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The first fire and technical educational institution in Russia



s. ALEKSEEV, the assistant to the chief of institute

the Most interesting and instructive

Fire brigades existed in all large cities long before the beginning of the 20th century However, generally fire duty fell on citizens. Business it was burdensome and dangerous, but till a time was considered as simple. Need for training of professional firemen ripened by the end of the XIX century. In 1896 at the congress of fire and insurance figures which was taking place in Nizhny Novgorod the decision on opening of school of fire captains for fire protection of the cities of the Russian Empire was made. As realization of this action accepted long character, public Fedor of the St. Petersburg City Council of Eduardovich von Landesen, the prominent propagandist of fire business heading at that time Suburban fire society and his 8 voluntary teams initiated creation of educational institution on training of fire captains for the St. Petersburg fire brigade. This initiative found understanding in City Duma which in 1902 decided: "To charge to town council to submit the special report on the structure of school of fire captains". But, obviously, because of financial difficulties a number of the resolutions which laid the foundation for new educational institution which received the name "Courses of Fire Technicians" was adopted only on April 6, 1905.

allocated to

For placement of courses the building built for the Yamsky fire reserve at the corner of Ligovki and Obvodny Canal. On the first floor, service premises were placed. The second floor was allocated for a model (educational) fire brigade. On the third floor there were rooms kurpervy fire and technical educational institution in Russia

of owls: the assembly hall with library and the museum, classes, laboratories, the dining room, barracks.

Chosen as City Duma according to the charter of the courses Board of trustees started the organization of establishment. The manager of courses appointed F.E. fon Lande-zena. Exactly thanks to him at short notice, without usual swings and hitches in such cases, their fruitful work was adjusted.

First of all created a wagon train and picked up staff of the model fire brigade consisting on courses in the form of "manual". The team was organized on the Berlin sample and consisted of 42 people. On their arms there were a gas pipe of the plant of Brown, a line of the plant Ewald, the steam-engine of the plant Bush, a mechanical ladder of a system Liba, the ambulance ("primogenitor" of modern health service of ambulance). By August 1 the team was fully completed and became

to leave on the fires. ■

F.E. von Landesen

the Courses of fire technicians providing biennial training opened on October 18 (on October 5 on old style) 1906. On the first course 20 people were accepted. Understanding that the expert in the field of fire business has to possess a broad outlook, the Board of trustees entered more than 20 objects into the training program. Kursista (so then called cadets) studied the device of fire trucks, the theory of burning, electrical equipment, physics, mathematics, hippology (the doctrine about a horse) and other disciplines. A practical training was given in chemistry, first aid, repair of the fire fighting equipment, etc. Classes professors S.E. Savich, D.S. Zernov, V.N. Ipatyev, G.I. Turner, V.Ya. Florensov, engineers E.A. Genneken, G.P. Mer-sessov, A.S. Gulin, U.F. Saren, I.Ya. Statsevich, L.I. Tolochko, E.E. Lund,

conducted

N.G. Sergovsky, A.A. Press, the doctor A.M. Lebberg, etc.

Special attention that became characteristic of further development of a secondary technical education system of fire experts, it was given to practical training. Kursista in turn consisted in fire-fighting crew of a model fire brigade and regularly left on the fires. In specially equipped workshops they seized skills joiner's, forge, metalwork, performed works on repair of a wagon train, forging of horses, etc. Along with production of the simplest fire tools (axes, hooks, various hooks), kursyst performed works at the level of new technical solutions. B1908 of according to own drawings was made by them a gas pipe three times cheaper foreign and with considerably the reduced weight. Soon workshops began to take orders for production of various tools from other fire brigades.

Kursista's

not only were studied to use the fire and technical equipment, but also seized skills of fire fighting, were involved in carrying out various tests, for example, of fire extinguishers, pumps, construction materials on their fire resistance, fire hoses, saving devices. In summertime the popervy building of Courses of fire technicians

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quilted tactics of actions on the fires in fire brigades of St. Petersburg and other cities. Process of training of the second year included inspection of various buildings and the enterprises, studying productions.

Such comprehensive preparation allowed not only to master requirements of service, but also to gain skills of the head of team - the fire captain.

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At courses organized technical council which chairman was professor Dmitry Sergeyevich Zernov. On council the new technical ideas in the field of fire safety were considered, scientific experiments, etc. were made. Prominent scientists, engineers of St. Petersburg, teachers of courses took part in activity of council. When hearing reports there were also kursyst.

Practical and theoretical training was supported with educational work. Besides special library, laboratory and a physical office, in the building of courses for promotion of fire business and increase in a professional outlook of students the museum (in it there were more than 1,000 exhibits) was equipped. Kursista attended exhibitions, the museums, theaters of the city.

At release the preparation was estimated by the strict commission. Invited representatives of the municipal government, Ministry of Internal Affairs, members of Imperial Russian fire society, all fire captains of the St. Petersburg fire brigade led by the fire captain A.V. Litvinov to the first final examinations.

the fact that a number of teachers and graduates of courses became founders of the new technical and scientific directions demonstrates To quality of work. The teacher E.E. Lund in collaboration with the vasileostrovsky fire captain P.A. Fedotov in 1907 wrote the book "Fire Tactics" where for the first time in a popular form recommendations on

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to actions of firefighters were made at elimination of burning on various objects. The first manual in burning chemistry - "The doctrine about the fire" was the same year published. His author process engineer N.G. Sergovsky consistently stated the beginnings of chemistry, an ognetusheniye, a research of the fires. These examples can be continued - the educational and methodical base was so gradually formed.

For vigorous and fruitful activity as the manager of courses of fire technicians and the head of Suburban fire society Fedor of Eduardovicha von Landesen of fall of 1908 was chosen public the State Duma where it began to work at a constant basis and proved as the ideological organizer and the author of a number of legal documents and legislative offers in the field of fire safety.

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The same year according to F.E. Landezen's recommendation the manager of courses appointed the chief director of fire brigades of Suburban fire society, the process engineer, the graduate of the St. Petersburg polytechnical institute, in the past the naval officer Pavel Kazimirovich Yavorovsky who gave a new impulse to development not only this educational institution, but also all system of fire technical education. Fruitful activity of the courses headed by P.K. Yavorovsky repeatedly was noted by Imperial gratitude, was encouraged with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Imperial Fire society, fire and insurance congresses. Works of cadets were awarded at exhibitions, received an appreciation of figures of fire protection and specialists in city improvement. But letters of the provincial and city authorities with responses for the works of graduates testifying to their high professionalism and comprehensive readiness were the highest gratitude. Finished courses with the napravlyataktichesky direction of fire and technical training training of specialists, capable to solve practical problems was. In 1916, in 10-year anniversary of courses, newspapers noted: "Russia not only was enriched with new educational institution, but also created new type it, until then the unknown in one state". The subsequent revolutionary shocks of 1917 suspended work of courses almost for one and a half years...

the Harmonious system of training of firefighters

on February 14, 1918 P.K. Yavorovsky at a faculty meeting of courses reported to

on the decision to rename educational institution into Fire and technical school and to transfer it to the jurisdiction of the Commissariat on education. whether

same 1918 of fire captains, Fire at a position, to the city - technical school were reallotted on April 8 by Co-sky parts, on the plants, the railroads. to a missariat for insurance. In July In 1912 the courses were visited you will present - the commission under predseda - whether British committee of prevention a telstvo of professor Pyotr Ivanovich of the fires at the head of SE was formed. A saxophone (the founder of Dmitriyev on reception of school, and in the fall of committee). In the report they noted that "sa-set of 30 pupils on the first my interesting and the most instructive a course is made. In school, men not in the field of fire matter in Russia, without any doubt were accepted, the school of fire technicians existing in St. Petersburg aiming to train the fire captain with so solid technical knowledge that they corresponded to a duty of the organizer and the fire chief in the cities

and settlements is..." A fire brigade at the fire truck

P.K. Yavorovsky

is younger than 18 years suitable for military service and the passed entrance examinations in algebra, physics and geometry.

In the same time P.K. Yavorovsky resumed the work on creation of the highest fire and technical educational educational institution conceived in 1915. After signing on April 17, 1918. The decree of SNK "About the Organization of the State Measures of Fight Against Fire" it presented the program of training for fire protection of the young Republic of Councils to the Fire council created at the Commissariat of insurance and fight against fire. It included short-term three-months courses of instructors, average educational institutions (fire technical school, fire and technical school, fire school), higher educational institutions (fire and technical institute, fire and technical faculty at higher education institution). The presented harmonious system of educational institutions of a fire and technical profile turned out so successful that all types of educational institutions offered by Yavorovsky (even with repetition of names) successfully carried out subsequently training of specialists.

Having approved Yavorovsky's project, the educational section of Fire council in July, 1918 discussed concrete measures for implementation of the program regarding preparation of engineering shots for fire protection. The Charter and the curriculum of the Petrograd fire-but-technical institute were considered and approved. P.K. Yavorovsky was appointed the rector of institute, and vice rectors became: on study - the famous figure of fire and insurance business Dmitry Nikolaevich Borodin, by an economic part - Nikolay Pavlovich Trebezov. As well as earlier, Pavel Kazimirovich conducted thorough selection of professorial shots which frame was made, naturally, by skilled employees of Fire and technical school.

the institute Organized on the basis of school which entered into department of technical and professional educational institutions of the National commissariat of education got to work in October, 1919. Set the task of training of specialists in the field of fire extinguishing for institute. In January, 1920, classes began. The curriculum was calculated for three years and turned on blocks all-technical and spetsialnykhdistsiplin and also bases of insurance business.

For a contribution to science the Academic council gave an academic status of professor to P.K. Yavorov-sky, D.N. Borodin, N.P. Trebezov. This decision was approved, and in fire protection of Russia the scientists appeared.

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According to "The provision on short-term courses" of the National commissariat of education of December 26, 1919 along with the organization of educational process at institute created one-year courses of training of red fire captains. Such form of education was dictated by an acute shortage of qualified personnel of fire protection. The first release of 42 cadets-krotkosrochnikov took place in 1920. The same year the rector of institute P.K. Yavorovsky died.

its business was continued by the famous figure of fire and insurance business, in the past the graduate of Moscow State University Konstantin Moiseevich Yaich-kov. However due to the lack of necessary funds for the maintenance of independent educational institution in 1922 the institute was transformed to faculty of the fire fighting equipment of the Petrograd polytechnical institute where completed training earlier admitted to institute. Graduates of faculty - the first fire engineers - were sent to the order of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy. Training of specialists for fire protection of the cities during this period was carried out on short-term courses.

Work of fire and technical educational institution was resumed only in 1924. On the basis of the former Fire and technical institute the Leningrad fire technical school was formed. The head of department of fire protection of the city of Leningrad and area, in the past the mining engineer, the graduate of Vasily Sergeyevich Bektashev Mining institute is appointed the manager (in combination).

V.S. Bektashev began with

the activity with selection of professional staff. The being brandmayor of Petrograd Vasily Frolovich Smirnov is appointed to the position of the manager of a teaching department. The frame of collective was made by the teachers working in Fire and technical school, institute and at faculty of the fire fighting equipment. From the Petrograd higher education institutions were invited: associate professor G.N. Makarevsky - for reading a course on the fire alarm, professor A.A. Surin and the associate professor M.V. Poz-dneev - hydraulics and fire water supply, professor V.G. Tideman and associate professor D.B. Stsiborsky - the general and special chemistry, M.N. Wasserman - mechanics and engineering science. To teach fire tactics professor M.P. Tre-bezov was invited. The course of fire prevention was taught by the engineer V.A. Allison.

the management of higher education institution and the faculty tried to compensate to

by the work, professional knowledge a long break in work of the first educational institution of a fire and technical profile. In rather short time the educational and methodical literature, textbooks, manuals which all experts of fire protection of the country used and according to which training of listeners and cadets and other appeared late educational fire and technical institutions was conducted were prepared.

In the first years of work of technical school on training young people not more young than 18 years having nine years' education were accepted by

>. The term of training was three years. Subsequently, having met difficulties of set, began to admit to technical school with seven years' education, but at the same time the term of training increased up to four years (in the mid-thirties training was reduced to 3.5 years). The persons which had nine-year-old

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education and length of service in professional fire protection were exempted not less than two years from entrance examinations. Requirements to the state of health of arriving were imposed same, as well as to entrants of military colleges.

According to the curriculum the pupils studied 16 disciplines on three cycles. The obshchestvovedchesky cycle of disciplines joined the Russian and German languages, social science, in all-technical - mathematics, technical mechanics, engineering science, technology, electrical equipment, graphics, in special the firefighter - the chemical technology, building materials and parts of buildings, fire trucks and devices, hippology, physiology of work and professional hygiene, economy and the equipment of the firefighter put, including fire tactics, fire prevention, fire physical training, fire water supply. In total the plan provided 38 class periods a week. Besides, listeners passed a work practice in the first, second and third semester.

Graduates of technical school after the six-month training on fire specialty prepared for

the degree project. After its protection the qualification "the fire technician" was appropriated to them, the diploma and the special breastplate were issued.

Preceding by

requirements of time about increase in release of certified specialists of fire business, V.S. Bektashev already in the early thirties brings up before the management of fire protection of the country a question of creation in technical school of "institute of a postgraduate study" and construction of the new building of technical school. These years it leaves a position of the head of department of fire protection and focuses only on training of specialists of fire business. And in 1935 on the outskirts of Moskovskoye Highway (nowadays Moskovsky Ave., 149) the foundations for the main building of technical school and three more auxiliary buildings are laid. Construction was conducted with direct participation of workers and pupils of technical school. In the heat of this work V.S. Bektashev as a part of group of the Leningrad intellectuals was arrested. Its business was continued by Grigory Ivanovich Yakovlev under the leadership of whom the construction of technical school was successfully completed. In 1938 the academic year began in the new perfectly equipped building.

the Faculty under the leadership of G.I. Yakovlev, and then and Mikhail Petrovich Bleykhman who replaced it continued active work on improvement of educational process, preparation of educational and methodical literature. The great methodical assistance was rendered formed in 1936. To the fire technical school of Rostov-on-Don preparing shots for Narkomat to the coal industry and also fire school Narkomata of means of communication.

with Roads of war

to

to Further progress of the oldest educational institution was interfered by war. The technical school is renamed by the order of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs No. 0085 of June 26, 1941 into the 2nd Poe-zharno-technical school of the Militarized fire protection of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs with a training year, and soon the 1st Fire and technical school of the Militarized fire protection of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs which was located in Strelna also will join its structure.

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In August, 1941 on the basis of a teaching department of the 2nd PTS VPO People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs from teachers and cadets create five combat crews which commanders are teachers. Fully completed by the fire fighting equipment and fire and technical arms, calculations are transferred in the order of Control of fire protection of the city. Their baptism of fire happened in the first day of the coming blockade of the city - September 8: they took part in fire fighting in residential quarters of Moskovsky Avenue and in Badayevsky warehouses.

the military situation in the city blocked by the enemy extremely was complicated by

In September, 1941. On September 20 the chief of the 2nd PTS M.P. Bleykhman read the subordinate the order of the deputy people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR about disbandment of educational institutions and their transfer to the structure of the 20th rifle division of troops of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs.

M.P. Bleykhman was sent to

by the commissioner to field army, the deputy chief of school by a political part I.I. Tymoshenko is appointed the deputy commander of the 288th regiment on the Leningrad front. In view of danger of fiery destruction of the city of 126 specialists of school, including 42 teachers, go to the order of Management of fire protection. Deputy chief of school on study S.G. Golubev is appointed to the position of the deputy chief of UPO on operational work, the head of a cycle of special disciplines B.V. Semushkin - to the deputy chief position rayonkursant

a leg of management of fire protection, and then to a position of the head of department of the State Fire Safety Service. Teachers of school V.Ya. Myallo, S.V. Kalyaev, G.N. Ryzhov, I.I. Pugachenok, V.P. Kazmin, F.L. Loginov, G.M. Koganzon, F.B. Kalashnikov are transferred to various commanding positions, etc.

Other part of staff of school arrived on September 25 to the assembly point of Vyborgsky district, is enlisted in the 7th regiment of the 20th rifle division of troops of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and after eight-day training is directed to the Nevsky patch. 68 days they were involved as a part of fire battalions in battle, legendary and unprecedented on courage. Teachers of school P.S. Sutulov, Yu.I. Strey-her, F.L. Shishkin, B.E. Gordeev did not return from the Nevsky patch, A.B. Katya tires, G.I. Hodchenko - of it are reminded by the obelisk established on the institute parade-ground. On the Nevsky patch, this impregnated blood and the earth stuffed with metal of the exploded shells, were killed in battles for the homeland 50 and 83 persons were missing. In an extensive lobby of the central entrance to institute in their honor commemorative plaques from black marble on which gold letters entered names all fallen in fights for the Homeland are established.

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From school to the university

In May, 1944, after full lifting the siege, recommence lessons at fire and technical school. In September, 1946. The Leningrad 2nd Fire and technical school received the name of the Leningrad fire and technical school of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. This educational institution was headed by high quality experts of fire business S.G. Golubev, P.N. Cherednichenko, P.A. Kotelkov, I.V. Ponomarev, M.P. Zakharov, V.I. Bezrukov. Each of them made a contribution to development of educational material resources and improvement of training of commanders of a fire service. In LPTU more than 35 years the managerial personnel for fire protection of many foreign

prepared

of the countries: Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Hungary, of Vietnam, Guinea-Bissau, Yemen, Korea, Cuba, Mongolia, etc.

Many graduates of school were leadership team of fire protection of the USSR. So, for example, the Head department of fire protection of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was headed by the general M.I. Zemsky and the lieutenant general E.A. Serebrennikov. In the 70th, generals D.I. Yurchenko, V.M. Sokolov were deputy chief of GUPO; heads of departments of a central board - Yu.P. Trofimov, Yu.M. Kochkin, V.M. Orlov, M.T. Shuvalov, G.A. Raschetin, V.M. Perevedentsev, G.P. Shumov, V.I. Rybkin, B.I. Ivanov and many others.

Graduates of school headed educational institutions: Candidate of Technical Sciences, professor, the general V.F. Kudalenkin - the Higher engineering fire and technical school in Moscow, I.I. Karabanov - the Ivanovo fire and technical school of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR.

Now the graduate of LPTU of 1974 Candidate of Technical Sciences the colonel general of internal service E.A. Serebrennikov is a Deputy Minister for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Disaster Relief of the Russian Federation.

In the late eighties in acknowledgement of merits in training of specialists the educational institution becomes the highest and is renamed into Leningrad (since 1991. St. Petersburg) the higher fire and technical school. The fire engineer, the chief of UPO Municipal Department of Internal Affairs Leningrada and the Leonid Ivanovich Isachenko area is appointed to the position of the chief of LVPTSh. In 1991 the major general of the internal service Isachenko passes the baton to the graduate of LPTU Yury Nikolaevich Loskutov.

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K1991 of in LVPTSh 13 departments worked. At them 7 doctors and more than 30 candidates of science taught. In all 39 objects educational and methodical materials were prepared. With the translation of the major general of internal service Yu.N. Loskutov for a position of the chief of the Municipal Department of Internal Affairs of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region by the chief SPBVPTSH in 1994 Nikolay Andreevich Andreyev is appointed.

on June 18, 1997. on the basis of the St. Petersburg higher fire and technical school Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation the St. Petersburg institute of fire safety of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is created.

At institute at 16 departments 19 doctors and over 60 candidates of science worked, more than 20 employees had academic statuses of professors and associate professors. The educational institution made considerable efforts on attraction to pedagogical and scientific activity of leading experts and praktiches-kikhrabotnik of the city.

achievements of institute in the field of scientific and technical activity Are considerable

>. The higher education institution was actively integrated into the system of interuniversity exchange of St. Petersburg and Russia.

When transforming an educational system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1998 the institute was a part of the St. Petersburg university Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation as faculty of training of employees of the Public fire service. The doctor of military sciences, the Doctor of Engineering professor Vladimir Sergeyevich Artamonov was appointed the chief of faculty.

the Public fire service turned

In 2001 according to the Decree of the Russian President

with

into submission of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for civil defense, to emergency situations and natural disaster response.

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Thanks to big preparatory work of all collective, maintaining traditions of educational institution on training of specialists for the Public fire service, with active support of the minister of the Russian Federation for civil defense, to emergency situations and elimination of natural disasters of the general S.K. Shoygu on the basis of faculty of training of employees of the Public fire service the Russian Federation Government decree of August 13, 2002 No. 592 created the St. Petersburg institute of the Public fire service Emercom of Russia. The order of the Minister of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation V.S. Artamonov is appointed the chief of institute.

according to the Order of Government of the Russian Federation No. 458 to the St. Petersburg institute of the Public fire service Emercom of Russia was given on April 3, 2006 the status of the university.

Huber Jakob
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