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2002. 02. 006. Joint nobility. Congresses of authorized provincial noble societies. 19061916: in 3 vol. T. 1. 19061908 M.: ROSSPEN, 2001. 926 with



2002.02.006. JOINT NOBILITY. CONGRESSES of AUTHORIZED PROVINCIAL NOBLE SOCIETIES. 1906-1916: In 3 vol. - T. 1. 1906-1908 - M.: ROSSPEN, 2001. - 926 pages

are submitted by

In this edition the documents and materials of Congresses of authorized provincial noble societies (Joint nobility) containing extensive information on situation in the country, on formation and functioning of the Russian party political system, on the causes of political crises of the beginning of the 20th century and ways of their overcoming. 1 volume included documents for 1906-1908 which main part is made by materials 1-1U of congresses supplied with applications. Sources open the history of creation of association, its program installations, the Originator and the author of comments, show reaction of the nobility to revolution of 1905-1907, etc.

and. N A.P. Korelin, notes in the preface that in the registered political structure of Russia the beginnings of the 20th century. Congresses of authorized provincial noble societies represented one of the most influential and most known political organizations which, however, did not draw due consideration of researchers yet.

the Russian nobility though was proclaimed legislatively by the highest estate and "the foremost support of a throne", actually up to the end of the 19th century had neither the all-class organization, nor the All-Russian representation. Even the revolutionary events of 1905 which stirred up the country far affected not at once nobility assemlies. Estate bulk still remained in an amorphous state - both owing to traditional law-abiding, and due to the lack of skills of independent and coordinated actions. Considerably only predriver's meetings during which leaders of noble societies tried to plan the line of political behavior of estate became more active, to formulate its political platform.

the Spreading revolution, agrarian disorders, direct threats to existence of estate were pressed by associations. Offers on convocation of an all-noble congress were repeatedly discussed at predriver's meetings - "conversations".

First steps for creation of the all-noble organization were taken by the right wing of the nobility. On October 17, 1905 the Constituent congress of the All-Russian Union of land owners,

united the regional landowner organizations took place. Upholding of the radical ideological principles of an old regime which were well-known "triad" - autocracy, Orthodoxy, nationality was the political program of the Union. In the bowels of this organization the agrarian program of the nobility which main components - destruction of community, creation of private country land tenure, planting of individual country farms, etc. - anticipated the known government program of P.A. Stolypin was most fully developed. The congress demanded convocation of an all-noble forum.

I the congress of all noble leaders - provincial and district took place on January 11, 1906. Its participants (140 leaders from 29 provinces) discussed the major political problems put by revolution. The congress supported holding the fastest State Duma elections.

However the congress did not solve almost any organizational problems. Leaders could not decide convocation of an all-noble congress, on its program.

to

In the book in details state background of appearance of the Joint nobility. On May 21-28 in St. Petersburg the First congress of authorized noble societies to which there arrived 114 participants from 29 nobility assemlies took place.

However the discussion which erupted at a congress on program questions showed that the declared unity of estate actually was not though meetings and a congress of leaders made for formation of the all-noble political platform much. The government declaration of an office of I.L. Goremykin who released from a duty the chairman of the board of ministers hated to S.Yu. Witte's nobility became a reference point. The congress tried to state the own program provisions in the traditional faithful address to the emperor.

the Most important point in activity of the First congress. The first point of the draft of the Charter proclaimed that "Congresses of authorized provincial nobility assemlies aim to unite noble societies, to rally the nobility in a single whole for discussion and carrying out in life of questions, interest nation-wide, and equally class". The congresses convened annually consisted of representatives from noble

of meetings, chosen for 3 years. On places, provincial councils which formally had to play a link role between the Permanent Council and noble societies were created.

the Draft of the Charter was approved and submitted to

for approval of the Ministry of Internal Affairs which followed in June, 1907. But disagreements on a number of important organizational issues remained that repeatedly poured out in protests of some nobility assemlies - up to secession of the Joint nobility.

At the beginning the United nobility presented to

very influential force, having become the center of gravity of the Right-wing conservative forces. In time, hard for the government, the Joint nobility supported a rigid course of P.A. Stolypin towards suppression of revolution, dispersal of the I and II State Dumas, development of the new electoral law also the Stolypin agrarian reform which is actually begun with the decree on November 9, 1906 which many provisions coincided with the program of the Joint nobility Was, etc. supported by the nobility.

However soon the policy statements of Stolypin delivered to them in performances before II and III Thoughts disturbed noble leaders. Completely dividing a repressive course of the government towards suppression of revolution, the Joint nobility with alarm met his reformatory statements, intention to carry out a number of the transformations promised by the Manifesto on October 17. Special rejection of the nobility was caused by bills on reorganization of local management, self-government and court. The strongest pressure upon ruling spheres carried out the nobility through the Duma and the State Council where estate positions in pre-war years were considerably strengthened. At the same time, it is emphasized in the book, would be, probably, exaggeration to tell that activity of the Joint nobility was the main and only factor which caused turn of the government to curtailment of reforms. More likely, it is about coincidence of aspirations of the nobility to anti-reformatory mood of old ruling regime, the coincidence caused by proximity of their internal social nature and proximity of their views of the historical fate of the country.

In the next years the activity of the Joint nobility became more active, weakened. In general it did not manage to expand the social base a little significantly. Again

the autonomy of noble societies amplifies

, the confederative principle of association is more accurately shown.

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in the middle of World War I observed the next wave of enhanced action of the Joint nobility. To replace patriotic and faithful assurances the increase of opposition of nobility assemlies soon comes. On November 27, 1916 opening of the last, 12th congress of authorized noble societies took place. Its participants sharply criticized the government for irresponsibility and full lack of talent of the ministers who turned into puppets of the "powers of darkness" which took country government and suppressed the weak identity of the tsar. For the first time at the noble congress which was formally still standing on monarchic positions the criticism to the monarch was allowed that demonstrated falling of prestige of a dynasty and blasting monarchic foundations what all world outlook platform of the Right-wing conservative forces was based on.

in general, results of activity of the Joint nobility, probably, it is impossible to estimate unambiguously, it is noted in the book. On the one hand, having become the center of association of the right forces of the country, it promoted strengthening of the government camp and its victory over revolution; being the center of restoration desires of reactionary forces, it promoted folding of a government reformist course. In the tactical plan the class limitation and the remaining tendency to caste isolation of landed gentry finally considerably weakened possibilities of association. On the other hand, the Joint nobility, sometimes against the will, promoted formation of a system of representative institutions in Russia, sharp criticism to ruling bureaucracy, and in the years of war and to the emperor loosened a basis of an old regime. Finally the fate of the monarchy and the highest estate were identical. With a small temporary gap both of these forces were forced to descend from the historical arena.

the History of emergence and activity of the Joint nobility with sufficient completeness is reflected by

in the legal and shorthand minutes of Congresses of the authorized noble societies making the main contents of Truds of Congresses, regularly brought to attention researchers and readers, except the last, published by the Permanent Council. These publications, owing to limitation of their circulations and the special, rather closed character

(Truds of Congresses were distributed on a subscription to noble societies and went to the major public institutions), became rarities long ago. Their originals including besides magazines extensive applications with texts of the vsepoddanneyshy addresses, the major reports and resolutions on them, responses of nobility assemlies to decisions of congresses, etc. are stored in the State archive of the Russian Federation (HECTARE of the Russian Federation) in fund of the Permanent Council of the Joint noble societies (F. 434). The value their as important historical source far is beyond the noble class organization. Statements and opinions of the most prominent representatives of the highest estate, in jointly developed final documents of congresses contain the extensive information on situation in the country interpreted from positions of the dominating class estate on formation and functioning of the Russian party political system, about regularities and features of this process in Russia, about the offered ways and methods of an exit from the deepest political crisis endured by the country at the beginning of the 20th century and about the causes of revolutionary explosions of 1917

Further the originator characterizes by

the maintenance of the first volume. This volume covers the period of 1906-1908 - time of emergence, program and organizational registration of association and, perhaps, the highest activity of nobility assemlies. This activity which indirectly found reflection in the first four congresses of authorized noble societies was caused as events of the first Russian revolution, formation of new government and party and political institutions and aspiration of the highest estate to defend (or to find) the special situation and a role in quickly changing society, and reaction of the nobility to attempts of the power to recover from a deep political crisis by promises, concessions and some transformations.

the Aspiration of estate to gain independence in the social and economic and political relations, to hold the weakening positions, to find new forms of representation of the interests and a way of impact on ruling spheres is visually traced by

in fight of opinions around the maintenance of the vsepoddanneyshy addresses which were actually playing a role of political platforms, numerous versions of the Charter of association, discussions concerning problem reports. The published materials show as aspiration to

to association of forces of estate, and about a certain split in the environment of the noble societies caused considerably by the growing discrepancy between the old class legislation defining the status of the nobility and causing a certain class mentality and new precepts of law to which the nobility adapted with great difficulty. In general congresses at which the Right-wing conservative moods, the growing critical orientation concerning actions of a Stolypin office prevailed showed inability to development of own constructive program. At the same time in their materials there is a lot of valuable observations and certificates concerning absence of thorough investigation and weak points in government plans of transformations and, in particular, in the assumed reform of local management, self-government and court.

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From the extensive materials which are stored in fund of the Permanent Council of the Joint nobility and published in Truds of Congresses this edition included, except sjezdovsky magazines, the major annexes to them. In particular, as independent sections of the publication materials of the Preparatory commission and Council for the organization of the Congress of the authorized noble societies created in April-May, 1906 especially for preparation and holding the first all-noble forum are emitted. Magazines of the Commission and Council are published in the second edition of Truds of the First congress (SPb., 1910) which materials are used for the publication. It should be noted that applications in the published sjezdovsky materials on the substantial and information character are very not equivalent. Among them there are documents, very valuable to researchers: the vsepoddanneyshy addresses, Charters and their preliminary options, the major reports and resolutions on them discussed during the meetings, notes and dissenting opinions demonstrating diversity of views and positions of participants of congresses on cardinal political and to party organizational issues, reports of the Permanent Council on the activity, etc. At the same time in them there are and many minor, private materials (welcome telegrams, explanations of the reasons of absence at a congress, etc.). In this regard a part of the materials given in appendices in a condensed form are stated in comments or in general are lowered, and the arrangement and numbering of applications not always coincide with those

in originals of the published Truds of Congresses. (After each application in square brackets the sending on pages of the text where this application is mentioned is given.) In general the published materials are quite adequate to primary sources. The list of the reports and notes which did not enter Truds of Congresses and published in the form of separate brochures, is given in appendices to magazines.

documents are systematized by

In this edition on chronology. Transfer of the text of the document is carried out according to modern spelling, but with possible approach to the original: are kept statement stylistics, despite not always successful turns of speech, the reductions of a source (which are most often found from them are given with interpretation by the separate list at the end of the book); font and other allocations correspond to allocations in the original. Obvious typos and slips and also nonagreements and some archaisms in writing of words were ruled without reservations. Writing of names of public authorities, parties and other political and public organizations, surnames and place names is unified. Passed in the text and restored on sense of the word are reproduced in square brackets.

Textual notes including notes of documents and also the editorial translation of foreign words and expressions are designated in the edition by the * badge and are given to

at the end of the page, and the note according to contents (comments) - the Arab figures and placed in the special section.

V.M. Shevyrin

the russian federation - history - 19 in. (end)-1917 sources the joint nobility (russia) the nobility - russia nobility assemlies (russia)
Edwin Fernandez
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