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VERA DANILOVNA OF ALEXANDROV IS A OUTSTANDING DOMESTIC GEOBOTANIST, THE RESEARCHER OF VEGETATION OF THE ARCTIC (TO THE 100 ANNIVERSARY SINCE BIRTH)



rastitelnost of Russia. SPb., 2011. No. 17-18. Page 98 — 102.

of Vegetation of Russia. St. Petersburg, 2011.

N17-18. P. 98 — 102.

by

ANNIVERSARIES AND DATES

Vera Danilovna Alexandrov — given

the domestic geobotanist, the researcher

of vegetation of the Arctic

(to the 100 anniversary since birth)

of Vera Danilovna Alexandrova — the outstanding Russian geobotanist,

of the explorer of Arctic vegetation (to the 100th anniversary)

last year executed 100 years since the birth of the given geobotany, bright, talented, erudite researcher, one of the largest experts on vegetation of the Arctic — Vera Danilovna Aleksandrova.

was born V.D. Alexandrov's

on August 30, 1910 in St. Petersburg in noble family. She received the fine house education including a learning of foreign languages (English, German and French) and good music education. The father V. D. is Daniil Aleksandrovich Alexandrov (1879 — 1942) is a descendant of an old noble family, was born in Atkarsk. Before the October revolution he owned quite large manor in the village of Volhynia of the Ryazan province (200 tithes of the earth). In young years he was a student of Natural office C. - the St. Petersburg university, participated in student's disorders, was deducted, then returned to the university and finished training. After the termination of the university in 1903 it taught in one of the most advanced gymnasiums of St. Petersburg — Obolenskaya's gymnasium (after the revolution — 16th ULS (uniform labor school)). In the 1920th Daniil Aleksandrovich was the director of the 16th ETS and Petrosovet's member. In the 1930th years he was ousted principals because of nonpartisanship and worked as the ordinary teacher till the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Died of hunger in blockade (in 1942).

Mother is Elizabeth Iosifovna (nee Bartoshevich), 1888, came from family of the Polish noblemen, graduated from Pedagogical Institute in 1908, also taught in Obolenskaya's gymnasium. In the 1920th worked in Leningrad Soviet, subsequently — the teacher of biology and geography at high school No. 67 of Petrogradsky district and other schools of the city.

Vera Danilovna was the senior child, except it grew in family two more children: the brother Alexander Danilovich (1912) who subsequently is given

the mathematician and the physicist, the academician, the rector of Leningrad State University from 1952 to 1964, and the sister Maria Danilovna (1914), subsequently the psychologist, the associate professor of the Tartu university.

Revolution of EL met

by the 8-year-old girl, but kept about it quite bright memoirs. Alexandrov' family was not struck in the rights, and after leaving school in 1928 D. entered the Leningrad State University (LSU) on biological faculty. At first EL was going to specialize in the field of genetics of plants and in 1930, being a student of the 2nd course, worked as the technician in the Detskoe Selo office of All-Union Institute of Crop Production (Detskoe Selo, nowadays Mr. Pushkin). But at this time,

in connection with the begun persecutions on geneticists, this specialization at the university was abolished, and EL decided to devote itself to geobotany. She specialized on department of geobotany under the leadership of V.N. Sukachyov who managed department from 1931 to 1941. In student's years of EL married Feodosiy Vasilyevich By-strikov, but in 1931 this marriage broke up.

In 1931, being a student of the 3rd course, EL participated in the Novozemelsky expedition Côme-severoputi (Glavsevmorput subsequently) on inspection of cervine pastures, working as the assistant geobotany. This first trip to Novaya Zemlya in many respects defined its future: Century D. was fond of studying vegetation of the Arctic, and it became the main business of her life.

Upon termination of the University, having gained the diploma geobotany, EL within 5 years (from 1932 to 1937) works as the research associate of All-Union Arctic institute (VAI, then ANII, nowadays AANII). These years she is engaged in studying vegetation of the Arctic, having spent several summer seasons and two winterings on New Earth and on Taimyr. In 1932 — 1933 it works at New Earth where is the chief of geobotanical group of the Scientific and trade expedition. The young researcher on New Earth spent nearly two years (two field seasons and a wintering). Materials of novozemelsky expeditions are the basis for the first scientific works of EL devoted to a food supply of a reindeer on New Earth (Alexandrov, 1932, 1935). Having begun with inventory of cervine pastures, she conducts further more and more detailed and in-depth researches of structure of land and underground parts of phytocenosis, seasonal dynamics and efficiency of the Arctic tundra communities.

In 1934 — 1935 EL works as the geobotanist in the Taimyr expedition of Institute of reindeer breeding at the northeast of the Mid-Siberian plateau (basin of the river of Popigai). In 1932 — 1937 she was the research associate of Department of reindeer breeding of ANII.

B 1935 D. again married Alexander Ivanovich Zubkov (subsequently the associate professor, the dean of geographical faculty of LGPI of

A. I. Herzen). In 1936 they gave birth to the eldest son Alexander.

In October, 1937, in connection with complication of a political situation and the amplified persecutions on the former representatives of ruling classes,

B. The kormodobyvaniya of Institute of polar agriculture, livestock production and trade economy (in Leningrad) was translated to from ANII in Sektor where she worked until the end of 1938 then she was dismissed on grounds of redundancy that, most likely, was also connected with further deterioration in a situation in the country and "strengthening of class fight". In 1940 in Works the Inta of polar agriculture was published its first large work — "Fodder characteristic of plants of Far North".

From January to April, 1939 D. works as the geobotanist in the Labinsk expedition of Giprolestran-sa, and then — the research associate of the All-Union Institute of Crop Production (AUICP). The academician N.I. Vavilov, the outstanding geneticist and the selector, the scientist with broad international popularity was the director of VIR these years. He was not afraid

to employ in institute of educated intelligent employees from the category "former", thereby saving them from need and the social not device. Since the middle of the 1930th, mainly after the IV session of VASHNIL (December, 1936), N.I. Vavilov became the main and most authoritative opponent T.D. Lysenko and other representatives of "agrobiology". However clouds over N.I. Vavilov's head were more and more condensed. Around there were mass cleanings, arrests and references of scientists. On August 6, 1940, during the expedition to just annexed Western Ukraine, N.I. Vavilov was arrested and in 1943 died in prison.

Apparently, in connection with the complication of a situation at institute which happened against the background of these events (there began work the personnel commission from Moscow designed to arrange "cleaning" of research associates of VIR), EL in April, 1940 quit from VIRa and by the invitation of the department chair of geobotany I LIE V.N. Sukachyova began to work as the senior laboratory assistant here. At department she met the familiar faculty which friendly met the graduate. These years taught given geobotany here: I.H. Blyumen-tal, A.P. Shennikov, I.D. Bogdanovskaya-Giyenef, G.I. Poplavskaya, B.N. Gorodkov, N.A. Konovalov,

A. A. Korchagin and others.

on April 25, 1941 as a part of group of employees of department of EL left in a business trip to the reserve "The Forest on Vorskla" (nowadays Belgorod Region) where there took place practice of students I LIE. Here, in the settlement Borisovka, the Great Patriotic War found it. Till October, 1941 D. continued to conduct scientific observations in the reserve "The Forest on Vorskla" under the leadership of V.N. Sukachyov. On October 11, in connection with approach of the front, it was evacuated from Borisovka and about one and a half months, being endangered and undergoing considerable deprivations in a front-line strip, reached Khopyor state. the reserve (Novokhopersk the Voronezh Region) where arrived only on November 28. On December 11

B. By it was taken at the staff the Khopyor reserve to a position of the scientific employee botanist where worked almost all war — till February, 1945. In 1944 it was transferred to a position of the senior research associate of the same reserve. For scientific work in the Khopyor reserve in the years of war of EL in 1946 it was awarded the medal "For Valorous Work in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945. The family of EL took war hard: parents remained in besieged Leningrad where the father — Daniil Aleksandrovich — in 1942 died from dystrophy. The sister V. D. — Maria Danilovna — was in the Caucasus, in Pyatigorsk where it appeared with three small children and aged parents of the husband. She was forced to feed family and to work in bank at the occupational mode (in 1942). The brother Alexander Danilovich was in 1941 — 1944 in evacuation in Kazan.

B 1945 D. returned to Leningrad and came to postgraduate studies of ANII which completed in 1948. Since October 1, 1947 it appointed the Stalin grant. In 1947 at EL the younger son — Mikhail was born. On June 26, 1948 D. defended the master's thesis on a subject "Vegetation of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya between 70 ° 56& and

72 ° 15& NL" (work is published in 1956) and was taken on as the senior research associate of ANII. For operating time in ANII of EL it was awarded with the Certificate of honor of Glavsevmorput and the Certificate of appreciation of Glavsevmorput. However since August 1, 1949 D. was again dismissed from ANII on grounds of redundancy. Apparently, it was a consequence of a notorious August VASKHNIL session of 1948 and persecutions which began after it on the biologists who were not sharing T.D. Lysenko's ideas among which there were V.N. Sukachyov and his closest pupils.
again with assistance of V.D. V.N. Sukachyov found

I the new place of work. Since August 20, 1949 it is enlisted in the Complex expedition of Academy of Sciences of the USSR concerning field-protecting afforestation at Institute of the wood of Academy of Sciences of the USSR which director was the academician V.N. Sukachyov. There it worked at first as the junior researcher, and then — the senior research associate. In 1949 D. carried out geobotanical survey of the route of the state forest strip Voronezh — Rostov-on-Don on the site between the village of Veshenskaya and Rostov-on-Don. In 1950 — 1952 EL participated in work Southern dubravnogo group of the Complex expedition as a part of which it surveyed areas of creation of oak groves of industrial value in the territory of the Volga-Dono-Manycscogo of Entre Rios and studied forest vegetation conditions in these areas. In 1950 she also took part in works of crew of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Rostov Region and the Volgodonsk way, for these works it was awarded with a prize of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In December, 1951 it gave an academic status of the senior research associate in "geobotany".

to

by the Order of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR of EL it is transferred from Institute of the wood to Botanical institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (with transfer of an established post), and since August 1, 1953 it was enlisted by the senior research associate in Department of geobotany the BIN. From this point the new period in V.D. life began. At Botanical institute she worked 35 years, and all its further scientific destiny is connected with it.

In 1954 — 1955 EL conducts geobotanical researches in a flat part of Altai Krai on the program of the Special complex expedition of Academy of Sciences of the USSR for studying territories of new agricultural development and inspection of virgin lands.

B 1956 D. comes back to studying vegetation of Far North again. As a part of a geobotanical expedition the BIN it goes to the Arctic again — on the island Big Lyakhovsky (New Siberian Archipelago). V.D. surveyed flora and vegetation of the island Big Lyakhovsky, studied seasonal dynamics and biological efficiency of tundra communities. Following the results of field researches "The essay of flora and vegetation of the island of Big Lyakhovsky" (1962) is published. In February, 1958 it is unanimously elected by the senior research associate Sektora of vegetation of the North of department of geobotany the BIN as the famous geobotanist-tundroved. In 1959 D. Aleksandra's Earth conducts geobotanical researches on the island (archipelago of Franz Josef Land) where she studies structure and efficiency of vegetable communities of polar deserts. During this period of EL makes trips

to the East European tundra (a hospital the Gray Mask, 1960) and to the Western Taimyr (the Tareysky hospital, 1966). Working as many years in extreme conditions in the high Arctic, EL repeatedly got into the difficult situations demanding big courage and composure, but always came out from them the winner.

In 1964 on set of the published works, EL was appropriated an academic degree of the Dr.Sci.Biol. In the generalizing report "The Arctic tundra of the USSR" she considered a number of fundamental issues: about differentiation of the tundra and polar deserts as vegetation types, about width zonality and vertical zonation, about dynamics of a vegetable cover in a subarea of the Arctic tundra, about structure and seasonal rhythmics of tundra vegetable communities and groups (Alexandrova, 1964a). Discussing with views of B.N. Gorodkov allocating polar and desert type of vegetation on the example of Wrangel Island, EL accepted broader interpretation of the Arctic tundra and considerably narrowed the volume of the concept "polar deserts". It carried to area of polar deserts of the Northern hemisphere only periglyatsialny territories of high latitude of the Arctic (Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, de Long's islands, a part of the Northern island of Novaya Zemlya, northeast the island of Spitsbergen and periglya-tsialny sites of northern islands of the Canadian Arctic archipelago). The polar deserts having bipolar distribution differ from the Arctic tundra in lack of density of root systems of plants and the ochagovost of the humic horizon of the soil caused by it, domination of sinuziya of nakipny lichens, mosses and liverworts, full loss of low shrubs, lack of boreal types in flora (Alexandrov, 1983). Wrangel Island, the island of Kotelny and other New Siberian Archipelago were carried by it to area of the Arctic tundra and excluded from area of polar deserts. The concept of polar deserts offered EL gained wide recognition among domestic and foreign researchers.

D. works with

Since 1960 in newly established Laboratory of the general geobotany (under the leadership of E.M. Lavrenko) which in 1967 was merged into Laboratory of geography and cartography of vegetation. During this period of EL pays much attention to development of theoretical questions of a fitotsenologiya: to the analysis of regularities of dynamics of vegetation, a problem of allocation of phytocenosis in a vegetable continuum, a possibility of application of methods of cybernetics in a fitotsenologiya and a biogeocenology, etc. Interest in theoretical problems of geobotany was shown at it in 1948 when small article with critical analysis of the doctrine of Clement-sa about a climax (Alexandrov, 1948) was published. To a climax problem it returns and further (Alexandrova, 1964, 1969). Century D. made the significant contribution to development of a problem of development in geobotany (Alexandrov, 1962), in a problem of allocation of phytocenosis in a vegetable continuum (Alexandrova, 1965, 1966), considerations of phytocenosis in terms of cybernetics (Alexandrov, 1961) and a modeling problem in a fitotsenologiya (Alexandrov, 1970), in the analysis of a ratio of concepts

of an ecosystem and a biogeocenosis (Alexandrov, 1969), etc.

by

During the period from 1963 to 1967 it performed work on two planned subjects: "Fodder characteristic of plants of Far North" and "Classification of vegetation". Two large monographs were as a result published. The monograph "Fodder Characteristic of Plants of Far North" (1964b) which is cardinally processed and added in comparison with work of 1940 was the capital report on fodder plants of Far North. In it all data on distribution, the chemical composition, fodder value, a poyedayemost which are available for that time and to some other characteristics of tundra plants are generalized. Century D. was the main author and the editor of the book and did huge work on reduction in a system, unification, critical evaluation of extensive actual material and preparation of the monograph for printing: it wrote 57 sections from 62. This report published in 1964 was the large contribution to geobotanical science and agriculture of Far North having huge practical value. Other monograph "Classification of Vegetation" (Alexandrov, 1969) was the first in domestic geobotany large survey work stating the principles of classification of vegetation and the classification systems of various geobotanical schools. In certain heads of the book the analysis of classification approaches in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, the Central European, Russian and Soviet geobotanical schools, etc. is given. The author precedes detailed analysis of features of various classification approaches and schools by a number of chapters in which issues of the theory of classification are discussed.

Vera Danilovna was exclusively bright, talented, highly erudite researcher having rare working capacity and also ability to conduct systematization and generalization of extensive arrays of diverse data. All this allowed it to create the large generalizing reports on the most important problems of geobotany. The scientific interests of EL were very wide and various. It published over 100 scientific works devoted to dynamics of vegetation, phenology, studying elevated and underground structure of phytocenosis, biological efficiency of tundra communities, ecological features of types and communities, interrelations of vegetable communities with conditions of a habitat and other problems including 3 monographs, two of which are translated into foreign languages and 3 popular scientific books are published abroad, and. Various aspects of theoretical geobotany and the organization of vegetable communities are reflected in the most important scientific works of EL, much attention is paid to questions of classification of vegetation and geobotanical division into districts (Alexandrov, 1969, 1971, 1977, 1979; Geobotanical..., 1989; etc.).

should Also note bright promotional talent of EL — the author of a number of popular scientific books among which "Force is lands. Stories about the soil" (1958), sustained "The wood in the steppe" (1950, 1953), "Plant predators" (1955, 1972), and two latest books on 2 editions. Besides, EL was an active member of All-Union Botanic Society and for many years was the chairman of the Commission on classification of vegetation of VBO. Its feather possesses the most interesting "Project of classification of vegetation of the Arctic" (1979).

on May 27, 1970 D. retired on age, but since June 1 it was again enlisted in Laboratory of geography and cartography of vegetation to a position of the senior scientific employee-consultant. Century D. continued to work in laboratory of geography and cartography prior to the beginning of 1989. She participated in creation of the card of geobotanical division into districts of Non-Black Earth Region of the European part of the USSR and was an editor (together with T.K. Yurkovska) the collective monograph of the same name which was published in 1989 after her death. During this period of EL paid much attention to preparation of scientific shots, she brilliantly gave a tundrovedeniye course at department of geobotany of the Leningrad university to which we were lucky to listen in 1979, successfully directed graduate students. S.S. Holod and V.Yu. Neshatayev nowadays famous of geobotany were her last pupils. We always with huge appreciation remember Vera Danilovna as the benevolent, sympathetic, pleasant person in communication. She always concerned young colleagues friendly, with genuine interest and great respect, liked to talk to us, was interested in our opinion on various issues, gave us the books, allowed to use the extensive library in the apartment on Pool, told about the Arctic expeditions. Besides, it should be noted big support which EL gave to the scientific growth of a number of young people then of scientists in whose abilities and prospects she believed (for example, it in every possible way supported B.A. Yurtsev and V.I. Vasilevich's young people).

Despite the hard life full of offenses, sometimes — cruel injustice, she was not disappointed in people. Century D. forever remained is young at heart, was very many-sided, bright, creative person bearing a huge positive charge of humour, cheerfulness and optimism. She loved music, poetry, was interested in art and literature, liked to recite verses by favourite poets, perfectly sang. Vera Danilovna on January 16, 1989 at the age of 78 years died, it is buried in Leningrad at the Northern cemetery.

Authors express to

gratitude of T.K. Yurkov-skaya who shared the reminiscence about V.D. Aleksandrova and also the manager of Archive BING RAHN of T.I. Simonenko for the given opportunity to study documents.

LIST OF REFERENCES

V.D. Alexandrov's
1932. A summer forage of deer on New

to Earth//Economy of the North. T. 1 — 2. Page 128 — 129. V.D. Alexandrov 1935. A summer forage of deer on Goose Earth (Novaya Zemlya)//Tr. Arctic Inta. T. 22. Page 45 — 50.

V.D. Alexandrov's
1940. Fodder characteristic of plants of Far North//Tr. Nauch. - issled. Inta of polar agriculture, livestock production and trade economy. It is gray. Reindeer breeding. Issue 11. Page 1 — 95.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1948. Clements's doctrine about a climax//the Boat. zhurn. T. 33. No. 5. Page 536 — 544.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1956. Vegetation of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya between 70 °56& and 72 °15& NL//Vegetation of Far North and its development. L.T. 2. Page 187 — 306.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1961. Vegetable community in the light of some ideas of cybernetics//the Bulletin MOIP. Otd. biol. T. 66. Issue 3. Page 101 — 113.
Alexandrov's

of EL 1962. A development problem in geobotany//the Bulletin MOIP. Otd. biol. T. 67. Issue 2. Page 86 — 107.

V.D. Alexandrov's
1964a. The Arctic tundra of the USSR the Report on the published works presented to protection instead of the thesis for a degree of the Dr.Sci.Biol. L. 43 pages
V.D. Alexandrov's
1964b. Studying changes of a vegetable cover//Field geobotany. T. 3. Page 300 — 447.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1965. To a question of allocation of phytocenosis in a vegetable continuum//the Boat. zhurn. T. 50. No. 9. Page 1248 — 1267.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1966. About unity of continuity and discretization in a vegetable cover//Philosophical problems of modern biology. Hp 191 — 204.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1969. Classification of vegetation. The review of the principles of classification and classification systems at different geobotanical schools. L. 276 pages
V.D. Alexandrov's
1970. About a modeling method in a fitotsenologiya//the Boat. zhurn. T. 55. No. 3. Page 369 — 375.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1971. Principles of zone division of vegetation of the Arctic//Boat. zhurn. T. 56. No. 1. Page 3 — 21.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1977. Geobotanical division into districts of the Arctic and Antarctic. L. 188 pages (Komarovsky readings; Issue 29).
V.D. Alexandrov's
1979. Project of classification of vegetation of the Arctic//Boat. zhurn. T. 64. No. 12. Page 1715 — 1730.
V.D. Alexandrov's
1983. Vegetation of the polar deserts of the USSR of L. 142 pages

Geobotanical division into districts of Non-Black Earth Region of the European part of RSFSR / Under the editorship of V.D. Aleksandrova and T.K. Yurkovskaya. 1989. L. 64 pages

Fodder characteristic of plants of Far North / Under the editorship of V.D. Aleksandrova. 1964. M.; L. 464 pages.

E.M. Koptsev, O.I. Sumin's

>. 2011. Vera Danilovna of Alexandrov (1910 — 1989)//Development of geobotany: history and present. Materials of Vseros. konf., posvyashch. to the 80 anniversary kaf. geobotany and plant ecology the St. Petersburg (Leningrad) state. un-that and to anniversaries of her teachers (St.-Petersburg, January 31 — on February 2, 2011). SPb. Page 15 — 16.

F.Ya. Levina, L.E. Rodin. 1973. 50 anniversary of Department of geobotany of Botanical institute of V.L. Komarov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1922 — 1972)//Boat. zhurn. T. 58. No. 12. Page 1830 — 1845.

Personal record No. 23 (398). Alexandrov Vera Danilovna. Archive of Botanical institute of V.L. Komarov of RAS. Page 1 — 61 is begun on August 1, 1953.

of NorinB. N, GurichevaN. Item, BelorusovaZh. M of 1970. Vera Danilovna Alexandrov (to the 60 anniversary since birth)//Bot. zhurn. T. 55. No. 11. Page 1699 — 1704.

B.A. Yurtsev, I.Yu. Sumerina. 1990. Vera Danilovna Aleksandrova's memories (30 VIII 1910 — 16 I 1989)//Bot. zhurn. T. 75. No. 8. Page 1198 — 1203.

© V.Yu. Neshatayeva, 1 V.Yu. Neshatayev1

1 Botanical institute

of V.L. Komarov of RAS. 197376, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popov St., 2. E-mail: vneshataeva@yandex.ru

2 St. Petersburg state

timber college of S.M. Kirov. 194021, St. Petersburg, Institutsky Lane, 5.

It is received by p on March 20, 2011

Carl Moreno
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