Groups are given 15 minutes on preparation, and literature for preparation is given (texts have to be small on volume, but containing sufficient information for preparation of a performance lasting 1 - 1.5 minute. We at this lesson used the paragraphs "Wise Men (VII-VI Centuries BC)" and "Athens — the City of Philosophers" from the textbook by N.N. Trukhina. "history of Ancient Greece". Such game impromptu gives the chance to the teacher more adequately to estimate abilities and abilities of the pupils, the level of development of their speech, and to pupils - to acquire skill to work in group, skill quickly to be guided in unfamiliar material, to make theses.

my tenth-graders turned out

as a result of the described system of work rather prepared for a lesson court over Ivan the Terrible owing to what I could entrust pupils not only charge or protection, but also conducting trial though in study guides it is usually offered that the teacher was the judge conducting process.

the Abstract of a lesson of history in the 10th class on a subject: "Ivan the Terrible is a bloody tyrant or the outstanding governor?"

Lesson court

lesson Type: repetitive generalizing

the Purpose: generalization and systematization of knowledge of domestic and foreign policy of Ivan IV Grozny and results of his board.

of the Task:

about educational: to fix and systematize knowledge of Ivan the Terrible's era and his board, to try to give an assessment to its activity of the first Russian tsar and its consequences;

about developing: to develop ability to analyze, form skills to state the point of view and ability to prove it at pupils;

about bringing up: to cultivate negative attitude to terror as to a way of the solution of political problems, to despotism and tyranny, tolerance to other points of view.

lesson Form: a lesson - a business game

Methodological bases:

For many centuries which passed from the date of the death of the tsar Ivan IV Vasilyevich Grozny neither in domestic public consciousness, nor in scientific literature especially a consensus about the personality and activity of the sovereign was not established by

any unambiguous. The different points of view arose already during lifetime of the tsar. So, the prince A.M. Kurbsky fleeing in 1564 from Russia to Lithuania became the first exposer of Ivan IV. Kurbsky was the author of the concept "two Ivanov": in the 1550th - the pious orthodox tsar, the participant of creation of the Holy Russia kingdom; in the 1560-1570th - the traitor of the Christian truth, the destroyer of the Holy Russia kingdom, the tyrant, the murderer. In official annals the tsar, on the contrary, became famous as the great Christian sovereign.

Similar dual perception of the personality and Ivan the Terrible's activity remains still. Therefore today it is possible to allocate three main directions in Ivan the Terrible's assessment:

1. Accusatory (A.M. Kurbsky, P.I. Kowalewski, S.B. Veselovsky, A.G. Kuzmin, etc.);
2. Apologetic (official chronicles of the 16th century, K.D. Kavelin, metropolitan St. Petersburg

and Ladoga Ioann, I.P. Froyanov and some other);

3. Objectivistic which supporters, on the one hand, recognize the significant contribution of the tsar to creation of the Russian state, on the other hand, convict its despotic bents (V.O. Klyuchevsky, S.M. Solovyov, S.F. Platonov, A.A. Zimin,

of V.B. Kobrin, B.N. Flor, A.L. Yurganov, S.V. Pereve-zentsev, etc.). 1

Most of experts nevertheless convict the tsar Ivan or completely, or on the separate moments. I.e. critical perception of activity of the tsar is dominating.

at the same time in each of the directions. The most influential positions can be considered:

1. Psychological explanations. The foundation for it was laid by N.M. Karamzin considering that Ivan the Terrible was subject, first, to considerable influence of the environment (in the childhood - "bad" boyars, in the 1550th - "good" Sylvester and Adashev, later - again "bad libertines"), secondly, to own passions and defects. Is a little later, the physician Ya.A. Chistovich and the psychiatrist P.I. Kowalewski came to a conclusion that Ivan the Terrible was mentally sick person who had paranoia. Some modern historians, in particular AG also agree with it. Kuzmin.
2. Sociological explanations. The foundation for it was laid by the largest Russian historian of the 19th century S.M. Solovyov considering that fight of a new state order against an old patrimonial system found reflection in Ivan the Terrible's activity. Explained with objectively inevitable fight of the state against nobility activity of the tsar and V.O. Klyuchevsky. In turn, K.D. Kavelin was sure of positive value of activity of Ivan the Terrible, moreover Kavelin claimed that Ivan the Terrible fought against the western influence getting to Russia. Later

of S.F. Platonov claimed that the purpose of all repressions of the tsar were "old the knyazhat". Opinions of these and other historians became very influential. For example, in the 1930-1940th and Ivan the Terrible's figure, and his repressions were perceived unambiguously positively.

it was later than

it is proved that during oprichnik punishments not only boyars and old the knyazhat, but also many noblemen suffered, moreover seigniorial land tenure only extended. The academician S.B. Veselovsky was sure that Ivan the Terrible acted only for the benefits of strengthening of own power,

1 This classification is taken

from the Internet resource: Orthodox educational Word portal. Shr://№№"г.ройа1-s1ovo.ru/history/40183.php

without caring for any other interests at all. There was a point of view of A.A. Zimin who pointed that the tsar fought against Church. In general, in the 1950-1980th. that "objectivistic" direction was approved: objectively the tsar promoted strengthening of the Russian state, but subjectively was a tyrant and the murderer.

3. Religious explanations. The foundation for it was laid besides by A.M. Kurbsky who was sure that the reasons of the changes which happened in Ivan the Terrible lie in the area of his religious preferences: the tsar changed a Christian debt, betrayed the Christian truth, it was enslaved by the Satan. However, in treason to Christianity also Ivan the Terrible accused Kurbsky of the messages. Probably, business consisted in various interpretation of the Christian truth by the tsar and disgraced prince.

Late value of a religious factor for Ivan the Terrible was especially noted by V.O. Klyuchevsky, but did not concentrate on it the attention. In the 20th century G.P. Fedotov, the large thinker of the Russian Abroad, marked out the religious ideas of Ivan the Terrible as some of leaders in his activity. However Fedotov, after Kurbsky, was sure that the tsar changed Christianity, and its acts were more likely anti-Christian. In the Soviet historiography the role of a religious factor was denied.

Only in recent years a considerable part of experts and publicists began to pay attention to a role of a religious factor in activity of the tsar Ivan the Terrible (A.L. Yurganov, S.V. Perevezentsev,

A.I. Filyushkin, the metropolitan Ioann, I.P. Froyanov, etc.). Moreover, the aspiration to explain Ivan the Terrible's acts through a prism of his religious views is today, probably, the most popular and most influential point of view.

Especially should tell

about opinion of Russian Orthodox Church. The fact is that in the last fifteen years the grass-roots social movement for Ivan the Terrible's canonization was developed. The church had to respond to these requirements - the Hierarchal Cathedral of 2004 resolutely rejected a possibility of canonization of the first Russian tsar.

Thus, it is worth emphasizing once again that neither in scientific, nor in fiction, nor in journalism till this day there is no standard point of view on the personality and activity of the tsar Ivan the Terrible. This circumstance creates an opportunity for holding an educational discussion about the personality and Ivan IV's activity, for use of the lesson court form when studying the subject "Ivan the Terrible's Government".

Registration of a lesson: the "Russian State in the 16th Century" card, the computer, a multimedia projector, the screen, a cloak for the judge.

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In a class in a special way place tables, on them plates "Charge", "Protection", "Court" are put.

the Advancing homework:

1) Individual:

to study paragraphs 10-11 in N.I. Pavlenko, I.L. Andreyev, L.M. Liashengko's textbook. "The history of Russia since the most ancient times until the end of the 19th century" to think up two questions on them (questions have to be versatile, i.e., for example, one - on chronology, another - on relationships of cause and effect)

2) Group:

of group of charge and protection have to think over the line of charge or protection respectively, to make speeches of the prosecutor (lawyer) and witnesses, to prepare the small presentation with theses of charge or protection and the list of witnesses; the board of judges has to study carefully rules of conducting trial, think up ten questions according to paragraphs, build the version what it is possible to condemn for and for what to approve Ivan the Terrible; "Defendant" has to study carefully Ivan the Terrible's biography, try to understand the reasons of his behavior and to make "the last word".

lesson Course:

I. Orgmoment.

II. Statement of the purposes and problems of a lesson. Opening speech of the teacher:

"Children! We studied the subjects "Ivan the Terrible's Government" and "Time of Troubles", tracked what changes resulted from activity of the first Russian tsar in Russia as his board affected further development of the country. Today generalization and systematization of knowledge of domestic and foreign policy of Ivan IV Grozny and results of his board are necessary to us. Our lesson will be unusual: lesson court. The personality and Ivan the Terrible's activity was ambiguously estimated by his contemporaries, and historians still have no uniform point of view about value of this personality in the history. In the course of our business game you have to try to analyze comprehensively Ivan IV's activity, to reveal all positive and negative sides of his board, to define consequences of its activity. The role of each of you was defined in advance, but you do not know yet what role will be played by me. And so, I will be shifting character, i.e. I can support at any time charge or protection to ask some question to the opposite side or to get into an argument, or I can become an assistant judge and help with conducting process.

during trial to us interrogation of witnesses is necessary to

>. At the same time each witness will be checked by the judge for authenticity. For this purpose the question on knowledge of an era will be asked each witness. You were warned about it in the course of preparation for a lesson. The judge can ask a question to the witness himself or charge it to the assistant or grant such right to the opposite side (if it is the prosecution witness, then the question is asked by the agent of the party of protection, and vice versa). For this purpose you made houses questions according to paragraphs of the textbook. If the witness cannot answer the question asked him, then he has no right to testify. However, he in this case can ask that asked it an additional question. If the witness copes with it, then he can give evidences, but that circumstance that he answered a question from the second attempt, will affect its personal assessment for a lesson. Well, and if the second question is raised at the witness by difficulty, then it finally loses the right to testify, and then protection or charge (depending on from what party the witness) will lose some part of the argument.

Assessment of each of you for a lesson will depend also on success of work of group in general, and on its personal work (how well it was prepared for the role whether managed to answer the question verifying authenticity of the witness whether gave counterarguments and whether asked questions to the opposite side).

I.e. a problem of each of you not only to make the speech, but also to listen carefully to others, to get into an argument, to challenge arguments of the opposite side. The assistant judge will keep the protocol. In the protocol arguments which you will adduce, documents which you show as proof of the words, questions which you will ask the opposite side will be recorded, it will also be noted whether the witness underwent testing for authenticity and with what popytki1.

the Starting point of our trial. On the Russian history it wrote in the course of lectures: (the presentation slide with this quote is shown on the screen)

"... the positive value of the tsar Ivan in the history of our state is far not so high as it would be possible to think, judging by his plans and undertakings... Grozny the tsar conceived more, than made, worked on imagination and nerves of the contemporaries stronger, than on modern to him the state order. Life of the Moscow state and without Ivan would be arranged the same as it was under construction to it and after it, but without it it ustroye1 a protocol Form see in Appendix 1.

ny went easier and more exactly, than it went at it and after it: the major political affairs would be resolved without those shocks what were prepared by it. The negative value of this reign is more important.

Karamzin exaggerated

a little, having put Ivan's reign - one of the finest at first - on its end results along with the Mongolian yoke and disasters of specific time. To hostility and an arbitrariness the tsar sacrificed also himself, both the dynasty, and the state benefit", i.e. Klyuchevsky considered that the negative value of reign of Ivan the Terrible is more important. We have to try to understand as far as he is right. Whether really Ivan IV played mainly negative role in the history of Russia, or, perhaps, in his activity there were more positive sides?

I Will remind

to you in what order there takes place trial (demonstration of the corresponding slide of the presentation):

trial Course:

1) The announcement the judge of an essence of case in point, identification of the defendant, announcement of structure of court
2) Statement by the public prosecutor of the charge brought to the defendant
3) The speech of the lawyer in protection of the defendant
4) A research of proofs, interrogation of the defendant, witnesses, experts, experts.
5) Debate of the parties (speeches of the accuser and defender).
6) Last plea.
7) Adjudgement by court.

A now I delegate powers to the judge. We begin our process.

III. Business game: trial of Ivan the Terrible.

Approximate course of a game

1. Announcement judge of an essence of case in point, announcement of structure of court.

Judge: "Case of a historical role of Ivan Vasilyevich Grozny accused by the historian V. Klyuchevsky that his reign played mainly negative role in the history is heard and led to the terrible consequences comparable to consequences of a mongolo-tatar yoke. Case is considered by the federal judge... (calls the full names), holds public prosecution. (A full name of the corresponding pupil), the lawyer protects the defendant. (Pupil's full name).

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It is identified the defendant. Introduce yourself, please. Where and when you were born? What were engaged in?" (the pupil playing Ivan IV's role answers questions).

Judge: "The court starts judicial investigation. The floor is given to the public prosecutor"

2) Statement by the public prosecutor of the charge brought to the defendant (is followed by demonstration of a slide of the presentation prepared by pupils with theses of charge). Upon termination of the speech the accuser (prosecutor) shows the list of witnesses who will give evidences in favor of charge (the corresponding slide of the presentation is shown).
3) The judge gives the floor to the lawyer. The lawyer delivers a speech in protection of the defendant (the speech is also followed by demonstration of a slide with theses, and the slide with the list of defense witnesses is in conclusion shown).
4) Makes interrogation of witnesses, experts.

At a lesson it is expedient to p to interrogate in turn witnesses one, other party that under no circumstances could not happen so that one group will tighten the performances, and witnesses of other group will not manage to act in general.

before interrogation the judge identifies the witness (it asks it to be presented, to tell briefly about himself), carries out an inspection of the witness on authenticity (the way was stated above). After the performance of each witness the judge asks: Whether "There are questions to the witness?". Any of the parties can ask the witness questions, or the judge or his assistant can ask a question.

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also the defendant can be interrogated if the parties or at a judiciary board have questions to it. However, it must be kept in mind that whatever strong the pupil playing Ivan the Terrible's role was, he cannot be down on to everything and cannot be sure that it completely got into psychology of this personality therefore it is desirable to minimize questions to the defendant. And here the defendant can ask questions (about the initiative) to witnesses, can try to challenge their indications, adducing some arguments.

5) After all witnesses are interrogated, hold a debate of the parties. The accuser and the defender once again deliver speeches, but already taking into account those facts, proofs, arguments and counterarguments which sounded during judicial proceedings.
However should note

that if on this business game only one lesson,

is allocated for

but not two, then this moment of court session should be lowered, for it there will hardly be enough time.

6) Last plea.
7) Adjudgement by court.

the Judge and his assistants render a verdict: what group - charges or protection - was most convincing in the performances. Also judicial board has to try to formulate some conclusion from all that information on Ivan the Terrible which was heard during judicial proceedings, express the opinion on a role of this governor in the history.

IV. Summing up lesson.

(The teacher makes the analysis of work of pupils, expresses the opinion on Ivan the Terrible's role in the history.

If remains time, is spent: whether a reflection "My attitude towards the personality and Ivan the Terrible's activity after this lesson" (children answer in writing this question)

was changed by

V. Homework:

In writing: in a thesis form to formulate results of government of Ivan the Terrible and to specify what of them and how promoted emergence of the Distemper

the List of references

1. L.P. Borzova. Games at history lesson: Method. a grant for the teacher. - M.: VLADOS-PRESS publishing house, 2001.
2. History. 5-11 classes: technologies of a modern lesson / bus - sost. V.V. Gukova, etc. - Volgograd: Teacher, 2009. - Page 150-157
3. History XVI-ò VIII of Russia of centuries: The anthology for the studying 7th C. / (a bus - sost. T.I. Griko, S.V. Tyrin,
V.V. Shevchenko's

>). M.: New textbook, 2007.

4. Internet resource: http://www.porta1-s1ovo.ru/history/40183.php

Appendix 1

Protocol of court session. A defense line

Participants of process The adduced arguments Their validity Authentication of witnesses Contest, criticism of arguments of charge

the Lawyer

the Witness

the Witness

the Witness

the Expert (historian)

Ivan the Terrible

the General result

the Protocol of court session. The line of charge

to

Participants of process The adduced arguments Them it is proved - a nost Authentication of witnesses Contest, criticism of arguments of charge

the Prosecutor

the Witness

the Witness

the Witness

the Witness

the Expert (historian)

the General result

the Note: protocols are filled out by the assistant judge, fixing in a verbal form (and in the third and fourth columns use of signs & #43 is possible; and-) results of work of groups. And in the first column fit into each cage of a surname of the pupils playing the specified roles, and names of the historical characters who are witnesses.

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In article considered experience of application of the most effective forms and methods of training in programming which at the same time could promote increase in motivation of pupils. Use of design activity at lessons solves this problem especially successfully.

Elena Igorevna Novikova,

the teacher of computer science MOE SOSH No. 2 Gelendzhik Krasnodar Krai

Use of a method of the project at a computer science lesson for the purpose of increase in motivation of school students

As it is possible to use a design technique at computer science lessons?

If to submit to

information which is not supported by feelings (emotions) to a brain, then in its bark the centers of neutralization of this information are formed.

I.P. Pavlov

enters problems of the course "Computer Science and Information Technologies" formation of thinking adequate to modern requirements therefore it is necessary to teach children to think independently, priprilozheny 2

the List of the witnesses presented by the party of charge:

1. Andrey Kurbsky, the prince, the member of the Elected Rada subsequently fleeing to Lithuania
2. Philip Kolychev, metropolitan
3. Heinrich Staden, Ivan the Terrible's guardsman
4. Elizabeth I Tudor, English queen.

the List of the witnesses presented by the party of protection:

1. Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina - Yuryeva, the first wife of Ivan IV
2. Makari, metropolitan
3. Yermak Timofeyevich, the conqueror of Siberia (the list of defense witnesses is one position shorter, than the list of prosecution witnesses since also the defendant who can give evidences too enters into group of protection. We tried to do groups identical on number)

vleky for this purpose of knowledge from different areas, to develop ability to predict results and possible consequences of different solutions, abilities to establish relationships of cause and effect.

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traces a trend of reduction of volume of the studied material on the subject "Algorithmization and Programming", despite its teaching and educational importance Now (the ability to expect, predict, plan, to operate develops). Also decrease in level of motivation to development of this material is observed. As existence of a large number of interesting application programs reduces the interest of pupils in studying programming significantly. The subject is difficult, material is traditionally stated in quite dry form, and the children not inclined to studying the exact sciences do not show to a subject of due interest.

the Problem becomes more sharply also because traditionally the Olympic Games on computer science include the tasks on programming demanding from pupils of the increased preparation. And in materials USE in a subject also the biggest percent of tasks belongs to the subject "Algorithmization and Programming". Therefore there is a need for search of the most effective forms and methods of training in programming which at the same time could promote increase in motivation of pupils.

the Success of training in many respects depends on motivation of training, on that personal sense which is made by training for the child. The main condition of any training - existence of aspiration to acquisition of knowledge.

the Leading activity of younger teenage age according to psychologists is the aspiration to communication, at them decreases educational motive -

the nonconventional lesson the business game the lesson court ivan the terrible three main directions in ivan the terrible's assessment: accusatory apologetic objectivistic
Rebecca Morgan
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