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2000. 03. 021. Pletnev S.A. Essays of Hazaria archeology / nauch. Red. And poslesl. V.Ya. Petrukhina. M.: bridges of culture; Jerusalem: Gesharim. 247 villages of Bibliogr.: Page 239-247

2000.03.021. PLETNEV S.A. Essays of HAZARIA ARHEOLO-GII / Nauch. edition and poslesl. V.Ya. Petrukhina. — M.: Bridges of culture; Jerusalem: Gesharim. — 247 pages — Bibliogr.: page 239-247.

the Book is devoted by

to archeology of Khazar Khanate — the powerful state education uniting many lands and the people of the South of Eastern Europe in U11-H of centuries from Lower Volga area and the North Caucasus to the Lower and Central Dnieper Bank. Be the focus of attention of S.A. Pletneva — the famous expert in history of the East European nomads of an era of the early Middle Ages — saltovo-mayatsky archaeological culture which she identifies with the culture of the Hazaria state.

In introduction the author addresses the history of studying antiquities of saltovo-mayatsky culture which chronological and territorial framework coincides in general with borders of Khazar Khanate. In its limits five local options, differences between which were caused as a geographical location (and, therefore, by specifics of conditions of managing and life), and to some extent ethnic origin of their population, are allocated now. Quite reasonably, writes S.A. Pletnev, it is possible to tell about two Don options — forest-steppe (I) and steppe (II), Azov (III), Crimean (IV) and Dagestan (V). There are no sufficient archaeological data for allocation & #34 yet; Нижневолжского" option, but after opening in this region so-called & #34; barrows with ровиками" the prospect of its poyaleniye is not excluded, the author (page 12) notes.

in detail are considered by

In the following six chapters each of the specified options of saltovo-mayatsky culture. Chapter 1 is devoted to rather well studied Don forest-steppe (I) option. The greatest number of the monuments (119) relating to it is concentrated in the pool of headwaters of the Seversky Donets. In total here 11 ancient settlements (ruins of fortresses or locks), 10 burial grounds (4 catacomb, 3 with truposozhzheniye and 3 pit) and 95 settlements are considered. One more group (108 monuments) concentrates in the basin of Oskol and includes 4 ancient settlements, 9 burial grounds (7 catacomb and 2 pit) and 88 settlements (page 25-26).

Feature of forest-steppe option is & #34; гнездовой" the nature of arrangement of monuments at which the ancient settlement, the open settlements and burial grounds adjoining it form a uniform complex.

complexes at the village the Top Saltov, Dmitrovsky and Mayatsky can be the most striking examples

. A kernel of each of them was fortress with the white stone, put from calcareous blocks two-armor-clad walls. Distinctive feature of the social structure of inhabitants of the considered complexes reconstructed on materials of the burial grounds which were their part is the high percent of the militarized population that as the author believes, is explained by the boundary nature of this area. Its ethnic structure is defined by obvious prevalence of catacomb burials dolikhokranov-alan, moved to the basin of Don (or moved here by Khazars) in the middle of the 8th century from the place of their resettlement ruined by the Arab troops in the North Caucasus. At the same time penetration on their Wednesday of the brakhikranny steppe population is noted (prabolgar?) with which mainly pit and podboyny burials (page 42-44, 60) are associated.

in general, the author concludes, white stone walls of fortresses, prevalence of catacomb burials and the dolikhokranny population, specific type of the ceramics similar to Alania ceramics of Ciscaucasia are the leading signs forest-steppe, Alania (or alano-Bulgarian), option of saltovo-mayatsky culture (page 63).

In the following two chapters monuments of the Don steppe (II) option within which are allocated the region of Central Don (Chapter 2) — quite poorly studied — and the region of the Lower Don (Chapter 3) where now already about 100 monuments are more or less investigated are considered by

>: ancient settlements, settlements, kocheviya, burial grounds. Podonya is a reference monument of the Average the Zlivkinsky beskurganny burial ground. On the Lower Don the most outstanding monument the unique Left-bank Tsimlyansk ancient settlement identified with well-known to medieval writers Hazaria fortress Sarkel and the Russian Bela Vezhey who arose on its ruins not without justification is considered. The 9th century constructed in the 30th years under the direction of Byzantine architects from the burned brick, but in peculiar Hazaria construction tradition to a besfundamentny laying, Sarkel was the state, i.e. actually kagansky fortress. Besides it in this densely populated area five more large strengthened and not strengthened settlements, including one white stone fortress — the Right-bank Tsimlyansk ancient settlement and Karnaukhovskoye ancient settlement with earth strengthenings were located. In general

monuments of white stone and brick architecture are single

here, and earth strengthenings of ancient settlements are one of the main signs of the Don steppe (II) option of saltovo-mayatsky culture. Its characteristic feature is also funeral ceremony of that type which is presented in the Zlivkinsky burial ground and usually contacts prabolgara. Widespread in the Lower Podonye & #34; barrows with ровиками" are not studied so far sufficiently. Nevertheless already now there are certain bases to see in them burials of Khazars, S.A. Pletneva believes.

Close on a number of typological signs to the considered option, especially to the nizhnedonsky region, is Azov (III) to which Chapter 4 is devoted. Steppe settlements are sometimes extensive by the sizes here, but always differ in very poorly expressed cultural layer and lack of visible borders that as the author specifies, allows to carry them to type of settlements-kochevy or polukocheviya (page 132-133). Funeral monuments are presented mainly by inlet burials to embankments of barrows of earlier time. All main signs of the funeral ceremony which is tracked in them are typical for burials prabolgar and are almost identical to those which are recorded in prabolgarsky burials of the basin of Don and also in the territory of Danube and Volga Bolgary UPYH of centuries (page 136-137).

the Layers of Hazaria time containing elements of saltovo-mayatsky culture are revealed by

also at excavation of the antique cities of Taman Peninsula: The Tamansky ancient settlement — antique Germonassa who in UPYH of centuries was called Tamatarkhoy and was the Hazaria seaport and also Phanagoria — other port city prospering during the Hazaria period, Cap and Patrey (page 140-149).

In Chapter 5 monuments of the Crimean (IV) option which originality, as well as the district of Taman in the Azov option, substantially was defined by antique heritage and the Byzantine influence are considered by

>. So, the author notes, both options are characterized by the specific construction equipment (a construction of houses on stone socles or on the bases of the destroyed antique buildings) and also a special ceramic complex in which fragments of tare ware — amphoras, pithoses and the krasnoglinyany high jugs which appeared at the end of the 9th century with flat handles prevail.

the Main points of the Crimean possession of a khaganate were Bospor (antique Panticapaeum) which in Hazaria time, as follows from Iosif Kagan's letter, was called K-r-ts (during the Old Russian period — Korchev) and also LPG paradise (Sugdey) and Mank t (Mangup) — the largest city of the Crimea of Hazaria time on the area. However in general stay of Khazars or rather traces of Hazaria dominion in the Crimea according to archaeological data are traced poorly, S.A. Pletneva writes. In particular, she notes, it is not possible to find & #34; Hazaria присутствие" on materials of funeral complexes (page 169).


In Chapter 6 presented results of researches of monuments of Ciscaucasia, Prikaspiya and the Volga region where, according to messages of written sources, Khazars lived actually and Kagan's domain was located. The most productive in respect of archaeological studying a Hazaria problem in the last decades was the region of Tersko-Sulaksky Entre Rios and further on the South almost to Derbent. The main massif of the monuments connected with a Hazaria era in this area is located in the Dagestan foothills. It is first of all a number of large ancient settlements which sizes (from 30 to 120 hectares) allow to consider them the remains of the cities. All of them are perfectly strengthened adobe and pise-walled or stone cob walls and ditches, and inside the largest in addition strengthened sites — citadels are allocated. Chit-yurtovskoye ancient settlement on the Sulak River, quite reasonably as the author, identified with the city of Belenger mentioned by several Arab authors as one of the capitals of Khazaria (page 180-181) believes belongs to number of the last.

its district of the next were open for

B and three burial grounds are substantially studied. Two of them — beskurganny — contained catacomb (75%), pit (16%) and podboyny (8%) burials. The dolikhokrana buried in catacombs most often are associated with alana, and brakhikrana of pit burials so-called & #34; зливкинского" type — with Bulgarians. However the greatest interest, S.A. Pletneva notes, represents the third burial ground with kurganny embankments. In the majority from them there were catacomb burials, but noticeable differing in a number of signs from the Alania. Judging by richness of stock, generally weapon and a horse harness, they belonged to notable horse soldiers. The version about communication of chir-yurtovsky barrows with Hazaria ethnos, according to the author, looks rather convincing. To Khazars, S.A. Pletneva believes,


possessed also sklepovy, rich with weapon and jewelry, the burials of Agachkalinsky, Uzunkalinsky and Urtsekalinsky burial grounds which were followed quite often by the same rich soil burials. Their dating — the end of VII — the beginning of the 11th century — in general corresponds to lifetime of the Hazaria state (page 185).

the Considerable number of the settlements (more than 50) which are at a transition stage from seasonal kocheviya to stationary settlements is revealed

on Stavropol Plateau. On the shape they are similar to steppe settlements of Hazaria time Podonya, Priazovye and East Crimea. The ethnic origin of monuments of Stavropol Plateau to prabolgara, according to the author, is rather obvious, as well as their state accessory to Khazar Khanate (page 189-190).

Hazaria Kagan's domain included the Volga region and Caspian steppes on which he wandered together with the sort every summer, being returned in the fall to the & #34; зимник" — the main town of Khazaria Itil located, according to data of the Arab and Persian writers, in lower reaches of Volga, in the place of its confluence with the Caspian Sea. Despite existence of descriptions of numerous fundamental constructions of this enormous city, it was not succeeded to find its ruins still. Hazaria monuments of this region are still presented almost only by burials in barrows from rovika and without them (page 201-203).

in general, S.A. Pletneva concludes, the archaeological materials which are available now show rather high degree of unity of culture in all regions of Khazar Khanate in spite of the fact that the different people were its carriers (generally several drevnebolgarsky ethnic groups, Alana, actually Khazars). The general settled life of the population of a khaganate and generally agricultural nature of its economy does not raise doubts. Nevertheless in a number of areas the seasonal kochevaniye or distant-pasture cattle breeding remained, i.e. elements of traditional nomadic life remained. Respectively, also extent of militarization of the population of Khazaria was very high. Judging by materials of burial grounds, soldiers riders were the most exclusive and its rich part. The funeral ceremony in one and all regions demonstrates deep rootedness of pagan representations in Hazaria society regardless of

archeological sites volga region archeological sites north caucasus saltovo-mayatskaya culture khazar khanate
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