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Rets. On the monograph by D.S. Kidirniyazov: "Dagestan and the North Caucasus in policy of Russia in XVIII – the 20th of Xix B.". Makhachkala: prod. - in "Aleph", 2013 – 456 C



VESTNIK of INSTITUTE of IAE. 2013. No. 3 of Page 128-130.

of the CRITIC AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rets. on the monograph by D.S. Kidirniyazov: "Dagestan and the North Caucasus in policy of Russia in XVIII - the 20th of the 19th century".

Makhachkala: Prod. - in "Aleph", 2013 - 456 pages

N.A. Magomedov of E.I. Inozemtsev Institut IAE DNC RAS, Makhachkala

of sharafutdin@yandex.ru inozemceva47@mail.ru

the North Caucasian historiography was replenished with the published recently generalizing research of various parties of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus in XVIII-20-e 19th century taking into account dynamics of a geopolitical situation in the region of the leading researcher of department of ancient and medieval history IIAE DNC RAS, the honored worker of science of RD, the doctor of historical sciences, professor D.S. Kidirniyazov.

the Geographical location of the North Caucasus predetermined its geopolitical value. During the period covered in the monograph, Northern the Caucasus, located between Azovo-Chernomorsky and Caspian basins, was considered as one of the major geostrategic regions connecting Europe and Asia, the region of confrontation of interests of the Russian state, the Ottoman Empire, shah Iran and also as an object of foreign policy addictions of the Western European powers, first of all, England, Austria, France, Sweden.

the Russian diplomacy consistently and purposefully strove for the adoption of the influence on the people of the North Caucasus, including, Dagestan. This process was long, rather difficult and contradictory, but it was predetermined by long-term positive prospects. Extremely difficult and many-sided process of establishment of unity of the Russian state with ethnically mosaic North Caucasus in foreign and in a domestic historiography is still far from definiteness of estimates and characteristics. Moreover, the tendency to consider the centuries-old history of the Russian-North Caucasian relationship mainly from confrontation positions is looked through today. And therefore the splash in interest of scientists-caucasiologists in this problem, indefatigable on the relevance, observed today is not accidental what the monograph by D.S. Kidirniyazov confirms.

Formation and development of the Russian-Caucasian relations is closely connected by

with dynamics of the international situation in the Caucasian and West Asian region where in contradictory mutually attractions and ottalkivaniye geopolitical ambitions of three powerful states - the Ottoman Empire, shah Iran and Russia met. In these conditions the feudal governors of the North Caucasus, proceeding from a concrete political situation and the interests, were forced to maneuvre, being guided by one, by other party, changing the foreign policy.

is Impressed by the thorough source study base of the reviewed research presented by the actual materials of the central Russian archives (RGA DA, RGVIA, AVPRI), the North Caucasus (GAKK - Krasnodar, GASK - Stavropol, CGA RD - Makhachkala) and also the documents published in various collections. Theoretical judgment and generalization of rich actual material, a support on achievements on a problem of a domestic and foreign historiography allowed the author not only to give due estimates of motives of foreign policy orientation of the North Caucasian feudal possessors, but also to subject to the analysis the ethnodemographic, social and economic, political, interfaith factors which affected the nature of the Russian-North Caucasian relationship, methods of action of the Russian administration in the region, a ratio in them peace and military ways in permission of local problems. And, the author aspires not

to bypass acute angles and breaks of the Caucasian policy of Russia, showing as its relationship with the people of edge was not easy built up.

In three chapters of the monograph of D.S. KIdirniyazova the complex of problems of history of development of relationship of the people of the region with Russia during the period, fatal for them, in the context of confrontation for spheres of influence in the Caucasus of east powers and their allies - England and France and the policy of the Russian state on overcoming this pressure is covered. An object of research were the essence, contents and historical experience of military and diplomatic activities of the Government of the Russian Federation for realization of its geopolitical interests in the North Caucasus in XVIII - the 20th of the 19th century

the North Caucasus represented extremely contradictory conglomerate of territories and the people with various social and economic and cultural level of development, a polikonfessionalnost, bitter internal political and interethnic struggle 18th century. Considering it, the author at the same time does not lose sight of indissoluble integrity of the Caucasus - geographical and historical.

by

By the time of the Caspian campaign of Peter I in the relations of the people of the North Caucasus with Russia, Dagestan, in particular, observed a certain stability. From now on the tendency to rapprochement with Russia gains irreversible character. During fight with Nadir shah the people of Dagestan finally made the foreign policy choice - orientation to Russia that is convincingly shown by the author in the monograph. This event promoted high-quality shift in development of the Russian-Dagestan relations. As undoubted good luck of the author it is necessary to recognize his observations and conclusions shown in the monograph in connection with problems of liberating fight of the people of the North Caucasus, including, Dagestan against east despotisms which purposes and tasks objectively coincided with strategic priorities of east policy of Russia trying to weaken positions of Iran and Turkey in the region. With special evidence it was shown in flexible actions of the Government of the Russian Federation according to the solution of "the Black Sea problem" and "the Crimean question" with effective support of an overwhelming part of the North Caucasian population, in particular, of Nogais, and especially during bloody invasion of the Iranian shah Aga-Magomed khan to the Caucasus in 1795 when Russia rendered to the people of Dagestan military aid.

In a concrete historical situation of the period studied in the monograph the pro-Russian orientation of most of the North Caucasian feudal possessors corresponded to the interests of the people of the region that follows from the materials and conclusions given by the author. Russia was the most potential real force capable to protect the people of the North Caucasus from enslavement threat, east powers which were permanently competing for spheres of influence in the Caucasus. Despite continuous attempts of Iran and Turkey to lift the people of the North Caucasus on "holy war against incorrect", on generous promises and awards, they did not manage to achieve the desirable: most of feudal possessors and free societies, in particular, of Dagestan, unambiguously accepted the Russian orientation.

Thus, the relations between Russia and the people of the North Caucasus which developed by 19th century became an organic part of historical process, despite some miscalculations of the Russian diplomacy. But thanks to flexibility and variability of the Caucasian policy of the Russian state this process gained further positive development, having embodied in the political act of enduring value and for the people of the region, and for Russia that rather authentically and it is convincingly shown in the monograph by D.S. Kidirniyazov. A key plot of the monograph is display of a role and value of the Gyulistansky peace treaty. On October 12, 1813 in life of the people of the North Caucasus, Dagestan, in particular, there was extremely important event which summed up the result of rather long, extremely difficult, but natural and very progressive process of rapprochement of the people of the North Caucasus with the Russian state. It caused entry of the most part of the population of the North Caucasus into the structure of the multinational Russian state. Gyulistansky peace treaty of 1813. legally issued the come true fact long ago, having been a logical conclusion of objective processes of the 16-17th centuries in the history of the region. According to the academician B.A. Rybakov, "there was an unprecedented voluntary entry in world history into the Russian Empire of a number of the people" the Caucasus.

to D.S. Kidirniyazov, in general, managed p, widely using and successfully interpreting materials of rich source study base, relying on achievements of the famous caucasiologists, to define the place and a role of the North Caucasus in east policy of Russia, to open the purposes and methods of policy

of the tsarist government, to track its evolution in connection with changes of a geopolitical situation and development of the Russian-North Caucasian cooperation and interaction.

the Book by D.S. Kidirniyazov - the original, multidimensional, generalizing research of the most urgent problem of domestic Caucasus studies in which the scientific aspect is closely interconnected with political. Work is written in living, available language, it will serve as promoting of historical knowledge among the general reader, and it, as well as always, is the most important mission of scientists-historians.

Ethan Ralf
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