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Category: History

Manipulations in Stolbov holes (cultures of an era of bronze of Asia and Eastern Europe)



podobed VA., A.N. Usachuk, V.V. Tsimidanov. Manipulations in Stolbov holes... UDC 903.4

V.A. Podobed, A.N. Usachuk, V.V. Tsimidanov

the Donetsk regional museum of local lore, Donetsk, Ukraine

of MANIPULATION IN STOLBOV of YAMAHA (cultures of an era of bronze of Asia and Eastern Europe)

Authors address materials of settlements of various cultures of an era of late bronze with the purpose to track various manipulations related to Stolbov with holes. The analysis of available material allows to come to a conclusion that it is lawful to treat a part of the finds dated to Stolbov to holes as traces of the construction sacrifices made during construction construction. Other finds in holes are connected with ceremonies on establishment/blocking of contacts with other world. During functioning of constructions in them ceremonies in the context of which an important role was played by columns could be made. Even after columns were taken from holes, on places of their former arrangement certain ceremonial actions which point is still not clear sometimes were made. Authors hope that their work will promote growth of interest in such complexes as stolbovy poles with various objects - to a subject which still draws unfairly not enough attention.

the Researchers studying constructions of an era of bronze paid attention that in Stolbov holes sometimes there are various artifacts for a long time. In particular, O.A. Krivtsova-Grakova, publishing materials of excavation of the settlement of sargarinsko-alekseevsky culture Alekseevskoye, noted presence at some of these holes of fragments of ceramics, bones and fragments of "ochazhny stones". According to the author, all these objects got there accidentally, after extraction of columns [Krivtsova-Grakova, 1948, page 82]. V.S. Gorbunov [1989, page 71] considered that bones and the fragments of ceramics which were in Stolbov holes served for filling consolidation. Use of stones (pebbles), bones of animal and small fragments of ceramics as Stolbov' zabutovka of holes also other researchers [Obydennov, etc., 2001 allowed, page 82; Fomenko that highway, 2007, page 407; Razzokov, 2012, page 62]. Essentially other hypothesis was stated by R.A. Mimokhod. He adduced convincing arguments in favor of the fact that various objects found in Stolbov holes are traces of ceremonial actions (according to its interpretation - construction sacrifices) [Mimokhod, 1999]. Some other authors also came to similar conclusions. In particular, according to O.I. Novikova and Y. Shneevays [2002], the vessels found in Stolbov settlement Chicha-1 holes can be connected "... with a complex of construction ritual actions". The specified researchers assumed that people placed vessels in stolbovy holes not only at commission of construction sacrifices. Sometimes they could be guided also by other motives ("for example, receiving spirit defender") [Novikova, Shneevays, 2002, page 110].

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Recognizing legitimacy of reference of Stolbov of the holes containing various artifacts to the category of cult complexes, we will note that judgment of these complexes should be continued. We also tried to make it in the offered article. First of all in brief we will describe traces of manipulations known to us in Stolbov holes of constructions of an era of bronze.

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On the settlement Shibayevo-1 (Chelyabinsk Region, Russia) on the so-called western site in Stolbova to a hole 18 found a fragment of ceramics and a small ingot of bronze [Not Lin, 2004, page 154, fig. 2]. The monument belongs to the period late

of bronze, however it is difficult to date a construction to which the mentioned hole belongs as in an excavation the ceramics of different cultures - alakul-sky was found, fedorovsky, sargarinsko-alekseevsky.

On the settlement of sargarinsko-alekseevsky culture of Alekseevskoye (Kostanay Region, Kazakhstan) in Stolbova to a hole of the 8th dugout 1 fragments of "bronze ornament" [Krivtsova-Grakova, 1948, page 82] were. In a hole of 141 same constructions the fragment of a bronze product probably of a knife is found [Krivtsova-Grakova, 1948, page 82]. In Stolbov dugout holes 3 the given settlements were revealed three stone "polished for glassing of ware". Let's add that in that construction in general there was a lot of such "polished" (pebbles) [Krivtsova-Grakova, 1948, page 82].

On the settlement of lugavsky culture explored on the Tambarsky reservoir (Kemerovo Region, Russia) in the dwelling 1 at the bottom of some Stolbov of holes silicon otshchepa [Bobrov, 1993, page 110] were.

On the settlement of irmensky culture of Milovanovo-3 (Novosibirsk Region, Russia) in the dwelling 7 in two Stolbov the holes beginning ranks the small vessels put upside down were. Authors of the publication, treating these finds as traces of the ceremonial actions made during construction of the dwelling considered that columns in these holes were not put, otherwise vessels would not remain whole [Sidorov, Novikova, 2004, page 112] (cf.: [Mimokhod, 1999, page 176]).

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On the settlement of irmensky culture of Bystrovk 4 (The Novosibirsk Region, Russia) in the hole of the 8th dwelling 3 localized in a southwest corner of the big camera of construction near an entrance to the small camera, revealed several fragments from one vessel. The author of the publication treated a hole as "economic" [Matveev, 1993, page 57]. In our opinion, this hole both by the sizes, and on the placement in indisputable Stolbov' system of holes can be quite ranked as the last.

On the ancient settlement of irmensky culture of Chicha-1 (Novosibirsk Region, Russia) in a number of Stolbov of holes or near them in special deepenings vessels were. One of them was painted by red paint that as authors of the publication noted, ". .dopolnitelno confirms its special appointment" [Novikova, Shneevays, 2002, page 109].

On the settlement of suzgunsky culture the Chudsky Mountain (Tyumen Region, Russia) in some Stolbov' filling of holes of the dwelling 1 found coals, lumps of the burned clay and fragments of ceramics [Potemkina, etc., 1995, page 18]. Coals were found also in certain Stolbov holes of dwellings 2 and 6 of the given settlement [Potemkina, etc., 1995, page 22, 29].

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holes of various artifacts knows Very many cases of presence at Stolbov in srubny culture.

On the settlement Beregovskoye-! (Bashkortostan, Russia) a hole 2 constructions of V were in Stolbova ceramics fragments. In Stolbova to a hole 4 same constructions are found the shattered bones of animals [Gorbunov, 1989, page 71].

In an excavation of the II settlement of Tyubyak (Bashkortostan, Russia) near construction 2 in Stolbov holes found small bones of animals [Obydennov, etc., 2001, page 23]. In Stolbov holes of construction 7 ".melky fragments of ceramics, stones and bones as a zabutovka or filling by a cultural layer" sometimes met [Obydennov, etc., 2001, page 82].

On the settlement of Yumatovskoye-P (Bashkortostan, Russia) in Stolbova to a hole found three fragments of a vessel [Gorbunov, 1989, page 71].

On the settlement Chesnokovo-1 (Ural Region, Kazakhstan) in Stolbova to a hole of construction.

On the settlement of Mirny (Saratov Region, Russia) in one of Stolbov of holes of a sacrificial complex bones of a sheep and a bird, fragments of ceramics and a quartzitic chip [Lopatin, Mironov, 1983, page 156 were; Lopatin, 1993, page 76-77].

the Makarovsky Small river (Saratov Region, Russia) in Stolbova to the hole 10 investigated on a construction monument was revealed by

On the settlement preparation for pryasliyets from a bone of an animal [Izotova, 2006, page 159].

Wet Peskovatka (Saratov Region, Russia) to a hole 23 constructions 1 is found

On the settlement in Stolbova preparation of the bone sleeve, perhaps, the lash intending for registration or "scepter" [Lopatin, 2006, page 411; Lopatin, Chetverikov, 2006, page 117].

On the settlement Expanse-1 (Tula Region, Russia) in some Stolbov holes of construction 1 fragments of vessels and bones of animals [A hook, 2011, page 50] were. Finds from the hole localized in a southeast part of construction are most indicative. E.E. Antipina established that all 20 bones which were in a hole belonged to a skeleton of one animal - not absolutely adult individual of small cattle (age - 2.5 years). From here the conclusion was drawn that in this case we deal with the remains of a ritual meal, purposefully collected and dug near a column [Antipina, 2011, page 172, 178]. This conclusion met support at E.I. Gak who published Expanse-1 materials. The researcher noted that bones got to a hole in connection with commission of some ceremony [A hook, 2011, page 50].

To Stolbov' number, perhaps, two holes which were near the center in construction of the 6th settlement of Mosolovka (Voronezh Region, Russia) belong. In one of them the vessel, in another - a vessel in which the massive sledge hammer hammer [Pryakhin, 1993, page 50 lay is found; Mimokhod, 1999, page 175]. Let's specify that the author of the publication had some doubts concerning such interpretation of holes, and therefore he called them Stolbov in quotes [Pryakhin, 1993, page 47].

34 same settlements, near the center of a southwest wall of a ditch, were explored by

In construction two holes. In one of them there were a small vessel, disorder of a melting bowl and a fragment of a casting mold. In another the fragment of some stone instrument of labor lay [Pryakhin, 1993, page 47]. R.A. Mimokhod [1999, page 175] considered the first of Stolbova's holes. Perhaps, it and so because an object was in the same row with indisputable Stolbov holes. However the author of the publication was inclined to consider that both mentioned holes ".sobstvenno Stolbov. it is impossible to recognize" [Pryakhin, 1993, page 47].

On the settlement Varenovka-Sh (Rostov Region, Russia) in Stolbova to the hole localized in a southeast part of the dwelling 3 the bone edge was revealed

>. According to V.V. Potapov [2002, page 79, 90], in this case we face the construction victim.

On the settlement Wet Chaltyr (Rostov Region, Russia) in Stolbov holes of two dwellings found bones of animals [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175].

On the settlement Kapitanovo-1 (Luhansk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole the cranial cover and a phalanx of a finger of the person [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175] were.

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On the settlement of Kapitanovo-P (Luhansk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole found a bone needle [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175]. In Stolbova to a hole on the same settlement there was a vessel [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175].

On the settlement of Stepanovka (Luhansk Region, Ukraine) in some Stolbov' filling of holes of the room of 1 housing and economic complex (further - ZhHK) 1 found fragments of bones and ceramics [Brovender, 2012, page 39]. In Stolbov room holes 2 these ZhHK are revealed fragments of bones (on some there were ochre traces), ceramics, ochre pieces [Brovender, 2012, page 41]. Bones and fragments of ceramics were also in two Stolbov ZhHK 2 holes [Brovender, 2012, page 61].

to a hole 2 constructions 1 were found by

On the settlement Chervone Ozero-3 (Luhansk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova "... the stone and bone products connected with ore mining and smelting activity" [Brovender, 2010, page 206]. The mentioned stolbovy hole was in the center of the number of holes extended on a long axis of construction.

On the settlement of Usovo Ozero (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in some Stolbov holes of the dwelling 10 found fragments of bones and ceramics [Berezanskaya, 1990, page 28]. S.S. Berezanskaya, considering design features of this construction, paid attention to the hole which was located west of a ditch (approximately in 25 cm from its edge). In this hole there was a human skull. The author of the publication carried a hole to Stolbov as that "well fits into Stolbov' line of the holes passing along a northern wall of the dwelling" [Berezanskaya, 1990, page 28]. Such interpretation of a hole met support at R.A. Mimokhod [1999, page 177]. In our opinion, the mentioned skull really could appear in a hole owing to a sacrifice. However to prove that the hole was Stolbova, it is difficult especially as almost everything, except two (settlements of Tyubyak and Shirokaya Balka-P), traces of manipulations known to us in Stolbov holes of srubny constructions are revealed in ditches, but not out of them.

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In Stolbov holes of the dwelling of the 11th settlement of Usovo Ozero found ceramics fragments [Berezanskaya, 1990, page 29].

according to R.A. Mimokhod [1999, page 175], in one of Stolbov of holes of the dwelling of the 9th this settlement the damaged matrix for casting of axes was. It should be noted what in the publication of materials of this construction is told about placement of a casting mold ".v small deepening" which Stolbova is not called a hole [Bie-rezansky, 1990, page 27].

On the settlement of Ilyichevka (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of the dwelling 6 found bone pro-splitting [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175]. In Stolbova to a hole of the economic room of 1 same settlement the handle for fixing of the pricking subject is revealed [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175].

On the settlement Drobyshevo-K (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of 1 partially studied construction. 2 same constructions were present at a hole five fragments of walls of vessels and one fragment of the top part of a vessel (were located, generally vertically). At last, in a hole 5 two fragments of walls of vessels were found [Tsimidanov, 2005, page 254].

On the settlement of Nikolaevka (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of the dwelling 5.

On the settlement of Macri-Jaya (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole found bone pro-splitting [Mimokhod, 1999, page 175].

On the settlement Wide Balka-P (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of III from outer side in a wall of a ditch of the dwelling found a can vessel from a vdavleniya-ma below edge of a nimbus [Gorbov, Usachuk, 1986, by page 22; Mimokhod, 1999, page 175].

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On the settlement Buylovataya-17 (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) in the small hole revealed at a dwelling research found vessel disorder. It is possible that the hole was Stolbova [Kolesnik, etc., 1991, page 11; fig. 28].

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In srubny culture, besides cases when the cultural remains were revealed in Stolbov of holes, recorded also cases of placement of these remains out of holes, but in close proximity to them. In particular, on the settlement Mountain-1 (The Orenburg Region, Russia) within complex 2 ditch, south of the center, there was a hole 113. In its southern part during functioning of a complex there was a column. In a hole about 4210 bones of animals were revealed (jaws and edges of cows), 152 fragments of ceramics, a piece of slag and 11 of "metal samples" [Chernykh, Lebedeva, 2002, page 107 prevailed].

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On the multilayered Zaychishminsky parking (Tatarstan, Russia) around three Stolbov of holes of the easy land dwelling recorded a congestion of fragments of ceramics and bones of animals and also - disorder of a can vessel [Kazakov, Rafikova, 1999, page 17].

On the settlement the Lower Belladonna (Saratov Region, Russia) in a northern part of a ditch of construction 2 (near an additional exit from it) around the remains of the decayed column lay, forming a semicircle, two lower jaws of cattle with the separated reztsovy departments. These jaws were a part of a congestion of artifacts (the size - 3.2х1.5 m) where there were bones of animals, including one more such jaw, compact group of stones, the deadlock from the lower jaw of cattle *, ceramics fragments, a rastiralnik. According to the author of the publication, this object is the remains of the "house sanctuary" connected with a cult of "an angular column" [Lopatin, 2009, page 41-42].

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In construction 2 settlements mentioned above Expanse-1 investigated not less interesting complex. At a southeast wall of a ditch was, according to the author of the publication [the Hook, 2011], ".mesto departures of a sacrificial cult". Object represented the "cult platform" formed as a result around already standing column soil on the suboval site was cut off by the sizes of 2х1.5 m. West of a column the shattered bones of a bull-calf lay (age - 10-12 months). In filling of an object also coals, pieces of the calcinated soil, 17 fragments of vessels and a silicon chip are revealed. E.I. Gak [2011, page 54-56] interpreted the described complex as the remains of a construction sacrifice. E.E. Antipina managed to establish that on the platform meatless bones were put. Some of them were previously shattered, and crushing had no pragmatic purposes. Preservation of bones happened very quickly - they were purposefully buried. Making a start from the observations, E.E. Antipina [2011, page 168, 178] draws a conclusion that near a column there were carefully collected and buried remains of a ritual meal.

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On the settlement of Sachkovo the lake (Samara Region, Russia) in a ditch 1 investigated the hole 6 which had the sizes of 1.4х0.9 m. In east part of this hole there were, in turn, two stolbovy holes. At the bottom of a hole 6 the ocherous layer of bright red color is recorded, and near the hole pieces of ochre are found. Authors made quite

* In the publication [Lopatin, 2009, page 41-42] is told about the lower jaw of a horse. It is a mistake: in the drawing [Lopatin, 2009, page 50, fig. 4.-3] - the left half of the lower jaw of cattle - typical raw materials for production of deadlocks [Usachuk, 1996]. The attention was already paid to a situation with deadlocks from the Lower Belladonna [Podobed, etc., 2011, page 97].

a fair conclusion that presence at a complex of ochre ".ukazyvat on a possibility of reference of this place to ritual constructions" [Vasilyeva, etc., 2008, page 64].

Red 1A (The Tula Region, Russia) in construction 2 manipulations interesting us were made by

On the settlement how it stopped functioning. In the southern corner where earlier the column was placed, there was a small ashpit (diameter - 0.55 m). In its filling, besides coals and pieces of the calcinated soil, fragments of ceramics and the small calcinated stones are revealed. In the lower part of an ashpit the piece of gray-blue kaolinic clay the sizes of 10х7 cm lay. According to the author of excavation, the ashpit had ".ritualny value" [A hook, 2011, page 21-22].

are Deserved attention also by some complexes of the settlement of Usovo Ozero. In the dwelling 4 about Stolbova of the hole which was placed at the western wall a large number of fragments of ceramics concentrated [Berezanskaya, 1990, the tab. III]. In the dwelling 5 near some Stolbov of holes (were localized at northwest and southwest walls) bones of animals and fragments of vessels concentrated. Let's add that in this dwelling "the house altar" on which clay hand-made articles in the form of animals and eggs lay is found. It gravitated to one of columns [Berezanskaya, 1990, the tab. IV]. On the same settlement in the dwelling the 8th stolbovy hole with a diameter about 20 cm which was in the rounded-off southeast corner of a ditch was localized in a northeast part of more extensive hole with a diameter about 40 cm. At the same time in a southwest part of the last bones of animals are found [Berezanskaya, 1990, the tab. VI]. In the dwelling 9 near the hole gravitating to the western corner of a ditch ceramics fragments concentrated [Berezanskaya, 1990, the tab. VII]. The mysterious complex was investigated in a northern corner of the same ditch. There, to the northwest from a congestion of bones *, took place as S.S. Berezanskaya [1990] considers, the center connected with metallurgical production. An object represented "cap" of the ashes cemented by "some liquid". Power of a cindery layer reached 45 cm. In it layers of oshlakovanny clay and also a bone are revealed, many of which were burned. In the basis of "center" there were two cup-shaped deepenings with diameters of 1.6 and 0.5 m which walls and a bottom were burned, as well as a crossing point between them. In smaller deepening slags, the burned stones, coals are found. Near "center" about 20 fragments of clay matrixes, including a form fragment for casting of the axe are revealed. The most interesting is that from two parties from the mentioned cup-shaped deepenings stolbovy holes are found. In their filling there were ashes, coals, bones of animals [Berezanskaya, 1990, page 27; tab. VII]. Perhaps, formation of an object is really connected with metallurgical process. But kindling of fire around columns - action absolutely improbable. From here a conclusion follows that at the time of presumable casting of bronze the columns in this corner of a ditch were already absent. Whether they were taken at reorganization of the dwelling or functioning of "center" happened in already abandoned ditch, it is difficult to establish. Nevertheless the inclination of "center" to the place where earlier there were columns, most likely, is not accidental. Perhaps, we deal with traces of a ceremony identical to that which was carried out in construction 2 settlements Red 1A.

In this connection should return to materials of Asia. On the settlement Red Jara of I (Novosibirsk Region, Russia) in the dwelling 5 relating to elovsky culture on

* the skull, edges, shovels and bones of extremities of a bull were its part. According to the author of the publication, the congestion had "cult appointment" [Berezanskaya, 1990, page 27] what we completely agree with.

the continental ledge dividing construction cameras ".neposredstvenno on Stolbova's spot of a hole" the congestion of bones of the person was. Among them bone "button" is found. According to A.V. Matveev [1993], this complex is connected with a cult of the dead. As the author believes, bones ".skory everything, lay or hung in the bag clasped by a bone button" [Matveev, 1993, page 73]. It is difficult to prove this assumption, as well as to disprove. But in this case the fact that bones could appear on a continent ledge only after the column from which they blocked a hole was taken is important for us.

the Semantic link of burials to Stolbov holes probably are shown also by ancient settlement Chicha-1 materials. There in a number of dwellings of irmensky culture burials of babies which ".kak the rule, were entered in a row Stolbov of holes" were revealed [Molodin, etc., 2004, page 286].

of the Practician of ceremonial manipulations in Stolbov holes, perhaps, took place in sa-batinovsky culture. In particular, on the settlement the Grape Garden (Nikolaev Region, Ukraine) in one of such holes the piece of granite and a large fragment of a bone of a bull were found [Fomenko that highway, 2007, page 407]. According to authors of the publication, artifacts wedged a column [Fomenko that highway, 2007, page 407]. However, in our opinion, it is impossible to exclude also that the stone and a bone appeared in a hole owing to not utilitarian actions.

can state existence of the ceremonial actions interesting us in east тшинецой culture More surely. So, on the settlement of Pustynka (Chernihiv Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of the 12th dwelling 2 ceramics fragments were revealed [Berezanskaya, 1974, page 23]. In Stolbova to a hole of the 9th northern room of the dwelling of the 6th this settlement there were fragments of clay valk [Berezanskaya, 1974, page 31]. In Stolbova to a hole 3 (central) farm buildings 1 are found ceramics fragments [Berezanskaya, 1974, page 43]. In Stolbov holes of a farm building 7 there were pieces of the burned clay, bones, fragments of vessels, a pryaslitsa [Berezan-Skye, 1974, page 47]. In Stolbov holes of a farm building 8 fragments of vessels are revealed [Berezanskaya, 1974, page 48].

also materials of bondarikhinsky culture Are interesting to

to the considered subject. On the settlement of Buzovka (Dnipropetrovsk Region, Ukraine) in Stolbova to a hole of the dwelling the tree fragment with the bronze tip of an arrow which got stuck in it was found [Romashko, 1995, page 20]. On the settlement Career (The Luhansk Region, Ukraine) in a hole of the 7th object 1 (part of construction) there were squared pieces of sandstone. This hole was located near edge of construction and had diameter about 20 cm [Ivanitsky, 2012, page 159, 165, fig. 2] that does its accessory to Stolbov very probable.

R.A. Mimokhod [1999] connected by

existence of practice of sacrifices in Stolbov holes with a cult of a rod post of the dwelling. The researcher with reference to Vedic tradition noted that this column at "ritually noted" moments could be perceived as an altar because combined symbolics of a world tree and an axis of the universe, marked "the center of the world", was identified with Purusha. Respectively, the column could be considered as an object near which, perhaps, there was a message between three spheres of space [Mimokhod, 1999, page 177]. Due to this subject it is useful to concern also some beliefs connected with a rod post which are recorded at Tajiks. This object in various regions of the ethnic territory of the Tajik people is called differently ("a column of greetings", "a royal column",

"happiness of the house"), but the general is the respectful attitude towards him. Make to a column a sacrifice in days of celebration of Nowruz and during the funeral, to it, entering the house, send greetings, expect the help from it during natural disasters, it is considered and as monastery of ancestors [Babayevo, 1993, page 58-59]. The listed facts demonstrate that with rod posts not only the construction victims, but also a sacrifice made during various ceremonies which were made in already functioning dwelling were correlated.

As was established by R.A. Mimokhod [1999, the vessels including fragmented and bones of animals appeared page 175], most often in Stolbov holes. The materials collected by us show a similar picture. In particular, vessels, and are more often their fragments are found in Stolbov holes of, at least, 28 constructions (taking into account cases when ceramic fragments were not in the hole, but in close proximity to it) and one sacrificial kompleksa*. Let's notice that practice of the room of ceramics in stolbovy holes is fixed in the huge territory and throughout a considerable time span. Let's remind that it is shown, for example, by monuments of srubny, east тшинецкой, lugavsky, irmensky and suzgunsky cultures.

are revealed by

of the Bone of animals in Stolbov holes or in close proximity to them in 15 constructions and one sacrificial complex. This indicator as we see, is much lower, than the corresponding indicator on ceramics. Besides, practically all considered localization cases in Stolbov holes of bones of animals are recorded in srubny culture (except two, known to us in sabatinovsky and east тшинецкой cultures). Obviously, here we face "ethnographic" distinctions of the manipulations made in holes.

the Numerical prevalence of bones of animals and fragments of ceramics in Stolbov holes and near them over other artifacts which had the same localization is represented to us a powerful argument that the considered artifacts are generally traces of sacrifices. Data of written and ethnographic sources on various people demonstrate that, as a rule, people donated to representatives of the highest forces (to deities, ancestors, etc.) food and drinks. It took place, for example, at indoariyev [Besh, 1977, page 258], the Iranian people professing Zoroastrianism [Shishov, 2006, page 279], Indo-Iranians of Hindu Kush [Yettmar, 1986, page 116, 393, etc.], ancient Greeks [the Odyssey, XI, 25-28], Slavs [Bohr, 1982, page 28; Golovatsky, 2004, page 117], people of Siberia [Tokarev, 1986, page 173; 2003, page 41], Russians of modern times [Krinichnaya, 2011, page 20-21]. One of forms of sacrifices which in the past was widespread (and in a number of cultures lived also up to the present) was sacrifice of the cattle. During the mentioned ceremonies their participants ate quite often most part of meat of sacrificial animals. For example, ancient Germans this way [Afanasyev, 1995a, page 131], Indo-arias and Iranians [Boyce, 1987, page 12], galoshes [Yettmar, 1986, page 393], aysor [Eyvazov, 1884, page 324], Ossetians acted [Afanasyev, 2012, page 123]. Similar sacrifices when people allocated "addressees" with symbolical shares of sacrificial food, taking away itself a share real, are known at the people of various corners of Earth [Taylor, 1989, page 476]. In light

* Alas, it is not possible to count number of holes because in a number of publications only the fact that in Stolbov holes of this construction there were ceramics fragments is specified, but it is not specified how many was such holes.

of all these parallels quite clear why holes osteological finds, as a rule, are presented to Stolbov only by separate bones. Obviously, the situation with fragments of ceramics is similar. Contents of vessels could be eaten (to be drunk), and ware then to break. Practice of ceremonial damage of vessels took place at many people [Tsimidanov, 2011b, page 11-12].

Should pay attention to one nuance concerning Stolbov of holes of srubny culture. It seems that bones of animals and ceramics seldom got at the same time to one hole. In all cases when in the publication it is concretized what of the mentioned artifacts were in Stolbova to a hole, were there or bones (Beregovsky I, construction of V, I. 4; Expanse-1, construction 1, Wet Chaltyr), or ceramics (Beregovsky I, construction of V, I. 2; Yumatovsky II, Kapitanovo-P, Usovo Ozero, dwelling 11, Drobyshevo-K, Nikolaevka, dwelling 5, Wide Balka-P, hole of III, Buylovataya-17). If bones of animals and ceramics after all were correlated, then it, as a rule, took place in complexes which in any given sense were extraordinary. So, on the settlement of Mirny the hole where there were both fragments of ceramics, and a bone, is revealed within a sacrificial complex. On Expanse-1 (construction) around a column "the cult platform" was made 2 [A hook, 2011, page 55]. The hole from complex 2 Mountain-1 is ranked by authors of the publication as group "sacral and sacrificial" [Chernykh, Lebedeva, 2002, page 101]. In construction 2 Lower Belladonnas the column was adjoined by a "house sanctuary". On settlements Red-1A (construction 2) and Usovo Ozero (the dwelling 9) the objects dated to Stolbov to holes functioned after columns were taken. In the dwelling 5 Usov of the Lake there was a house altar.

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So, it is possible to allocate three groups of the complexes dated to Stolbov to holes:

1) complexes where the remains of a sacrifice was the ceramics;
2) complexes where the remains of a sacrifice were presented by bones of animals;
3) complexes where the remains of a sacrifice were both bones of animals, and ceramics.

This problem deserves further study on materials of more representative report. So far It should be noted that existence of complexes of the listed groups is hardly caused by local differences in ceremonial manipulations. It is visible, in particular, that on the settlement Beregovskoye-! in one construction were revealed both a hole with fragments of bones, and a hole with ceramics fragments. Most likely, distinction of contents of holes - the investigation of the fact that people addressed different "addressees" the specific victim relied each of which.

we Will concern semantics of some of not pottery revealed in holes now. But before we will notice that in the context of the considered complexes (at least, in certain cases) the hole, but not a column in which it was established could have the main sign loading. Making such assumption, we recognize that in many traditions of a hole quite often were considered as an entrance to the other world [Afanasyev, 1995b, page 14; Mikhaylov, 2001, page 89; Krinichny, 2011, page 9] * or, using modern terminology, acted as a potential communication channel with

* one episode from "Odyssey" Is curious in this connection. Hera-simchuk the poem, having got to the kingdom of the dead before coming into contact with its inhabitants, digs out a sword a hole for a sacrifice [the Odyssey, XI, 24-26].

this world. That, as the population of an era of bronze could consider holes, including stolbovy, in the same way, in our opinion, support two arguments:

1. In Stolbov holes of the dwelling of the 7th settlement Milovanovo-3 the vessels turned upside down are found. But the turned vessels, as well as other turned objects, usually were associated with the other world and evil spirits [Smolyak, 1980, page 182; Karmysheva, 1986, page 153, 161; Persian national fairy tales, 1987, page 241; Dynin, 2004, page 188] what one of us already had to write about [Tsimida-nov, 2011a, page 171].
2. In Stolbova to a hole on the settlement Kapitanovo-! there was a phalanx of a finger of the person. But the finger which, in particular, is cut off in some contexts acted as a mediator between the world live and the world of the dead [Tsimidanov, 2011a, page 169-170].

In a word, stolbovy holes quite could be considered by carriers of cultures of a bronze age as communication channels with the other world. Need for contacts with this world arose, in particular, when people wanted to receive the help from its inhabitants.

Returning to things from Stolbov of holes (including the things gravitating to these holes), we will note that among them, besides bones of animals (occasionally, and the person *) and ceramics, there are most various objects. A part of the last can be divided into several blocks:

1. The pricking tools - four cases, including bone edges (Varenovka-Sh, the dwelling 3), a needle (Kapitanovo-P), pro-splitting (Ilyichevka, the dwelling 6; Macri-Huy).
2. Tips of arrows - three cases (AtasuL, a dugout 2; Buzovka).
3. Stone splinters - four case, including flint (Expanse-1, construction 2; Drobyshevo-K, hole 1; Shibayevo-1, hole 18) and quartzite (Peace). Perhaps, the fragment of the stone tool revealed in a hole from construction 34 Mosolovsky of the settlement belongs to the same block of artifacts.
4. The tools connected with mining and metallurgy - not less than two cases, including "... the stone and bone products connected with mining and metallurgical activity" (the Lake-3 Chervone, construction 1, a hole 2) and fragments of matrixes (Usovo Ozero, the dwelling 9, "center" in a northern corner). It is possible that treat this block also the matrix lying in "small deepening" in the last dwelling, the hammer which was in the vessel put in one of construction holes 6 Mosolovsky settlements, disorder of a melting bowl and a fragment of a matrix revealed in one of construction holes 34 same settlements.
5. Pryaslitsa - two cases (the Makarovsky Small river; Pustynka, construction 7).
6. Pebbles - two or three cases (Alekseevskoye, a dugout 3);

The fact that rather often got to stolbovy holes pricking предметы" in our opinion, it can be explained to the following. Opening of a communication channel, i.e. violation of border between the worlds, was considered as extremely dangerous to people, in particular, fraught approach of a drought or an epizooty. Therefore was among important rituals

* Mentioning bones of the person in Stolbov holes, we will pay attention to recorded by A.T. Bolotov [1993, page 392] at the end of the 1760th the story about a bright case of targeting of damage by means of the human bone which is secretly dug in a stolbovy hole at installation of new gate.

** it is possible

>, the fragment of a bronze knife (?) from a hole of the 8th dugout of 1 Alekseevsky settlement also belongs to the same block.

restoration of this border, a vyprovazhivaniye out of borders of "the" world of representatives of "others" world [Bayburin, 1990, page 12-13]. The room in holes of sharp objects because the last in many traditions were considered as capable to avert evil forces [Podobed, Tsimidanov, 2010, page 114-115 could also pursue this purpose; Sublunch, etc., 2013, page 33-34].

also splinters of a stone could perform Similar function. We already had to write that flint, as well as other stones, could be used in rituals on updating of the broken border between the worlds [Tsimvdanov, 1995]. It is possible that semantics of pebbles was similar. However, in relation to the last it is lawful to make also other assumption: pebbles could be used in ceremonies on rain calling. This assumption is based on ethnographic materials on the people of Central Asia [Korogla, 1976, page 66-89].

it is designed to Block a communication channel there was probably also a mattock found in Stolbova to a hole on the settlement of Garlic. Putting forward this assumption, we recognize that during a mattock bronze era were probably used in rituals of creation of magic borders [Ivanova, Tsimidanov, 1998].

In relation to some from found in Stolbov holes of objects two opposite treatments are possible to give

>. Treat those, in particular, a pryaslitsa. These products were details of spindles, and the last was used in the most various ceremonies and magic actions (see, for example: [Boryak, Hera-simchuk, 1990, page 31-36; Glushkova, 2006, page 51-52; Avilova, 2010, page 40-43]). But, appearing in a communication channel, a spindle (or - symbolizing to his pryaslitsa) first of all played a mediator role between the worlds [Boryak, Gerasimchuk, 1990, page 34-35; Polidovich, Polidovich, 1999, page 220; Tsimidanov, 1999, page 222]. The role of mediators, as we know, is double. They are used both for disconnection of a communication channel, and for its short circuit. From here it is difficult for pryaslitsa to give unambiguous treatment from Stolbov of holes. Let's notice in passing that not only settlement, but also funeral complexes sometimes brightly show a mediativnost of pryaslitsa. So, in barrow No. 1 of the burial ground of an era of late Aktau bronze, Kazakhstan fragmented to a pryaslitsa it was revealed near a gap in a cromlech (outside) [Balandina, Astafyev, 1996, page 135].

also attributes of metallurgists belong To "ambiguous" objects. At many people of the Iron Age the smiths were considered as intermediaries between the worlds. Respectively, both were afraid of them, and needed their communications with other world [Baybu-rin, 1990, page 13]. Obviously, similar representations were connected also with metallurgists of an era of bronze. From here their attributes could be used as for the introduction in contact with other world, and for short circuit of a communication channel. Here it is worth mentioning a curious complex in relation to which interpretation of a svyaz

stolbovy holes era of bronze stolby ritualy pole pits the bronze age poles rituals
Robert Gilbert
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