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The impact of reforms of the 60-70th years of xix of a century on development of capitalism in the Kursk province

i self-affirmation of life. The similar philosophical basis was designed to provide external aggression of the fascist states.

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7. Ge. Legrand. Benito Mussolini. - M, 1999.
8. Oduyev S.F. Tropami Zaratustry. - M, 1971.
9. E. Renan. History of Israel. - M, 2001. - T. 4.
10. P.D. LaRoshel. Fascist socialism. - SPb., 2001.
11. Zh. Sorel. Reflections about violence. - M, 1907.
12. N.V. Ustryalov. German national socialism. - M, 1999.
13. E. Yunger. Nationalist revolution. - M, 2008.


© D.Yu. Demchenko. *

the Belgorod state national research university, Belgorod

In article is told


>, about results of reforms of the 60-70th years of the 19th century and about what impact they had on development of capitalism in the Kursk province during the post-reform period.

on February 19, 1861 Alexander II's manifesto the serfdom in Russia was repealed by

>. Peasants were declared legally free, acquired personal liberty and property rights: to own personal and real estate, to be engaged in trade and crafts, to conclude bargains, to file lawsuits and so forth

It was, undoubtedly, a large progressive step. However conditions of peasant reform of 1861 were rather severe for peasants as they received earth plots, smaller, than before reform, redemption payments for the earth exceeded earth cost. The quitrent size in the Kursk province where the peasantry made 90% of the population on the eve of a refoma of 1861 increased, carrying out reform faced as resistance of peasants, and landowners. First of all, disputes came down to

* the Teacher of history and social science of Golovinsky SOS.

to the amount of the given tithes: landowners, did not want to leave the earth, offering as in particular the Kursk landowner F. Skaryatin to allocate on 1 tithe, but there were also more generous landowners both in the offers, and in acts. The landowner Skorobko Ryshkovska offered volosts of the Kursk province to 10 tithes, the truth it is necessary to notice that he had no more than 40 tithes, and a shower of serfs of 5 or 6 people. In general, the plot size on the province did not exceed 2 tithes. In the Kursk province there was "A provision on the peasants who left serfdom", having the status of the local law where were defined both the size of a plot, and duty of peasants of this province [2, 26. l. 67-89, 184-233].

"Situation" contained the mass of reservations in favor of the landowner. In particular, it governed the relations of the state and landowners concerning the lands which are cut off at peasants during reform. Relying on the Local provision, the Kursk landowners cut off 22% of the earth at peasants, having left them the worst in quality lands. Only the landowner F. Skaryatin cut off at the peasants more than 37% of the earth [2, 25, l. 256-271].

Using Local situation, many landowners transferred the serfs to situation domestic as they received personal liberty only 2 years later after reform of 1861 and they could be not allocated with the earth. On the Kursk province of 14% of peasants did not receive allotments. Besides, allotments were provided to peasants not in a private property, and in "continuous use" for what peasants had to bear duties before the landowner and the state, will not buy the land yet [4, page 57].

Despite the defects allowed when carrying out reform she allowed the country to take further important steps on development of bourgeois society, capitalization of its economy.

the Large role in post-reform development of the Kursk region was played by creation of network of the railroads which connected Kursk with the large political and commerce and industry centers of Russia. On December 24, 1866 private joint-stock "Society of the Kursk and Kiev railroad" was founded and concession for a period of 85 years is signed. Since 1891 it was renamed into "Society of the Kiev and Voronezh railroad". On September 7, 1868 the movement by rail Moscow-Kursk opened therefore since 1895 the joint-stock company began to be called "Society of the Moscow and Kiev and Voronezh railroad". In total by 1880 through the province 3 railroads, highway - 2, grunotovy - 99, from them 27 post and 72 transport ran. Construction of the Kursk and Voronezh railroad was ended by 1893, and in 1894 construction of the Lgovsko-Bryansky railroad in 98 versts was begun [4, page 75]. Railway transport involved Kursk in the commodity relations with the remote territories of the country, had considerable impact on development of the industry and trade and was a source of significant growth in number of industrial workers [1, page 223].

in the Kursk province of reform of the 60-70th years had no significant effect On development of the industry. In the Kursk province there were no significant shifts neither in structure of the industry, nor in its quantity. It is visible from the following table.

Table 1

industry Growth

1852 1861 1900 1905

of Chislo fabrik and the plants 290 540 6460 3663

Chislo of workers 11598 11966 24333 22096

Is developed by

products, in thousand rubles 2181 4852 25867 30965

it is complex to p to Analyze this table. In different years there was various approach to determination of nature of the enterprises. Obviously, in 1905 those enterprises which entered it in 1900 were not referred to category of factories and plants. The products are estimated not at comparable, and in the current prices. Means, this table does not reflect an exact picture, but everything, allows to draw some conclusions.

In 40 years, from 1861 to 1900, the number of factories and plants grew more than by 10 times, and the number of workers - only twice. The dwarfish enterprises grew: windmills, kruporushka, milkchurns, etc. In 1900 on average 4 workers were the share of one enterprise. For these 40 years in the province (except for 6 sugar plants) it was not constructed any large factory, any large plant. If to exclude sugar industry, then other enterprises marked time [7, page 28-29].

In the Kursk province at all. The small iron, mechanical and repair plants had local value. 124 workers worked at 6 iron-works; all 6 plants made products on 72 thousand rubles a year [5, page 15-16].

the Main industry was food. It used local cheap raw materials. The sugar, flour-grinding and distilling enterprises were of great importance. The products of these enterprises were taken out out of borders of the province and even abroad. 18,129 workers were engaged in these industries in 1900, i.e. 74.5%, were developed products for 23,921,035 rub here, i.e. 81% of all products [5, page 15-16]. Other industries had local character.


Rather developed the industry of construction materials. In the province there were 680 brick and tiled plants with 2309 workers. All plants released products on 250 thousand rubles [5, page 16-17].

the largest enterprises in the Kursk region. The first sugar plant in the Kursk province was constructed in the village of Mikhaylovka by the count Bobrinsky in 1829 [8, page 45]. Then, in 1831 - Bochechansky and the Pu-tivlsky county; in 1837 - Of St. George in the Dmitriyevsky County, in 1839 - Shebekinsky and Golovchansky; in the fifties - 5 plants; in the ninetieth - 8 plants. From 1829 to 1900 20 plants were constructed [6, page 8-9].

1900 worked as

B at 21 sugar plants 9021 persons. The sugar plants made 0.3% of total number of the enterprises, but 30% of all workers were engaged at them. These enterprises developed products on 16 million rubles, i.e. 65% of all products [5, page 15-16]. The Kursk sugar went not only to domestic market, but also was taken out abroad.

Development in the country of network of the railroads promoted growth of trade, especially grain. In general across Russia the export of bread in 1880 increased by 3 times in comparison with 1860. For 1897-1901. The treasury received 132 million rubles income from trade. It is more and more peasants and petty bourgeoises tested in trade business. So, only for 1877-1878 in the province 54 certificates and the ticket for trade and occupation in crafts were granted. Chislo of merchants of the 1 and 2 guilds in the region made 1419 people [4, page 76].

the Main form of trade continued to remain fairs. In 1878 the Radical fair was transferred to Kursk to bring closer it to the Moscow market. However trade turnovers of the Radical fair to the end of the century decrease because of through traffic to the main shopping centers and proximity of fairs in Kharkiv and Poltava. Besides the Radical fair 67 more fairs worked in the district cities and settlements, from them 6 fairs - in Kursk. Venues of fairs in a provincial Course was Georgiyevskaya Square where traded in hardware and iron goods, haberdashery and a manufactory traded at the Kherson gate, leather and furs - at Bogoslovskaya Square, in horses, at the price from 25 up to 75 rub, - at Konnaya Square and in the adjacent yards of inhabitants. 23 stone and 21 wooden bench were constructed at Muchnaya Square. In the downtown, at Red Square, there were a fish row, a push [4, page 76].

Essential value the financial reforms undertaken in the early sixties and which created a uniform state credit system had

>. In 1860 instead of the abolished Loan and Commercial banks which appeared unprofitable the National bank which acquired right of emission (release) of bank notes was created. By 90th years it had already 110 branches. Quickly private, mainly joint-stock, commercial credit developed. The first joint stock bank was founded in 1864 in St. Petersburg. Soon similar banks were created in Moscow, Kiev and Kharkiv. To the middle of the 70th years in Russia there were already more than 40 incorporated banks with the total amount of capitals of 350 million rubles, and by 1900 the commercial banks tripled the capitals [9, page 83]. In the Kursk province offices C. - the St. Petersburg International commercial bank (one of five large joint-stock banks of Russia) and the joint-stock Connected bank were open. The city public bank was founded by the merchant Filiptsev.

during bourgeois reforms of the 60-70th of the 19th century also the structure of local management changed. According to "The provision on provincial and district territorial institutions" (1864) in counties and provinces, electoral local authorities - zemstvoes were entered. Formally territorial Institutions consisted of representatives of all estates, but suffrage was caused by property qualification. Members of territorial meetings (vowels) were elected on three curia: land owners, city voters and elective from rural societies. The chairman of meetings was the leader of the nobility. Also executive bodies - provincial and district territorial justices were created. Zemstvoes had no political functions and did not possess executive power, resolved generally economic issues, but also in these limits they were controlled by governors and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Zemstvoes in Russia played a noticeable role in the solution of questions of both the economic, and cultural plan (education, medicine, territorial statistics, etc.).

the New system of institutions of city self-government (City Councils and justices) created on the basis of "The policeman of situation" (1870) was founded by

on the bourgeois principle of uniform property qualification. Elections happened on the curia created according to the amount of the paid tax. The vast majority of the inhabitants who do not have the established property qualification was discharged of elections. So, it was aware 1 polling precinct is organized, and the right to vote was acquired only by 600 people from 50 thousand urban population of Kursk.

dominant position in zemstvoes (especially at the provincial level) occupied with

as a result of reform of local governments the nobility, and in City Councils - representatives of an upper bourgeoisie.


of city self-government also were under unrelenting control of the government and generally resolved the issues connected with maintaining municipal economy [3, page 75].

However, despite progress of bourgeois reforms of the 60-70th years of the 19th century, social and economic and social and political life of the Kursk region, as well as across all Russia, was defined by position of the peasantry. By the beginning of the 20th age of 2.4 million country yards of Russia had no plots any more and delivered labor to the cities, to landowners or fists. 3/4 lands were under authority of communities. At the same time, actively there were also processes of stratification of the village on poor people, middling persons and fists. On participation in land lease and its purchase the peasants came to the 3rd place after merchants and petty bourgeoises.

In 1886. In the Kursk region from total number of the privately owned earth the landowners possessed 78% (849500 tithes), to merchants, petty bourgeoises, clergy and commoners - 10.2% (113176 des.), to peasants - 11.8% (129390 des.). At the same time in 1882 213 rural communities had up to 20% of horseless peasants, in 114 communities the horseless peasants made from 20 to 43%, and in 33 communities horseless there were more than 40%. Till 1881 44% of peasants of the province were considered temporarily obliged, that is bore duties not only state, but also landowner. Corvee in villages of the Kursk province made up to 40 men's and 30 Women's working days a year. The satisfactory harvest of bread was celebrated in 1891 only in 5 counties: Putivlsky, Rylsky, Dmitriyevsky, Lgovsky and, a part, in Fatezhskom. In other 10 counties, especially in Old and New Oskol and Timsky, the full crop failure both bread, and vegetables is noted. The main reasons of crop failures the Kursk governor noted in the report - primitive processing of the earth a plow, weakness of agricultural stock, deterioration in breeds of horses and the cattle [4, page 78].

the Lack of land and lean years forced peasants to seek

the better lot elsewhere, moving on the States of Siberia, Altai, Kazakhstan. From counties of the Kursk province the peasants moved in Tomsk, Tobolsk and others of the Province of Siberia. So, in 1888 39162 peasants submitted the application for resettlement, got from the authorities permission to resettlement - 18593 people, moved 6092, and returned back - 1765 people [4, page 79].

Thus, existence in the post-reform Kursk province of serf remnants, pre-capitalistic and patriarchal and natural forms of housekeeping were caused by unevenness and incompleteness of development of capitalism.

List of references:

1. O.L. verbena. Industry of provincial Kursk in the early sixties of the nineteenth century//Russia at the turn of the century. History and soveremennost. - Kursk, 2004. - Page 221-223.
2. GAKO. T. 327. Op 1. 25, 26.
3. The history of Russia from the most ancient times prior to the beginning of the 20th century / Entrance of an edition of I.Ya. Froyanov. - SPb., 1992. - 374 pages
4. The Kursk province during an era of bourgeois reforms of 60-70 of the 19th century and in post-reform time//the Kursk region in the history of the Fatherland / Under the editorship of L.S. Pol-nera. - Kursk, 1996. - Page 73-80.
5. The review of the Kursk province for 1900. - Kursk, 1901. - Page 15-16.
6. Sugar industry of the Kursk province. - Kursk, 1922. - Page 8-9.
7. Scientific notes. T. 47 Questions of history and study of local lore. Part II. - Kursk, 1968. - 265 pages
8. Scientific notes of the Kursk pedistitut. Issue 2. - Kursk, 1949. - Page 45.
9. V.A. Fedorov. History of Russia. 1861-1917. - M, 2000. - 384 pages


© D.Yu. Demchenko.*

the Belgorod state national research university, Belgorod

In this article are considered by

priority classes of petty bourgeoises, proceeding from features of social and economic development of the Kursk province and their main sources of income in the second half of the 19th century.

* Teacher of history and social science of Golovinsky SOS.

Michael Thomas
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