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2012. 03. 031. O.V. Vorobyova. The Russian America in the 20th century: historical and cultural aspect. - M.: Infra-M, 2010. - 203 with



strana of North America

2012.03.031. O.V. Vorobyova. The Russian AMERICA In the 20th CENTURY: HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECT. - M.: INFRA-M, 2010.-203 pages

the Reviewed monograph represents a research of the major directions, forms and results of cultural and educational activity of the Russian emigration in the USA and Canada in the 20th century. In the book the picture of formation and development of an institutional basis of the historical and cultural and educational movement in New York, San Francisco, Montreal and other centers of the Russian abroad in North America is recreated: museums, archives, schools, theaters, music bands, clubs, publishing houses, church communities, etc. The author analyzes a contribution of various waves of the Russian emigration to culture and art of the Russian America and the general cultural interaction on the North American continent, opens influence of the cultural and educational institutions created by the Russian emigrants, literature and periodicals on younger generation, maintaining of cultural and language identity by it. In the monograph also the subject of preservation and homecoming of historical and cultural heritage of the Russian America reveals.

the Book consists of the preface, five chapters and an epilog; the application gave the resolution of the Forum of the Russian compatriots in the USA on June 20, 2008 (New York).

By the beginning of the 20th century in the USA and Canada the numerous colony of the Russian labor migrants (much more numerous, than the first postoctober beloemigrantsky wave) which was made by the people who on the whole were not considering themselves emigrants, who arrived to America only on earnings existed. An intellectual part of this colony developed forms of cultural and educational work, traditional for Russia, as the most part of the Russian workers and farmers was semiliterate or at all is illiterate and was mercilessly operated. "

connection of charitable and cultural and educational functions in hands of one organization within the city, the state, the province or church parish" (page 13) was characteristic feature of public life of the Russian emigration in the USA and Canada.

In spite of the fact that in the 1920th - the first half of the 1930th years some large associations of the Russian emigration were under the influence of social democrats, the left liberals and anarchists, the bulk of the Russian colony was kind to white emigration. However to the public actions directed against Bolshevist Russia, most of emigrants remained indifferent. Emigre organizations generally focused the efforts to charities and education, helping people to adapt psychologically to absolutely new, in many respects to alien conditions of the American life for them and to get an education. These years the labor unions are created, children's and adult schools, craft courses open. Besides enlightenment and charity the emigre organizations were engaged also in book publishing in Russian that promoted preservation of culture and traditions. Public universities are in the early twenties created; without being higher educational institutions in exact sense of the word, in the Russian America they "were the only type of the educational institution approaching on the tasks and programs the higher school" (page 17). Vorobyova allocates an interesting detail: at all public universities the learning Russian was obligatory, English was studied only by those who badly knew it. It is explained by the fact that emigrants until the end of the 1920th - the beginnings of the 1930th years did not seek to assimilate, hoping to return to Russia soon. For persons interested to get an education in the American educational institutions "from 1920 to 1945 in New York the Russian student's fund founded by A.R. von Wiren thanks to which to get an education in 106 colleges and the universities of the USA worked more than 600 Russian emigrants" could (page 16).

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In the late twenties when it became clear that Bolsheviks were approved in Russia for a long time, in the environment of emigration the aspiration to assimilation with maintaining, however, the cultural traditions and language began to be shown. For this purpose various public associations began to be created. In the majority of the large cities of North America (New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Montreal

>, etc.) arose the Russian cultural centers, publishing houses, lecture halls, theaters and music bands continuing the work to this day. New York where owing to the economic reasons (in the large city it is easier to find a job) the biggest was formed in the USA the Russian diaspora was and remains the largest center of cultural activity of the Russian emigrants. "Within the Russian America there were also several compact colonies which formation was connected with public and business activity of individuals - representatives of the Russian emigration" (page 29) as, for example, in Stratford where I.I. Sikorsky's firm moved in 1929.

Cultural and educational activity of the Russian diaspora in Canada in the first half of the 20th century was not as vigorous, as in the United States owing to its rather small number and dissociation. Natives of Russia worked generally at agricultural farms, lived in the remote place the isolated communities where public life was developed poorly. Nevertheless in 1924 in Montreal the Union of the Russian toilers which organized school and library was created. Several Ukrainian organizations as since the end of the 19th century in this country there was quite large diaspora of emigrants of Ukraine worked in the capital of Canada. Expansion of the Russian-language cultural and educational organizations considerably became more active only in the 1960-1980th years when Canada began to attract the second generation of the Russian migrants from Europe and also political refugees from the USSR.

the Cultural centers of the Russian emigrants of America did not stop the work and during World War II, having taken a position of support of the former homeland in the majority. They organized fund raisings for the aid to the USSR which is at war with Hitlerites, brochures extended and lectures with explanation of need and importance of such help were given.

an Important role in life of the Russian emigration in North America was played by various organizations of the Russian officers which arose in the 1920th years and considerably replenished in the 1940-1950th years at the expense of migrants from Europe and China. And if during the interwar period these organizations put the task "preservation of the military organization and readiness for renewal

of armed struggle with the Bolshevism" (page 84), then in post-war years their activity was shown in publishing, charity, work with youth, support and a celebration of veterans and also in preservation of military relics, awards, other material and documentary monuments of national history. The most significant museums and archives of the Russian America arose exactly thanks to this their work. Many of these associations continue the activity and now, having transformed after war to the veteran organizations. For example, Society of the Russian veterans of World War I in Los Angeles in 2005 celebrated the eighty-year anniversary.

Summing up of

the results, Vorobyova writes that the sociocultural phenomenon of the Russian America became possible thanks to efforts of several generations of the emigrants seeking to keep and give to descendants Russian and cultural traditions. Of course, in the conditions of the American "melting copper" most of emigrants assimilated, nevertheless in 1990 in the USA from three million Russian Americans of 1 million 300 thousand considered Russian native. It considerably facilitates adjustment and maintenance of cultural ties with modern Russia.

M.M. Mintz

of the Country of Asia and Africa

2012.03.032. MAKITO S. Chinese-Japanese WAR AND BIRTH of the JAPANESE NATIONALISM. MAKITO S. The Sino-Japanese war and the birth of Japanese nationalism/Transl. by Noble D.; With a forew. by Hiroshi M. - Tokyo: Intern. house of Japan, 2011. - XXVI, 184 p.
the Monograph by professor of the Keisen University in Tokyo Sayah Makito is devoted by

to cultural aspects of the Chinese-Japanese war of 1894-1895 and also influence of this war on formation of national consciousness of Japanese. The author used memoirs literature, the Japanese press and an extensive historiography in the Japanese and English languages. The book consists

russian emigration usa and canada russian abroad
Clifford Reynolds
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