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Category: History

Mankurtizm as deformation of historical consciousness


Zh.T. Toshchenko's


(Experience of the sociological analysis) *

TOSHCHENKO Jean Terentievitch is the corresponding member of RAS, the Doctor of Philosophy, professor, the editor-in-chief of the Sotsiologicheskiye Issledovaniya magazine (e-mail:

Summary. In article the critical analysis of the interpretations of national history distorting real value of events of the past is carried out, inadmissibility of a personal taste is proved in interpretation of historic facts.

the Concept "mankurt" is connected by

with the work by Ch. Aitmatov who introduced into art and scientific circulation. Mankurts during an era of steppe empires and khanates called people who, being taken prisoner, were exposed to the manipulations aimed at deprivation of memory of antecedents. Put on a crude part of a stomach of the killed of an animal the head of the victim. Drying, this peculiar helmet squeezed a skull of the person owing to what he forgot all information on the past, turned into similarity of a plant, was content with satisfaction primitive potrebnostey1.

In our opinion, something similar, but in social sense, happens in the Russian society and in a number of the CIS countries. Many people know about about * a little Article is written within the scientific project of the Russian Federal Property Fund: "Deformations of public consciousness: essence, types, consequences" No. 09-06-00115a).

of 1 Cm: Aitmatov, Ch. Buranny halt. - M, 1999.

shly not only the people, the country, but also the settlement where live, about history and traditions of the family. At the same time there are figures whose efforts are directed to that this drowsiness not only proceeded, but also amplified that people were not interested past - the and the homeland. In distribution of a mankurtizm the large role is played by full ignoring of the past. In many Post-Soviet states there are political forces which wish to cross out the history of the Soviet country (and also Russia), to present it as a certain failure in development of a civilization.

Mankurtizm as historical unconsciousness is shown by

in different types. Are indicative in this plan of a discussion, connected with the Anthem of Russia. After a statement as the anthem of music of M. Glinka there was a situation when many could not remember a melody and therefore it was not perceived practically by anybody. Attempts of some poets to offer the words of nobody impressed. The fair decision to return the old Soviet anthem was accepted, in our opinion, having made some changes to the text.

What storm was caused by this decision! A. Chubais said that he will not get up at performance of this anthem. The famous liberal human rights activist S. Kovalyov expressed the position so: "If Alexandrov's music is approved as the anthem, then it will be a spittle in soul to a huge number of people" 1. And this despite the fact that the All-Russian polls (data of ROMIR) showed that from 50 to 70% of respondents approved return of the "old" anthem and only 15.5% supported "A patriotic song" of M. of Glinki2.

of the Event of the end of the 1990th was shown that the hopelessness and primitivism of ignoring of the Soviet past turn for their carriers into full public rejection of their ideas and programs. The attitude of the Russian public towards liberals is illustrated by sharp falling of influence of all anti-patriotic forces, in whatever appearance they acted, trying to call into question competency of existence Soviet (and in a sense and Russian) a historical era.

Other form of a mankurtizm - intended distortion (falsification) of the past when historical events, life and affairs of political figures (and not only them) are led up to unrecognizability, before deprivation of any sense and credibility. Situativnost of such treatments and explanations of the historical past usually prekhodyashcha. Nevertheless they promote a disorientation of the Russian citizens, especially youth. It was expressed, in particular, in the aspiration to idealize the royal mode which was characterized as the benefit, as civilization top, as an ideal

1. on: News. - 2000. - On Dec. 5
2 See: News. - 2000. - 17 noyab.

of social system. Especially in this sense the last Russian monarch "was lucky" - to Nicholas II whose activity undersigned the most iridescent paints in spite of the fact that it entered historical memory "bloody". Because of its dull policy even monarchic the adjusted researchers of the past called Nicholas II by "historical pettiness", responsible for big tragedies in the fate of Russia.

Similar examples of falsification take place at revision of history of Ukraine. It is enough to remember a position of official Kiev and its president V. Yushchenko who undertook altering of history, especially those events which could be given as opposition with Russia. For the sake of this purpose Mazepa who was always a treachery symbol is proclaimed by the national hero resisting to "aggressive" activity of Russia. The battle of Konotop in HUP of century when the Crimean Tatars together with Poles with the assistance of the Cossack groups broke the Russian army, is presented as a historical victory of the Ukrainian people in its fight for nezavisimost*.

during transformation of the Post-Soviet states one of the disturbing symptoms marking emergence of a mankurtizm with ethnic accent. Polemic around Nagorno-Karabakh is indicative in this regard. The Azerbaijani and Armenian politicians, leaning on "conclusions" of the historians which is proved year who the first appeared on this earth who developed it who made it such as it is. At the same time data of archaeological and ethnographic researches are provided, works of various thinkers and different eras for the only purpose are quoted - to prove primogeniture of any given party. Such approach to the historical past leads to forcing of tension and aggravation international otnosheniy2.

the Ethnic mankurtizm is aimed by

at ignoring of historical realities, at refusal of recognition of basic changes behind which is deep shifts. In this regard it would be desirable to remind the history of emergence of the Dnieper Moldavian republic (Tiraspol). The population of this unrecognized state on one third consists of Moldavians, on a third - of Russians, on a third - of Ukrainians. Front attempts "a mold * About it much both is written by supporters of policy of Yushchenko, and his opponents and opponents whose ranks considerably grew in recent years. See, for example: Popov, D.D. Milstein, And. Orange princess. Yulia Tymoshenko's riddle. - M, 2006.

of 1 Cm: Toshchenko, Zh.T. Etnokratiya: history and present. - M, 2003;

It. Former Soviet Union: suvernization and integration. - M, 1999.

to vanizirovat

>" and even "to rumynizirovat" this part of the former federal republic led to counteraction, and then and to the military conflict as a result of which many people died. At the heart of the conflict there is an ignoring by politicians of a new historical situation, their maniacal aspiration to the state independence for the benefit of only one ethnic part of the population in damage of interests of other people, centuries inhabiting this territoriyu1.

Mankurtizm is generated by the formation of myths expressed in inventing of fictional pseudo-events, pseudo-processes, quasihistorical persons. These created phantoms especially visually are shown when historical consciousness of the separate people when at past assessment in their memory events which, it seems, defined their destiny are stuck out is investigated. Here wonderfully intertwine rational and emotional perception, the jealous, but a little weighed assessment of crucial events of life of the people and their consequence is shown.

the Paradoxical combination of the past and the present, an exaggeration of value of events of the past for orientation in the present shows that historical memory is the powerful, actively operating phenomenon which has not less impact on behavior of people, than assessment by them of the current economic situation, the disorder and restlessness during a transition period of life of society. Historical memory is capable to aggravate or weaken perception of the events which are taking place in private and public life, to aggravate negative characteristics, to promote calm of public and group mood. Such instability, paradoxicality of consciousness is aggravated with the fact that historical memory, as well as fruits of some historical researches, is used in the current political and ideological rhetoric, will be engaged by various political forces. Many artificially created models of interpretation of the past are noted by ethnoegoism, an emotional okrashennost and, being supported by mass consciousness, try to explain modern problems from "methodological" positions of conceptual and world outlook antiquity that sometimes fancifully gets on with various pseudoscientific theories. Many events, specific, but significant for the separate people, become very important factor both public consciousness in general, and their historical memory, involving in obvious, and sometimes and the hidden discussion and confrontation of representatives of other people living in this territory. It is possible to carry past events to them (especially falling of the Kazan khanate) in the history of Tatarstan, the fate of statehood of Tuva, the historical past of the divided Lezghin people, etc. Therefore

of 1 Cm: Transnistria: conflict sources. - Tiraspol, 2001.

arrangement of accents in interpretation of historical events can promote (or to resist) to rational judgment of coexistence of the people. Otherwise there is a caution, prejudice, negative cliches (empire, chauvinistic policy, etc.) which have feature long to remain in public consciousness, to raise social tension and to generate the conflicts.

Mankurtizm proves

in political struggle. Interest in history in the increasing measure influences the movements connected with process of violently becoming sovereignties of the former federal and autonomous republics. In the context of normal discussion various explanations of events of the past are furnished nothing reprehensible. But, being aimed at revision of history, they become the act of manipulation of the consciousness leading to not harmless consequences in relationship of the people. Taken in a special foreshortening, they turn into speculation on the historical past when events move to please to political ambitions, are subordinated to in advance proclaimed installations, pursue the self-interested aims.

should mention the president of Ukraine V. Yushchenko In this plan once again. It constantly initiated political actions which would bring it dividends for distancing from Russia, ennobled it in the opinion of leaders of the countries of the West, gave a certain capital which would increase its chances of continuation of the political century. So was with its position concerning Famine-Genocide in 1932-1933. This tragic page which affected the multimillion population not only Ukraine, but also Russia, Kazakhstan confirmed the numerous victims as a result of criminal policy and the crop failure which happened these years. The tragedy is tried to be turned into conscious policy, as if carried out by the leadership of the USSR against the Ukrainian people. Huge expenditure from the state treasury for a construction of the monuments devoted to this event were at the same time made numerous demonstrations are held, conferences are organized. Museum collections are collected, memoirs and works are released, books of memory are created. As it is established, in them brought not only the dead, but also the people who were healthy and living still. The exhibitions devoted to these events on which the documents which appeared the forgeries which did not have any relation to Ukraine were shown were open.

these actions In itself are quite acceptable and possible

if they were not brought to speculative absurdity. The provocative policy was not limited to borders of Ukraine: the management appealed to other countries to recognize these events as genocide of the Ukrainian people. In November, 2009 at the initiative of Yushchenko it was decided to open criminal cases on the victims of Famine-Genocide where the guilty person "the Moscow Soviet government" because Famine-Genocide was provoked by Moscow "for the purpose of extermination of the Ukrainian peasantry, its culture and ways of managing" 1 is already appointed.

Mankurtizm is formed by

also through personal "national orphanhood" which in considerable to a measure is expressed that it became characteristic also of the historical memory of the past of the people, the family, the immediate environment. It is adjoined by ignorance of history of the village, city, the area. As show data of researches of the RAGS Sociological center (2001), only 5% of the interviewed population get knowledge and ideas of history of the people and the country from family archives.

This personal spontaneous mankurtizm is shown by

in full or almost full loss of interest in the historical past. Such phenomenon is generated by the low level of civic consciousness of people whom the history of the country does not interest, the people: according to the same poll declared lack of interest in history up to 15% of respondents. The negligent relation to the historical past is caused by costs of training and education at comprehensive schools, loss of family traditions, insufficient attention to formation of patriotism in public policy.

Activity of national heroes, geniuses, talents, their feats and fulfillments are stored by

in cumulative historical memory as a peculiar museum. They are known according to textbooks, on scientific and fiction. But such persons dozens. The memory of millions and millions of others is kept in memory of relatives, family, friends. These are millions of bricks in the base of our historical memory, anonymous workers and witnesses without whom History and that is especially important, our participation in it is inconceivable. The person cannot feel fully as the citizen of the country if he not only does not know milestone events in its stories, but also the family tree, the history of the city, village, the region in which was born or lives. Unfortunately, most of Russians has very approximate knowledge of the family tree, is frequent not further the third generation. According to the RAGS Sociological center, on a question: Whether "The family tree was formed in your family?" only 7% answered in the affirmative. On a question: "In what you see the reasons of weak knowledge of history of the family?" 38% told that there was nobody to tell about it, and 48% claimed that this question for family is indifferent, were unaffected by it. The absurdity of such statement is amazing because as it shows the same historical experience, knowledge of "personal" history ennobles the person, improves his behavior, does his life more pol1 Sokolovskaya, I. Intelligence agencies established guilty of Famine-Genocide//News. - 2009. - On Dec. 2

ache also significant even if in its sort there were neither noblemen, nor merchants but only peasants, workers or employees. Whether this reaction to the past of the family generated such surprising and amazing "discoveries" made by many ambitious figures who in the 1980-1990th started looking for the roots. Those years the wave of search of participation in the nobility, merchants, etc. with the purpose to prove nobility of origin swept. In such situation the public suddenly learns that such intellectual is an offspring princely (seigniorial, noble) blood though real data of this "eminence" are not found. In this quite clear and explainable desire to understand the personal past, in the origin the doubtful aspiration to surely find such past began to be allocated, completely ignoring the real facts and even denying the "ignoble" origin, as if activity of other estates in the past does not deserve the same pride and respect. In our opinion, it can be explained with an inferiority complex, desire to add to itself the importance for the current private and public life, to attach themselves the public weight and significance which for some reason this category of people does not have. Whether the excitement around the revived "noble" meetings, assignments of new count and princely titles, a peculiar children's game in "candy wrappers" and "soldiers" is explained by it.

in general as showed researches of the RAGS Sociological center, in modern historical consciousness the estrangement from a personal priobshchennost, involvement in history prevails. This neglect to the roots is shown also that only 14% said that they know the history of origin of the surname (20% claimed that they know partially). Also the culture of the relation to family relics is low. So far it is limited to storage of such material carriers which have short-term history: 73% claimed that they have photos of grandmothers and grandfathers (pay attention that 27% did not even begin to approve also it), 38% - that there are such memorable things as awards, medals, certificates of honor, prize signs. About letters from the front, other family relics told 15%, and about diaries, manuscripts, correspondence - only 4% of respondents.

How to characterize a personal cut of historical consciousness, historical memory? In our opinion, it is possible to speak about its weak development, about what it nizkokachestvenno and - I will dare to approve - it undermines bases of higher feelings: patriotism, pride of the country, readiness to protect it and to advocate its interests.

the question of history of family is adjoined by information on the history of the city (village) which exceeds indicators of knowledge of the family tree a little: that they know this story, spoke to 17% of respondents.

of Another 58% applied that they know something about the history of the city (village). However, first, it concerned more citizens, and secondly, something the nobility does not mean sufficiency of this knowledge yet.

At the same time can observe a tendency to overcoming a spontaneous mankurtizm, the aspiration to separate from historical drowsiness. The latest sociological data register not the just contemplate relation to history, but also desire to make the contribution to preservation of its values, objects and symbols. However according to the available information, only 4% of respondents are directly involved in restoration of historical and cultural monuments. Another 33% said that they promote this process, depositing some funds in their restoration. In other words, the civil activity of people in relation to the historical past though it is realized, but is still small. Revival of interest in national spirit, thirst for cultural and spiritual heritage of the past is connected with personal historical memory and historical consciousness. Memory restoration unfairly of the forgotten names (opinion of 58%) is positively perceived; 85-91% of respondents actively support revival of national crafts, traditional medicine, festivities, fairs.

the Social mankurtizm develops not so much spontaneously how many purposefully. In this regard we will analyze methods which are directed not just to oblivion of the historical past, but to distortion.

First, the considerable contribution to formation of mankurts is made by "innovative works" of the academician A. Fomenko, the historian Morozov, the mathematician S. Valyansky, economists D. Kalyuzhny and O. Platonov, imagination of E. Rad-zinskogo, the journalist N. Svanidze who call into question the historical knowledge received by many generations of experts. Neglecting methods of the historical analysis, ignoring the developed and worthwhile traditions of a research, new oracles seek to blow the mind unprecedented, fabulous, fantastic revelations, like the fact that Baty was actually Catholic crusader, and Russia rendered the Horde tribute to Vatican. These "researches" published by hundred-thousandth circulations apply for replacement of former historical knowledge and replacement with its any versions and conjectures. Saves now one (in it, maybe, stability and conservatism of historical consciousness affects): as show sociological polls, this information is considered by readers as a special type of a fantasy and adventures on an equal basis with works of writers-fantastov1.

In this situation the real paradox arises: historical scientific literature is consumed by a limited circle of people and at the same time is big

of 1 Cm: Volodikhin, D., Yeliseyev, O., Oleynikov, D. Istoriya for sale. Deadlocks of a pseudo-historical thought. - M, 2005.

need for popular statement of the past. So far historical consciousness of people resists these fantastic versions and historical conjectures. But whether it is better to support then for opposition to this distortion of history works of such writers how V.S. Pikul who excite interest in history through art fiction of generally private life of heroes, but do not attempt upon bases of historical events and processes? Authors of such works of art promote overcoming historical drowsiness, a bezrodstvo, revive pride and respect for the past, help to be approved with the importance and greatness of the people.

Secondly, one of the most widespread methods of formation of a mankurtizm is slander. Became silent a little, but attempts did not disappear to encroach on sacred Saints - the memory of the Great Patriotic War. Meanwhile are such who calls into question many events of this war. In the 1990th attempts to disavow its results, value of any given battles, a role of individuals were made. These attempts of revision affected assessment of battle of Moscow, Stalingrad, were embodied in a degeroization (and sometimes just in slanderous fabrications) Z. Kosmodemyanskaya, A. Matrosov's feats, Panfilov's men and other events of this war. It is possible to refer "scientific" researches to these unseemly actions V. Suvorova (V.B. Rezuna) which are directed not to clearing of the historical truth, and by and large to expression of the ambitions, thirst of money and glory, achievement of a sensation, obtaining popularity and promotion of "genius". These and similar "researches" were not only are not accepted in the scientific environment, but also rejected by mass historical consciousness. The historical consciousness is protected from these attacks, does not wish to indulge that she can humiliate national advantage, the history of the country and history of the "I", refuses support of audit of the fact that she rallies the people and that can turn back the largest spiritual, and then and political disaster.

Thirdly, the mankurtizm quite often resorts to methods of arousing mistrust, suspiciousness, slander which besides quite often get a pseudo-ethnic shade. At a research of public opinion on problems of socio-political development of the North Caucasus it was revealed that many phenomena and events past still excite minds of people, rivet on themselves close attention of cultural figures and science. Among them most memory of these people was scarred by the Caucasian war of 1817-1864. As it turned out, this memory concentrates in itself not only information, open and available to all, but also latent sources are family legends and legends, stories, folk songs, official and informal toponymics. So, the conducted researches show that any given information on the Caucasian war

84% of all interviewed residents of Adygea have. Moreover, this event has not just the nature of reminiscence of the past: about 40% from them consider that this event is closely interwoven into socio-political reality of the present. In this regard, in our opinion, it is necessary to highlight that in the mass, really functioning consciousness rather various characteristics of the reasons of this war are shown. Contrary to some "scientific" and pseudo-scientific statements that the autocratic policy of Russia is guilty of everything, in mass consciousness of such position only 46% of respondents adhere while another 31% accused Turkey, and 8% - local feodalov1.
Quite often historical data try to call

into question, attributing certain "great" merits to "the" people. In the 4-volume edition of Illes Sigauri "Essays of history and state system of Chechens since the most ancient times" "restoring" more than "the fifty-thousand period of history of Chechnya", is claimed that "the Chechen language is the most ancient on the planet" that the Chechen people created the most ancient civilizations of Western Asia, the Middle East, Entre Rios and the Mediterranean and that Adam is the Chechen imya2.

Similar statements correlate hardly one of Ukrainian "scientists" claiming that Christ was Ukrainian and also the statement of "very" Russian researcher writing about feats of "russ" during hunting for mammoths. This peculiar "the mankurtizm on the contrary" sets as the purpose to create mirazhny shape of history of the people, completely ignoring history of other people.

Fourthly, in no small measure the mankurtizm develops under the influence of lawlessness which is created in the historical knowledge forming if not enemies, then the people who are not going even to live in "this country". The leapfrog, discrepancy, mutually exclusive estimates begin with school textbooks. If actually within scientific community it is permissible and it is even necessary to have various points of view, then for education of younger generation it is preferable to have the estimates reflecting the state position.

a Considerable role in formation of historical mankurts is played by the methods based on vanity, attempts of the eminence of over others. It should be noted such feature of historical memory when in consciousness of people there is an exaggeration of the separate moments of the historical past because it practically cannot apply for direct,

1 See: To Hunakh, R.A, Tsvetkov, O.M. A historical phenomenon in modern refraction//Social researches. - 1995. - No. 11.
2 See: Novikov, A. Adam - the Chechen name//News. - 2004. - July 24.

system reflection - it expresses indirect perception and the same assessment of last events rather.

the Value of an exaggeration of historical consciousness and historical memory increases during the critical periods of life of society when, as a rule, there is a revaluation of the existing orientations and the historical past. During this period there are cardinal changes of the existing values, not always clear processes induce people to look for answers to the problems concerning them in various spheres of life, including in the historical past. In such conditions the distorted historical consciousness becomes the powerful factor generating myths, creating inventions, imaginations creating an imaginary image of the "heroic" or "brilliant" past in life of these people.


to It are promoted also by pseudo-innovative conclusions of politicians scientists who impose not absolutely correct conclusions. The term "title people" which usually give the name to the republic became widespread. For Bashkiria such title people are Bashkirs. But on population they are the third. With them for centuries there lived Tatars and Russians nearby. There is a question: how many it is necessary to live in this territory to be considered as the title people? Especially as also Bashkirs appeared in this territory too not at once. Whether it is better to consider Bashkirs by the autochthonic people what captures the essence of the happened processes more correctly and does not oppose the people each other, without forcing Tatars to become Bashkirs and without pleasing primitive desires to nominate only Bashkirs as opposed to representatives of other people?

Something similar occurs on borders of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan where Tajiks force to accept the Uzbek appearance, proceeding from falsely understood national interests.

I at last, the mankurtizm is supported by official promotion and preached both by officials, and supporters of fight against totalitarianism. Especially brightly it is shown at revaluation of both the Soviet (Russian) historical values, and the values divided by all civilized world. Unfortunately, such attempts become, for example, in relation to results of World War II, to solutions of the Nuremberg process. Especially the political figures of Latvia and Estonia considering that it is a distancing indicator from former "empire" - the Soviet Union, and nowadays Russia are zealous in this direction. Of course, it is possible to understand bitter feelings which are connected at a part of citizens of these countries. But whether it is worth being engaged in provocations, to enter the conflict practically with all mankind?

do not lag behind in promotion of methods of a mankurtizm and the liberal radical. It they invented the myth about "scoop" which, according to them, is an embodiment of all defects existing in the person. At the same time themselves they

do not consider

"scoops". Of course, if to collect all negative lines, all negative characteristics inherent in certain people and to attribute them to the rest, then there will be an unattractive picture. And in a sense it applies for the truth as there is a lot of these negative and negative phenomena in the Soviet history. Only one is unclear and inexplicable in their performances - as these "scoops" built the second most powerful power in the world how they achieved a victory in the Great Patriotic War how they the first rushed into space, without speaking about other significant and considerable achievements and victories? To people with such hatred to the USSR, to the Soviet people is itching to still. The conclusion of the famous journalist A. Pushkov is quite reasonable: "Freedom of speech does not mean freedom of meanness".

As for the international aspect of this problem, it is possible to note numerous attempts to identify fascism and communism, Stalin and Hitler. Moreover, there are forces which at the official level try to record this situation. In 2009 such action was carried out by PACE that can serve as a model of attempts to modify history from the positions.

such actions and within the country when there are forces and the people ready to slander the people are Not less indicative

>, using media channels. So, there were persons who try to turn the general Vlasov who handed over the whole army in captivity into the hero of fight against Stalinism, using the most various jugglings.

Other example. In the fall of 2009 the trick of the journalist considering himself the human rights activist became known, A. Podrabineka who slandered soldiers of the Great Patriotic War outraged upon memory of the Soviet people, those who created economic and defensive power of the country who considered himself the patriot, having called them attendants of the evil, "screws" and "executioners". At the same time this "journalist" eulogized those who up in arms fought against the Soviet power, was in the ranks of "forest brothers", served in ranks of policemen and others predateley1. To what purposes serve this trick? It is clear, that it is the next attack on historical memory, on revision of history, on disorganization of public consciousness.

Thus, the modern mankurtizm is a conscious distortion of the truth, the real situation which is carried out in most cases (except for its naive form) for the benefit of certain political forces and groups. Even when this process proceeds spontaneously, it nevertheless demonstrates lack of purposeful activity of the political class applying

of 1 Cm: Ivanov, Century. "Ours" against Podrabinek, liberals against "ours"//News. - 2009. - On Oct. 12

not only on country government in specific circumstances, but also wishing (or the unity of society which is at least intending) to achieve for realization of national significant tasks. Mankurtizm loosens the patriotic ideas, strengthens nihilism to own past, subordinates consciousness of people to other ideals and the purposes which by the nature do not correspond to national mentality. All this destroys a world outlook basis of consciousness of the people and, eventually, destroys ideals and ideological base of life of people without what there cannot be no state.

List of references

Aitmatov, Ch. Buranny halt. - M, 1999.

Volodikhin, D., Yeliseyev, O., Oleynikov, D. Istoriya for sale. Deadlocks of a pseudo-historical thought. - M, 2005.

Historical memory: continuity and transformations ("round table")//Social researches. - 2002. - No. 8.

Toshchenko, Zh.T.

>. Former Soviet Union: sovereignization and integration. - M, 1999.

Toshchenko, Zh.T. Etnokratiya's

>: history and present. - M, 2003.

to Hunakh, R.A., Tsvetkov, O.M. A historical phenomenon in modern refraction//Social researches. - 1995. - No. 11.

© Zh.T. Toshchenko, 2010 of E.V. Goyaznov


Elena Vladimirovna GRYAZNOVA is a Doctor of Philosophy, professor of the Nizhny Novgorod state architectural and construction university (

the Summary. In article the many-sided process of information socialization of the personality in modern conditions is analyzed. The main aspects of work - disclosure of innovative nature of theoretical developments

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