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2007. 04. 028. E.N. Polyakova. Regional lexicology and onomastics / perm. State. Un-t. - Perm, 2006. - 255 pages - bibliogr.: Page 231-239


2007.04.028. E.N. Polyakova. Regional LEXICOLOGY AND ONOMASTICS / Perm. state. un-t. - Perm, 2006. - 255 pages - Bibliogr.: page 231-239.
In work the origin of dialect vocabulary and onomastics of the Perm region covering the Top and Central Prikamye, their development, study methods, reflection in language of features of material and spiritual culture is considered by

the Value of a phrase "Perm dialects" changed depending on changes of administrative-territorial division in the Urals. In pre-revolutionary scientific literature Perm, as a rule, called the Russian dialects occurring in the Perm province which included then areas modern Perm, Sverdlovsk and Kurgan areas. After the revolution of 1917 the administrative-territorial division repeatedly changed, and the modern Perm region (some time being called Molotovska) located in the Western Urals in the basin of the Top and Central Kama was as a result allocated. It borders in the West on the Kirov region and Udmurtia, on the Komi Republic, in the east on Sverdlovsk region, in the south on Bashkiria in the north. The Russian dialects in the territory of the Perm region are also called Perm now.

several groups of sources Exist, leaning on which, linguists consider formation of modern Perm dialects, namely: 1) written monuments of HP-HUSh of centuries; 2) the researches of historians leaning both on written monuments, and on data of the archeological excavations which are carried out to Prikamye; the 3) of a research of the linguists defining origin of a number of features of the Perm dialects; 4) researches of the ethnographers studying the history of material and spiritual culture of Prikamye; 5) data of onomastics (toponymy and antroponimiya); 6) modern Russians and non-russian dialects of this territory.

the Main of these sources are written monuments, beginning from Old Russian chronicles and finishing actually Perm business texts of HUT-HUSH of centuries. Chronicles supply with some information on penetration of Russians to the Perm regions in H1-HU of centuries. Actually Perm documents since 16th century are the main material for studying early resettlement of Russians in the Western Urals, ways of migration to this edge, resettlements in Prikamye, various aspects of life of the Russian population of this region in the 16-18th centuries: classes of the population, economy, culture, beliefs, etc., communications of Prikamye with the center of Russia and with other regions that is very important for linguists. They fix a large number of dialect words which give the chance to compare early Perm dialects with not Perm and to establish their origin. The used manuscripts are original skoropisny texts of the end of HU! — HUS of centuries what their dating and paleographic features testify to. Usually it is business documents or copies about them written "word for word" along with the original what tells the paleographic description of the manuscripts which are stored in archives of the Perm region about. The studied documents belong to different types (genres) and are written by different persons. First of all it is the texts made by local vulgar scribes, writing sextons what a dung of authors of acts, for example signatures of the Solikamsk vulgar scribes on the columns which are stored in the Kungur museum testifies to. At the same time a part of documents is made or edited by visitors copyists: question speeches of locals about vicinities, formal replies of voivodes, pistsovy and census books. Office-work in Russia was the 16-17th centuries centralized, clerks, copyists, dozorshchik were appointed by Moscow and were not permanent residents of one province. Editing Perm documents HU! — HUI of centuries shows what vocabulary copyists from the center perceived as local characteristic only of the live speech, for the Perm dialects, and tried to replace with the all-Russian accepted in business language of the 17th century. It was, for example, the word the log which in pistsovy books remained in names of the villages which evolved from vocabulary of dialects (cf. The wild Log), but as the word nominal was replaced with copyists from the center the synonym accepted in business writing the enemy ("ravine"): Verkh-Logov's village on the enemy; Pochinki Logovskoy on the enemy. Editing at the use of a usual word in northern Perm dialects the spring which copyists was replaced with a synonym, habitual for them, a key was in the same way shown, but remained as the place name - a proper name: Yes in the Solikamsk County on the small river on the Spring a mill monastic. Such editing gives the chance to reveal vocabulary of the live speech, i.e. characteristic of the developing dialects.

As for earlier period then the reliable source should be considered researches of the historians leaning not only on various Russian written monuments fixing appearance of Russians in Prikamye from 11th century but also on materials of archeological excavations in different places of the Western Urals. An important source of studying this process are the linguistic researches of modern Russian dialects giving the chance to reveal their archaic lines, ancient vocabulary, results of their interaction with the non-russian dialects existing in the same or adjacent territory. So, F.L. Skitova's research of one of phonetic features of some verkhnevishersky dialects (lip & #43;] & #43; public not front row: uniforms] & at the, zhereb] an onok, a top] at, to we lie] s) allowed to establish not only its source, but also the emergence reason in some Russian dialects of the Top Vishera - direct interaction there in the past of the Mansi and developing Russian dialects as a result of simultaneous accommodation of Russians and Mansi, mixed marriages to whom "the Mansi beginning" was presented by the wives making considerable impact on the speech of children. Linguistic researches of modern Perm dialects allow to compare them with not Perm and to reveal the closest to them, in particular, to ask about a genetic linkage with dialects of Pomorze, Vologda, Vyatka. Historical and linguistic sources are complemented with the ethnographic researches describing material and spiritual culture of residents of the Top Prikamye during various eras. Ethnographers note similarity of many details of life and also vocabulary of Prikamye and Pomorze calling them. So, considering features of kopylny distaffs of the northern counties of Prikamye (Cherdyn and Solikamsk), note absolute similarity of their form and jewelry to the Dwin, Mezen and Pinega distaffs and also coincidence in their naming on Central Ural Mountains and in the Arkhangelsk and Vologda provinces presnitsa, pryasnitsa and preshnitsa. Also the general conclusion of ethnographers that the population of Central Ural Mountains uses in life the North Russian terminology and also that


much in common at Russians with Komi-Permyaks, Mansi and it is very little borrowed in life and ceremonies Bashkirs and Tatars is important for linguists.

Judging by chronicles, Russians begin to get to the Urals in the 11th century. In 1092 Novgorodian Gyuryata Rogovich, one of boyars or large merchants, organized a campaign to Pechora and to Yugra, i.e. to places where ancestors of modern Mansi lived. Campaigns of Novgorodians to the Urals were undertaken also in the 12th century. V H! - HP of centuries they did not create still here settled settlements. The Russian settled population appears in the Top Prikamye only in HGU — HU of centuries. Thus, traces of stay of ancient Novgorodians on the Top Kama, Vishera are available, but to speak about formation of dialects which cornerstone they would be only Novgorod there are no convincing bases as, first, till 14th century there were no constant Russian settlements here, and secondly, not only Novgorodians, but also other Russians, in particular vladimiro-residents of Suzdal early enough begin to get into the Top Prikamye. And Perm Great, as since the 14th century. begin to call the territory of Upper Prikamye, was from the most appearance of Russians the place of rivalry of Novgorodians and vladimiro-residents of Suzdal here. In Х^ — HU of centuries Great get into Perm both Novgorodians, and inhabitants of the Russian North. For example, at the beginning of the 15th century from prosecutions of the Novgorod authorities in Prikamye the voivode Anfal Nikitin who came over to the side of Moscow ran Dwin. He built the Anfalovsky town mentioned in written monuments in the Top Prikamye. Archeologists assume that the town was near the modern village Bondyug of the Cherdyn district. In the 15th century as allow to judge excavation and written monuments, there were also other Russian towns (Iskor, Pokcha, Cherdyn, Uros) in the territory between Kama and Kolva. Under their protection also the Russian peasants, generally carriers of the North Russian dialects begin to lodge.

In 1472 as a result of a campaign of the prince Fedor Pestry Perm Great finally was a part of the Russian state and obeyed to Moscow. At the same time the structure of group F is indicative. Pestry who consisted of residents of Veliky Ustyug, belozerets, residents of Vologda and vychegzhan. A part undoubtedly settled them in Perm Great as F. Pestry was sent here by the voivode and created the strengthened town in Pokche. The porechiya arising in Kama and Kolvinsky the Russian dialects also originate in dialects of the first settlers who came from the North of Russia. Other center of emergence in the 15th century of the Russian dialects in Prikamye

was the territory of modern Solikamsk. In the first quarter of the 15th century the Vologda posadsky people Kalinnikov began extraction of salt from natural salt brines on the Borozoy River, and in 1430 - in lower reaches of the Usolki River. Apparently, with them came here and other residents of Vologda, i.e. early Solikamsk dialects had to ascend, as well as Cherdyn (Perm Great), also to North Russians. The most archaic starozhilchesky dialects developed Great in Perm. Development of Prikamye by the Russians coming from Pomorze begins with it. In Х^Х^ centuries it was incidental penetration of Russians, but in the 15th century the inflow of the population amplifies, constant settlements, such as Pyanteg, Bondyug, Dolda, Anbor appear. Thus, in this territory in the 15-16th centuries there were main starozhilchesky dialects. And inflow of the population continues for all the 17th century. Perm Great as the onomastics of pistsovy books of I. Yakhontov and M. Kaysarov and also many Cherdyn documents of the 17th century, from Pomorze testifies to it, i.e. inhabitants of Dvina, Mezen, Pinega, Vymi, Vilyadi, Vychegda, Sukhona, the South, Pechora, Vologda and Vyatka where there were already in the basis North Russian dialects which are genetically connected with Novgorod became populated. Arriving to the Russian North from Moscow, Vladimir, the Volga region, etc. acquired the local North Russian speech, though gave it some features, in particular in vocabulary. Besides, the North Russian speech of Pomorze was connected to some extent with dialects of the Komi-Zyrians living there. Together with Russians from Pomorze to Perm Great came and separate families of Komi-Zyrians as it is confirmed by pistsovy and census books of the 16-17th centuries settled here. In the second half of the 17th century and especially in the 18th century Old Believers (kerzhak) from the Nizhny Novgorod province, from Zavolzhye begin to arrive in Perm Great. They settle near the population which already developed here with the established dialects.

of Earth of Perm Great during their development by Russians were partially populated with Komi-Permyaks. Arrived lodged usually on free lands, but contacted with Komi-Permyaks, acquired their toponymy of the Cherdyn earth, keeping it. As quite often to Perm Great there were some men, they took in the wife of brides from the Komi-Permyak families, numerous mixed marriages in which children acquired phonetic and other features

of language of mother were created. Till 20th century in the Russian Cherdyn dialects the lines acquired from Komi language, for example, an average of I (ko1oko1a, Vo1odya), lack of a sound of X, replacement with its sound To (a kutor from the farm), etc. remained. Monuments of the 17th century. confirm penetration of a number of household words of the Komi-Permyak language. Many Komi-Permyak words are present among geographical terms and geographical proper names: a vorga "a track in the forest", guran "a hole, a ravine", churk, chocks "the mountain, the rock", shutyom "the abandoned, grown with a grass and bushes field", etc. However at preservation of the Komi of toponymy the antroponimiya in Х^-ХVII develops centuries the Russian here. When settling the Top Vishera by Russians they faced Mansi which partially settled in these parts. To the Top Vishera, residents of the Cherdyn County where by 18th century there were already steady Russian starozhilchesky dialects which tested as shown above, some influence of the Komi-Permyak language came to the settlement. Here also one more influence - the Mansi language which left some phonetic marks affected. So, in Perm to the Great-Cherdyn earth (modern Gainsky, Kosinsky, Cherdyn and a part of Krasnovishersky District of the Perm region) there is a development of territories by Russians on the rivers: originally there were Russian dialects across the Top Kama to the mouth of Vishera and according to the lower Kolva, is later according to the Top Kolva and Vishera, the latest (from 18th century) - across the Top Vishera.

Other territory of Prikamye which began to accustom too very early, - Salt Kama where from the first quarter of the 15th century salt saltworks began to work. However not only the scene of action of salterns, but also the considerable area became populated around in which there were new Russians - the Solikamsk dialects. As the antroponimiya and direct instructions on places from where there arrived new settlers testifies, it were Vologda, Vyatka, Pinega, Velikiy Ustyug, Nizhny Novgorod, Kostroma. Also cherdynets came here. Arrived to Salt Kama from different territories of Russia not only a northern way through Perm Great, but also across Kama from lower reaches. After accession to the Russian state of Kazan from the second half of the 16th century there is open also other way of penetration of Russians to Prikamye - southern: from Volga to Kama and on it up. By the same way salt from Prikamye was taken out. The basis of the Solikamsk dialects develops in the 16-17th centuries, they were very close Cherdyn, but conditions of their addition and contacts with the non-russian population differed from Cherdyn, and it


in general in distinctions of dialects of Perm Great and Salts Kama. Contacts with Komi-Permyaks, judging by toponymy, were and here. However in the Solikamsk monuments of the 17th century which reached us the loans from the Komi of language are limited to toponyms and geographical terminology. Contacts with other people in the Solikamsk monuments are not fixed.

In the 17th century, according to historians, "slipping" of a part of the population of Perm Great and Salts Kama on the South of Prikamye, down Kama goes. Since the middle of the 16th centuries when in 1558 the first appointed diploma by Stroganov on possession of lands across Kama from the mouth of Lysva to the mouth of the Chusovoy River was given. Thus, there is the large-scale chastnofeodalny enterprise in Prikamye. The priseleniye of the Russian peasants Stroganov begins with the middle of the 16th century. Especially actively became populated by Obvinskoye porechye where there were peasants from the Russian North, from Vyatka, from Perm Great and Salts Kama. Such characteristic of settlers as permitin often occurs in census books and other documents from Stroganov' territories. In business acts of Prikamye three words with a root perm are fixed: permin, resident of Perm, permitin.

the Russian starozhilchesky dialects which are formed on Obva, Oche-re, Chusova, Mulyanke, Tulva were North Russians in the basis. But they appeared later, than dialects of Perm Great and Salts Kama, came under some influence of immigrants from the central and even southern Russia and therefore differed from early starozhilchesky dialects of Northern Prikamye a little.

the Author pays special attention to addition of the Kungur Russian dialects in Sylvensko-Irensky Porec which beginning of settling by Russians belongs to the 20th g of the 17th century. Families from Pomorze and from the Top Kama prevailed, i.e. the basis of the developing Kungur dialects had to be the North Russian. But, first, the Kungur dialects developed much after Cherdyn, Solikamsk, obvensky, chusovsky, osinsky, secondly, in Kungur there arrived the population from Central Russia and widely trade with various regions of Russia developed, both cartage, and the Kungur dialects as a result developing developed water as show written monuments of XVII - the beginnings of the 18th century, differ from Cherdyn and Solikamsk a little. Besides, the developing Kungur dialects were in other foreign-language environment, than Cherdyn or Solikamsk.

Porec Tatars, ostyak (Khanty), cheremisa (Maris), Bashkirs were neighbors of Russians in Sylvensko-Irensky. However there was no such interpenetration of the Russian and non-russian dialects, as in Perm Great. Non-russian continued to live enough separately, both Tatar and other non-russian vocabulary meets in monuments of the 17-18th centuries only when non-russian realities are described.

In the 18th century the situation in Prikamye which affects addition new and further development of already existing dialects significantly changes. There are state and private copper-smelting and ironworks plants to which attribute, quite often moving, peasants. And around the plants also agricultural production begins, i.e. there are villages, there are new rural dialects. So, there is a settling of the valley of the Pozhva River which is mentioned already in documents of 1629. On patrimonial lands of Stroganov connect the Russian colonization of this area and addition with construction of the plant of the Russian dialects here. Due to growth of the population at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century resettlement to settlements and the farm which usually arose on the cultivated lands and pozhnyakh (mowings) where the log hut and a household yard were under construction begins. Especially large number of small rural settlements arises in the central and western regions of Prikamye. The way of formation of names of such settlements attracts attention. Often they received patronimichesky names on - at the, - the yat (Bychata, Petushat, Overyata, Prokhoryata) and less often on - onka, - yonka (Simonki, Filatyonki, Filippyonki, Poletayonki). Researches of many hundreds of oykonim with formant - at the, - the yat show that they especially productive were in Obva and Ocher's pools. Names on - onka, - yonka are located mainly at the edges of an area of oykonim on - at the, - the yat. Ethnographers pay attention to nested resettlement and to formation of patronimichesky names of the nests general for the whole group of settlements which form a nest. They see the tradition going from ancient local Komi-Permyaks here. Resettlements which were made to the Perm province in connection with carrying out Stolypin reform (for example, from the Pskov and Mogilev provinces to Okhansky and Osinsky Counties) did not affect development of traditional starozhilchesky dialects. In such steady look the rural dialects of Prikamye came by 1917 and existed to the middle of the 20th century. The second half of the 20th century appeared

time when the picture of existence of the Perm dialects began to change quickly. It, is generally connected with general average education and mastering pupils the literary language, distribution of newspapers, magazines, transfers of radio, television and resettlement of a part of country people to the cities. As a result the number of carriers of rural dialects was significantly reduced, many dialects disappeared, and remained experience strong influence of a city popular speech and literary language. The old, though changed dialects as show vocabulary researches, remain mainly representatives of the senior generation.

Having considered the history of formation of modern Perm dialects the author comes to a conclusion that the starozhilchesky dialects of HU-HU11 of centuries which had the North Russian basis and therefore being in many respects relatives, at the same time were not absolutely identical. The reasons of it consist in the following. First, Prikamye became populated generally from Pomorze, from the Russian North, but from different places in which in HU-HU11 of centuries there were various Arkhangelsk, solvychegodsky, Ustyug, Vologda, Vyatka and other dialects. Initially they generated the differing dialects and in the Prikamye. The mark was left also by the dialects brought in Prikamye from Tver, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir. Secondly, dialects of Prikamye developed throughout several centuries at different times as consistently accustomed the territory behind the territory and on everyone the features arose and developed. Considering terms of relationship in the Russian dialects of the former Perm Great, the author establishes differences in the use of this vocabulary in different regions, for example, of a svesye - in the basin of the Lower Vishera, to Entre Rios of Kama and Vishera and across Kolva, the sister-in-law and a svoyachina - in yurlinsky and Solikamsk dialects. Analyzing these and other terms of relationship, the author after K.A. Fedorova divides dialects of the former Perm Great into five groups: gainsky, nizhnevishersko-kolvinsky, yurlinsky, Vishera yazvenskiye, Solikamsk. Such division corresponds to the sequence of settling by Russians of the territory of Perm Great and emergence of the Russian dialects here. At first the closest to a northern way moved into to Kama from Vychegda lands of Gainsky district, then lands east, to Entre Rios of Kolva and Kama, across the lower Vishera became populated. Here other population came already, and there were dialects which were a little differing

from gainsky. In other time, later, there were dialects across the Top Vishera and yurlinsky dialects in an environment of the Komi-Permyak dialects. Thirdly, the Russian dialects of different territories were formed near various languages occurring in the Urals: Komi-Permyak, Udmurt, Mansi, Khanty, Tatar, Bashkir. And it could not but affect distinctions of the developing Russian dialects too.

of Distinction, appeared right at the beginning, increased as a result of development of dialects which were very closed, rather isolated as were in the territories removed from each other. Communication between carriers of different dialects was very limited as it conditions of managing did not demand, life. In each dialect some features were developed though the North Russian base continued to remain the general and did not allow to come to cardinal divergences of dialects. At the same time presence of the general administrative, economic, cultural (and in the past and the military) the center for settlements of a certain area had to be reflected also in the speech of residents of the area and promote a certain proximity of his dialects. The research of vocabulary and mapping of certain groups of words (for example, geographical terms) also demonstrates results of development of dialects of different territories on the ways, differences of vocabulary of the northern, central and southern regions of Prikamye. Formation and development of the Perm dialects also defined that picture of their existence what dialectologists observe the last half a century.

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