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Category: History

Formation and reforms of boundary bodies of Federal Security Service (historical and legal aspects)


© E.S. Nadarin *

the State sea university of the admiral F.F. Ushakov,


of B X-X1 centuries the Old Russian statehood reached the blossoming. At the same time infinite armed conflicts with neighbors, and first of all with nomads, induced the Old Russian state to care for strengthening of armed security forces of own borders. In these conditions in Russia rather harmonious, echeloned, interconnected border sentry system of military and defensive character which basic elements were special engineering and fortification constructions - sentry lines, temporarily collected forces for service on identification of the attacks on Russian lands which are preparing by neighbors and the preliminary notification about it the population of Russia and the grand duke and also force of team of the grand duke was created. But the special constant centralized public authority which was responsible for providing in boundary space of safety of the state, that is border service it was not created during this period of history. it is appropriate to p to note

that the first known annalistic mention of the state measures for the organization of protection of borders of Russia and their protection belongs to 988 when the grand duke Kiev Vladimir appealed to the population to get up on protection of boundaries of the Russian land. At Vladimir Svyaty in the Old Russian state the complex of actions for the organization of protection of its boundaries and to ensuring more reliable protection of its territory was held. These actions had mainly military and defensive character and included: introduction at suburban boundaries of the state of service, construction of fortified cities, locations, located in most comfortable for defense, construction of sentry lines on the ways of probable invasion of the opponent, wide use of natural obstacles, mobilization of necessary forces and means for execution of porubezhny service, the organization of service of the notification and warning of appearance of the enemy, fast concentration in strategically important points of necessary military forces from various cities and principalities in case of direct military danger to the state.


to Construction of the border cities paid special attention. However not all cities the Graduate student of department of the Theory and history of state and law could protect reliably rusichy from enemy a vtor *.

of zheniye, especially from attacks of nomads. The last were so prompt and powerful that people not always managed to take the appropriate measures of self-defense and fully equipped to meet the enemy. Wooden walls of the cities did not save the population from death and enemy captivity. Became obvious that the state needs service of detection of the enemy preparing for attack and a preliminary warning of it of the population and the prince. That is why, in particular, the first Kiev princes began to build on the outskirts of the earth small jails, a stanovishch - the small fortresses fenced with a high timbered fencing. In them specially picked up people, "valorous soldiers", "heroes athletes" about whom they tell the Russian bylinas served. Jails in the Russian folklore received the name of "powerful outposts", "powerful patrols" which purpose was - to guard border. Outposts were exposed by princes on the directions of the most probable invasion of aggressive neighbors. "Athletes" quite often had to engage with superior forces of the opponent. But not it was their main objective. Their main task was to find the enemy as soon as possible and as soon as possible to inform on him the prince and also the population. It allowed people to take necessary measures of self-defense or it is reliable to take cover, hide from the enemy. The prince had an opportunity to move forward in due time with the team towards to the opponent and to show the combat readiness.

And still during invasions and attacks the nomads easily bypassed these strengthened towns and, having appeared in their back, were provided to themselves. In this regard there was a need to put stronger barrier on the way of the enemy. Therefore later the strengthened towns fortresses began to connect among themselves the abrupt shafts, deep ditches and forest zaseka lasting on dozens of kilometers. The foundation was so laid for construction of a number of sentry lines, after the boundaries of Russia which made lengthways the uniform strong defensive line from fortified cities, watchtowers, ditches and shafts, marked. For this purpose on the southern borders of Ancient Russia five sentry lines of border defensive strengthenings were consistently built: Posulsky, Trubezhsky, Poe-rossky, Desnovsko-Ostyorsky and Stugnensky. In the second half of the 11th century the radial Dnieper line consisting of 11 towns on the coast of Dnieper, connecting Kiev with Posulsky and Porossky lines and serving for the notification of the prince about approach of the enemy and transfer of reinforcements was created.

Sentry lines played an important role in protection of the territory and the population of Ancient Russia against attacks of the southern and southeast nomad tribes and the people, especially Pechenegs and Cumans. At the same time they opposed as the base for drawing pre-emptive strikes and the organization of military campaigns the enemy. All of them existed about 200 years and were destroyed during mongolo-tatar invasion. Many of the strengthened cities built by rusicha disappeared from the face of the earth.

With disintegration in the second quarter of the 12th century. The Old Russian state the uniform system of protection of its boundary boundaries also broke up to certain feudal principalities. Borders of Russian lands and principalities during this period of historical development represented on a being and on terminology of that time boundaries of their own possession, state and political supremacy and economic sovereignty. Actually they were established for the purpose of "travel on duty". So, in a number of contractual diplomas HSh-HGU of centuries of Novgorod with neighbors it was indicated mutual obligations to observe "an old boundary" or "a boundary on old times". Boundaries at the same time were called "right", i.e. mutually approved, recognized, actually legalized. At the same time boundaries of the Russian principalities of the specific and veche period in the history of Russia, telling to the modern language, had transparent character. But it did not mean that they were out of control from princes: any attempts of neighbors to change their passing quite often led to wars. In other cases for people the total freedom at their crossing was established. And it was the law. The words of one of contractual diplomas demonstrate to it: "And between us to people of ours and the guest the way is clean, without boundary: and who will make a boundary or a conclusion, a rubezhnik and a conclusion-shchika of a vydata on an isprava". Special attention was paid to journey of ambassadors for whom "the way was clean a demon of a dirty trick". Together with it about existence of boundaries of the Russian principalities both the Russian, and overseas dealers knew well. Trade people, crossing borders of the principality with goods, were obliged to pay for it certain duties.

princes appointed by

For collecting entrance duties special sluzhily people - mytnik who served at boundaries in the places which are strictly determined by it, at an outpost, on the main roads connecting principalities. If trade people tried to go round outposts, then mytnik, having detained violators, subjected them to a fine which was called washed out and significantly exceeded it is washed.

Actually in HSh-HGU of centuries the boundaries of the Russian principalities and lands began to have not conditional, but certain concrete and subject value. They received the registration on the area that was confirmed with bilateral written contracts on boundaries and boundary diplomas. Exactly here, for the boundaries of principalities, not only problems of the armed protection of the territorial possession, but also problems of protection of economic interests of principalities began to be taken out.


During the same period laid the foundation of protection of both overland, and river, lake and offshore sections of border. So during this period in the seaside lands of Russia there were so-called "sea guards" which exposed special patrols with the same duties, as at overland

of border watchmen. For example, posts of sea guards bore guard service on the outskirts of the Novgorod earth in mouths of Neva and Izhora, on the bank of Lake Chudskoye at the Vorony stone, etc. Their service was rather effective. The victory in July, 1240 of Alexander Yaroslavovich, the prince Novgorod (1236-1251), was in many respects reached thanks to a patrol of sea guards. Patrol in due time found invasion of the Swedish army into the Novgorod lands, carried out its investigation and reported on it to the prince. And resolute actions of Alexander and unexpected blow of the army headed by it ensured a victory rusichy over the Swedes who broke northwest borders of Russia.

And still specific princes, without having sufficient forces, moreover sometimes actively acting against each other, could not ensure cross-border security of the principalities, their reliable protection in HSh-HGU of centuries, reflect invasions into the limits of Mongol Tatars, Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians.

Education and strengthening of new state education - the Moscow grand duchy - created to

conditions for recovery of the strong Russian statehood destroyed by mongolo-tatar invasion, and together with it and the new system of protection of boundaries of the Russian state.

In the second half of the 14th century the service on protection of boundaries of the Grand Moscow duchy came down to observation of movement of the Tatar hordes and delivery about it vesteyv Moscow which was carried out by the "secret guard" and "the hidden brothels" which were far from the Moscow boundaries.

In the 15th century to the Moscow princes managed to create in the Russian border cities so-called guard service which problem consisted in observation of promotion of army of the opponent by the Russian boundaries, the timely notification about it boundary voivodes and the Grand duke. Long years this service was temporary and was organized only on the most threatened directions.

Having united by the beginning of the 16th century under the power practically all lands of northwest and northeast Russia, the Moscow state made direct contact with Sweden, Poland, the German lands, the Tatar khanates. These states, including also Moscow, had rather ambitious aspirations and far-reaching plans directed to expansion of the rights for all new and new territories for strengthening of economic and military-political influence in Central and Eastern Europe. The infinite interstate conflicts and disputes which were resolved rather often by means of military force resulted. Only in the first half of the 16th century the Crimean khan undertook 48 extortionate military campaigns to Russia.

In the 16th century the grand dukes and sovereigns vseya Russia on the western sites of border of the state ensured its safety constant stay near border of regiments of the Russian host which to some extent

began to solve also problems of quarantine control within border territories. At the southern and southeast boundaries of Russia in summer months the main forces of the Russian host bore so-called "coast guard" as a part of regiments. The main forces gathered on coast of the Oka Rivers, Ugra and some other. Ahead of these regiments outside possession of the Grand duchy Moscow in summer months the guard and stanitsa service was specially organized.

In the last quarter of the 16th century with education and considerable strengthening of the Russian centralized state, with development in it is mute the harmonious system of public administration, with development of a legal system the service on protection of "monarchic boundaries" received essentially new device. For the first time it began to be organized on the basis of several interconnected seigniorial resolutions that for the first time formed the basis to emergence in Russia of the special regulatory base in the field of the organization of the special public service which was essentially differing from other services and designed to secure as much as possible monarchic boundaries against arrival of people military. To be called it became guard, stanitsa and field service. At the end of the 16th century it reached the blossoming. The service had military and defensive, reserved, prospecting and search character. In many respects the principles of the organization of this service in the subsequent formed the basis of office activity of domestic boundary structures: boundary customs guards, certain building of boundary guards, boundary protection, border troops and at last, today's boundary bodies of Federal Security Service. Then the classical principles of the organization of the border service which did not lose the value and today were formulated: its continuity on time and the place, concentration of the main efforts on the directions of the probable movement of the opponent, reserve of construction; close interaction with active armed forces, expeditious informing the center and regions on a situation on border, independence in decision-making and the right for a reasonable initiative.

Guard and stanitsa service became not only an element of safety of the Russian state, but also the tool of its active boundary policy, means of steady agricultural colonization of southeast territories. At the same time it was built strongly in the system of military and defensive actions of the country, having at the same time the pronounced functional duties.

in the period of "Time of Troubles" in Russia the service at boundaries and borders of Russia did not rush. Its restoration began only with ascent on the Russian throne of a dynasty of Romanov. With some changes all system of the organization of a system of protection and defense of borders of Russia in the 17th century repeated the domestic experience in this area accumulated by the end of the 16th century.

In the second half of XVII - the beginning of HUS of centuries with expansion of the territory of the state in a border-zone of Russia active construction of the powerful boundary strengthened lines on which began to take place large the contingent of troops of the state began

>. Attraction on a legal basis to protection of border of the Cossack formations became widespread. Abolition in Russia of a mandative system of public administration and formation of boards, basic development of a legal system, creation of regular regiments of the Russian army and some other transformations served that former guard and stanitsa service in the country was replaced with forpostny service which forces of the Defense Ministry began to bear. Tasks of quarantine supervision, streamlining of an order of crossing of frontier and boundaries of the state only through customs, customs outposts and other points, problems of detention and capture of fugitives and deserters, meetings and maintenances within Russia of ambassadors and eminent foreigners also were assigned to troops which bore this service besides problems of military and defensive character. Troops during this period solved a wide range of tasks on country borders. The question of creation of the special border service of Russia was not brought up.

in the middle of the 18th century the border of the state began to turn into the main place of collecting duties and regulation of foreign economic relations of Russia more and more. It in turn led to emergence of new problems on border. The sharpness of their decision was defined by the fact that attempts of regulation of economy on border, the protectionist policy of the Government of the Russian Federation at first were counteracted by the spontaneous, and then organized smuggling of goods which in the Russian Empire in separate historical pieces gained the nature of national disaster. In 1750th and 1780th in Russia an attempt of creation on borders of the empire of wide network of customs was made, with broad support of their activity from special boundary customs civilian guards. Interaction of customs administration and boundary customs guards was so close organizationally that it left a mark on terminology, a conceptual framework of domestic boundary and customs affairs. At the same time the principle of completing of boundary customs guards chosen during this period did not allow to implement plans of the government.

the Beginning of the 19th century was marked by new changes in public administration of Russia I will call only transition from boards to the ministries, tasks and which functions were considerably expanded. There was also a further development of a legal and legislative system in the country. All this could not but affect also transformations to areas of the organization of boundary activity of the state.

the Boundary which defined the new period of development of the border service of Russia by right it can be called 1827, laid the foundation of camps -

laziness of the special army structure intended for the decision within boundary of the empire of a wide range of national objectives including direct protection of frontier. On August 5, 1827 the emperor Nicholas I approved the Provision on education in Russia of the boundary customs guards based on the military beginnings. The guards which are originally created only for fight against smuggling on the western border already by the end of the 1830th years began to provide protection of frontier of the empire, within the border territory of the empire to solve problems of protection of its territorial, military, economic and political interests, quarantine supervision, detention of fugitives, deserters and tramps. At the same time the circle of tasks of boundary guards from a decade in a decade extended. From this point, in our opinion, there are all bases to speak about creation in Russia of actually special centralized government institution with wide powers which was responsible only for protection of frontier providing protection of its interests, its safety, i.e. the special Border service of the state within the border territory of the state. Since 1835 everywhere along all western border of the empire the customs boundary guards for the first time began to be called as "boundary guards".

Several decades of the 19th century frontier guards of Russia noted annually on August 5

as day of education of boundary guards of the Russian Empire.

the Next period of history of the border service of Russia is the share

of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century when the formation of the territory of the Russian Empire was actually completed, transition to gold monetary circulation was carried out, the centralized debugged system of special protection of border was created. At the same time the main, core task of this protection was fight against illegal crossing of border various goods out of customs points. Customs offices played the leading role on border, and the boundary guards were the providing element. At the same time the last was finally issued as rather independent organization of army type with special functions. On October 15, 1893 under the decree of the emperor Alexander III the Certain building of boundary guards with its direct submission to the Minister of Finance was created. The regulatory base which is again developed and approved at the highest state level in the field of regulation of activity of OKPS considerably strengthened the place and a role of the Case in the system of state system of the empire, having given it the nature of the complete independent Border service. At the same time the number of the tasks assigned to OKPS considerably increased. They began to be subdivided into tasks peace and problems of wartime. The certain building of boundary guards became a component of armed forces of the Russian Empire. The noticeable place in mobilization plans of the country was allocated to its forces and means. At

it the problem of fight against illicit trade on border was paramount. Owing to this fact the leadership in activity of boundary guards was assigned to the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Empire.

From the second half of the 19th century in connection with growth of revolutionary movement, penetration from the West of the ideas of Marxism and anarchism, gradual relocation of the center of revolutionary movement from Europe to Russia on border the political control of gendarme bodies was in addition organized

>. The provision on it was for the first time recorded in the Customs charter of 1857. In the subsequent, in 1871, in fourteen customs offices of the western border the gendarme check points designed to protect monarchy foundations, not to allow to Russia sedition and its carriers were founded. The number of these points quickly grew. In 1914 they worked already in 56 customs offices. Any vehicle could not proceed through border without the knowledge of gendarmes. It was explained by the fact that the boundary guards generally fought against smuggling and did not aim at fight against the political opponent. So, except army and customs, on border one more, third system - gendarme in parallel was born. Strengthening of political control was adequately real danger which arose from revolutionary parties to royal autocracy. The boundary guards of Russia began to solve problems and for the benefit of department of gendarmes.

With disintegration in 1917 of imperial statehood and formation of statehood Soviet the new stage in the history of the domestic border service began

>. At the same time, despite the largest changes in state system of the country, on their huge influence on all course of world history in construction of the Soviet boundary bodies and the Soviet border troops the continuity was kept, experience of former construction and the organization of activity of boundary guards of the Russian Empire was kept. The first normative documents of the Soviet boundary protection were prepared by the former officers of the certain building of boundary guards.

the October revolution of 1917 laid the foundation for the new period of national history. Revolutionary events changed the territory, a social order of the country that could not but affect passing of frontier and the nature of its protection. Frontier protection tasks, its structure, the system of completing changed.

World War I, the Civil war in Russia, military intervention destroyed by

the system of protection of frontier of the country which main link was the Certain building of boundary guards. By the time of capture by Bolsheviks of the power, the border in the European part of the country was available only in the northwest. From the Gulf of Finland to border with Persia there passed the front line.

In connection with the conclusion in March, 1918. The Brest world the question of protection and protection of border acquired special relevance for the Soviet republic. Under the terms of the peace treaty from it the Baltics and a part of Belarus were torn away. Ukraine and Finland admitted the independent states. The cities of Kars, Ardagan, Batum were transferred to Turkey. Between Germany and Russia the demilitarized zone about 2 thousand versts long was established. It passed across the line Narva, Gdov, across the southern counties of the Oryol, Voronezh and Kursk provinces to future border with Ukraine.

In April from the Soviet republic Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan separated. Before the country there was a task to equip new border from the coast of the Barents Sea to Caspian and to organize its protection. The complexity of the solution of this task was aggravated, on the one hand, with a shortcoming at the state of necessary material supplies, with another, - absence of professional frontier guards.

But on November 11, 1918 Germany, having got beaten in World War I, capitulated. Every other day VTsIK and Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR adopted the resolution on cancellation of the Brest-Lithuanian contract and the borders imposed to them. Behind the departing German and Austro-Hungarian troops the Red Army went west. One by one there are formally independent Soviet Socialist Republics - Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Ukrainian. They were in the closest political, military and economic alliance with RSFSR therefore borders with them had no real value.


As a matter of fact association of Soviet Socialist Republics recreated the uniform centralized Russian State. Therefore RSFSR was ready to make territorial concessions in favor of the Soviet republics.


In March, 1921 concluded the trade agreement with Great Britain, then with Germany and a number of other states.

From first years of the existence the Soviet republic headed for the state monopoly of foreign trade. The task to nip all attempts of economic smuggling in the bud was set for frontier guards. Externally a task almost the same, as in the Russian Empire, but roots at it other. "If not need of monopoly of foreign trade, a question of protection of border so would not be particularly acute", - the head of the Soviet government V.I. Lenin emphasized. It is worth paying attention that - not so much need of customs protection or boundary protection how many need of ensuring monopoly of foreign trade. On it protection of border of the Soviet republic originally was based. Economic revival of the country contacted it. Only alignment of economical basis of the Soviet Russia and the West, ability of goods to the competition in foreign market could make

protection of border from smuggling unnecessary. But as quickly to solve a problem of alignment of the production of separate types of industrial output in the USSR and the capitalist countries it was not represented by a natural economic way possible, on border the total fight against smuggling was organized. In the 1920th its main stream was tried to be stopped operational and army means. Alleged temporary rigid closure of border by army forces and means poured out in long-term political and economic isolation of the country.

Along with change of type of the state, in the conditions of establishment and strengthening of the Soviet power political tasks of protection of border in the conditions of fight against a counterrevolution also objectively took the paramount place. The transition period from 1918 to 1923 was short. The troops participating in protection of border became the Certain boundary building of troops of the Joint Public Political Administration (JPPA), the centralized army organization which was carrying out tasks of protection of border, political control of following through border of persons, transport and cargoes. Subsequently such order was fixed legislatively.

on February 1, 1919 according to the order of Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic (RVSR) boundary protection was transformed by

to border troops. Council of frontier protection began to be called the Council of War of frontier troops, and GUPO - the Head Department of Border Troops (HDBT). Boundary districts became boundary divisions, areas - boundary shooting regiments, subdistricts - battalions, to a distance - companies. In total on the basis of frontier protection three divisions, on five regiments and five cavalry divisions in everyone were created. In July, 1919 the frontier troops were a part of field army, in September of the same year are abolished the Council of War of frontier troops and GUPV. Instead of them at Narkomtorgprom the department of boundary supervision which existed prior to the beginning of 1920 was created. Then also boundary ChK which functions began to carry out front, army and divisional special departments and offices were abolished.

an Important role in the system of frontier protection was played by the party and political device. It included institute of military commissioners, political bodies and cells of the Communist Party. In July, 1918 in GUPO and at the same time members of council of boundary protection P.F. Fedotov and V.D. Frolov were appointed commissioners. In boundary divisions, as well as in army, there were commissioners and political departments, in regiments and battalions - commissioners, in companies and squadrons - political leaders (political leaders). All political work the Political department (PUR) directed RKKA. Since fall of 1922 political work in border troops the political department of troops of GPU began to direct.


organized preparation of command shots. Younger komsostav prepared at five-months preparatory schools of provincial frontier groups. Average komsostav prepared in educational institutions of the Defense Ministry, then passed a two-month training as a pomnachzastava then graduated from special school of additional preparation at OGPU Shots of commanders of frontier protection were preparing also at the OGPU Central school on November 30, 1923 in Moscow the Higher boundary school was open.


on June 15, 1927 the Central Election Commission and SNK of the USSR approved the Provision on protection of frontiers of USSR. Then the Temporary charter of service of boundary protection in which basic provisions on its organization and execution are stated was enacted.

Problems of office and fighting activity of frontier guards during this period were: the admission through border of citizens and vehicles, control of transportation of printing editions, works of art, office and personal correspondence, currency and jewelry, detention of violators of border, identification of agents of foreign intelligence services among them and saboteurs, fight against smuggling, reflection of the armed invasions of anti-Soviet groups protection of local community against attacks of criminal gangs, control of observance of rules of a border regime, protection of natural wealth of territorial and internal waters; fight against anti-Soviet propaganda, against revolts of local community against the Soviet power in a border strip.

In Transcaucasia the frontier guards struggled with gangs of the robbers stealing the cattle, in Turkestan with basmatches. In these fights many frontier guards made heroic feats. So, in December, 1923 16 frontier guards of the 13th separate boundary squadron led by his commander I.A. Klimov broke group of basmatches in 200 people.


formed on July 10, 1934 the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR into which also OGPU USSR which became Head department of national security of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR entered. For the organization and management of protection of borders of the USSR in a narcomat the Head department of boundary and internal protection of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, and in districts - managements of boundary and internal protection of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was created. Ran People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR GUPVO not only frontier guards, but also parts of troops on protection of important industrial facilities, the railroads, convoy, construction that thereby distracted attention from protection of border.

GUPVO will be transformed by

In August, 1937 to Head department of border and internal troops (GUPVV). From now on connections and parts of boundary and internal protection began to be called troops. In districts, managements of border and internal troops were also created.

on February 2, 1939. GUPVV was divided by the resolution of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR into six independent head departments: border troops (HD:BT), on protection of railway constructions, on protection of especially important enterprises of the industry, convoy troops, military supply and military and construction.

In July, 1939. The committee of defense of the USSR adopted the resolution on rearrangement of air units and creation of Separate aviation crew of border troops of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR. 11 separate aviasquadrons - on 12 planes in everyone and two hydrolinks - on three planes were its part by the end of 1939.


took measures and to increase in level of training of the command commanding and political structure. By 1941. experts of a command, political, technical profile of border troops prepared in 11 People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs military schools, there were more than 30 courses of retraining, developing the skills, improvement, training of second lieutenants.

of One of the main tasks in operational and service activity of border troops during the pre-war period. For its decision the following measures were in full undertaken: a regrouping of border troops, proceeding from the nature of a situation on various sites of border, strict observance of the mode of frontier and strengthening of control of its performance, establishment of interaction with troops of cover of border and bodies of state security, attraction to protection of border of local community of border areas.

the Taken measures increased efficiency of office activity of frontier guards. So, if during 1937 by border troops on all sites of border it was detained 14 thousand violators, then for 1939 the number of detentions was 146 thousand, and for 1940 - already 228 thousand people.

the Special page in the history of Border troops of the USSR of the pre-war period is their participation in the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940. For the courage and heroism shown in fights with Finns, 1883 frontier guards were awarded awards and the medals.

Use of forces and means of border troops on fronts and in their back, in the territory occupied by the enemy during various periods of the Great Patriotic War was dictated by specific conditions of a strategic and operational situation. In this regard operational and service activity of border troops had quite wide framework, and its types and tasks changed depending on the war periods. The main of them were: formation from staff of border troops of parts and connections for Field army and their participation in all battles of the Great Patriotic War, protection of the back of fronts and armies, the organization and the management of destructive battalions, the organization of resistance in the territory occupied by the enemy, protection of frontier of the USSR, protection of the Soviet foreign-going ships. All formations which basis was a staff of frontier troops in the years of war adequately fulfilled the military duty.

at the front during all war 114 thousand frontier guards, or 68 percent of pre-war number of border troops were Directly involved in fights.

of One of the major problems which were solved by frontier guards in days of the Great Patriotic War.

the Main objectives of troops in the conditions of war consisted in holding actions for strengthening of protection of border, fight against subversive activities of foreign intelligence agencies on border and in border areas, to conducting investigation of the opponent for the benefit of military command, to formation from the structure of border troops for Field army of military units and connections, to participation in cover of certain sites of the sea coast and rear areas of North Caucasus Front from disembarkation of tactical sea and air landings of the opponent, to planning and training of border troops for actions in the conditions of invasion of the opponent.

All events held on strengthening of protection of frontier in the years of war provided with

to border troops successful performance of objectives. It is confirmed by results of their operational and service activity. For 1941-1945 on the southern, east and Far East sites of border 24 thousand violators are detained. Frontier guards participated more than in four hundred fighting collisions, 870 times used weapon, detained illicit goods for 19 million rubles.

At last, one more task which except border troops nobody could solve is a restoration and acceptance under protection of the western site of frontier of the USSR. It was the whole complex of actions for restoration of the mode of border and its protection after release of the territory of the USSR from fascist occupation. On March 26, 1944 troops of the 27th and 40th armies on the 85-km site from Lopatkin to Skulyan came to frontier of the USSR with Romania the first. By November 7, 1944 the Frontier of the USSR was restored completely on all its extent. By the end of 1944 the western border was protected by 44 frontier groups.

in a military campaign in the Far East the governments of the USSR and General headquarters of the Soviet Armed Forces were highly appreciated by

of Action of border troops. For model performance in fights of tasks of command and the valor and courage shown at the same time 4 thousand of soldier, the sergeant, the officer

Charles Anderson
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