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Category: History

Metastases of the Chechen war continue to creep away across all North Caucasus

vladimir Ravens,

the journalist



Firing and explosions in Chechnya such ordinary that already and do not report to us about it. Dagestan? Too continuous routine of everyday terrorist attacks, cleaning, storms and hunting for militiamen. More quietly in Ingushetia, in Kabardino-Balkaria in general grace - not every week storms make. Now here metastases of war reached Stavropol Krai, having turned back there not habitual terrorist attacks, but full fights: from February 9 to February 11 the whole battalion conducted a siege of three houses in the village Tukuy-Mekteb of the Nefte-kumsky Region of Stavropol Territory. It in 10 km from administrative border with Dagestan and Chechnya near. The scale of an event struck even those who got used to the Caucasian firefights and cleaning: with 12 fighters from the so-called "Nogai battalion" (also counted, and accessory was established that is called without departing from a trench - at the very beginning of fight) battle was conducted by 300 fighters of OMON, SOBR, the regional Municipal Department of Internal Affairs and UFSB. The shooters who sat down at houses were knocked out efficiently: reshetil from heavy machine guns, burned out flame throwers, and then also pressed all this armored vehicles. Took care and about air cover - over the village patrolled helicopters. Generally, the issue of the combat was turned by the reinforcement which arrived from Khankala.

Then, as usual, "we began to consider by

wounds, to consider companions" and to report about a victory. So, at first it will be stated 12 destroyed and several captivated fighters and four dead at storm police officers. However then figures changed: in ruins only eight bodies, and security forces are found as it became clear, lost seven people the killed and 11 - wounded. Losses are inadequately big for such operation. Detainees, as it becomes clear, attributed for show at all: those several person who those days were taken in other cities and rural lands in the village have not a direct bearing on events. Fight was conducted, allegedly, by not less than two dozen fighters, so the most part them safely broke from an environment. However, later couple of days of two fighters, allegedly from among escaped from Tukuy-Mekteba, will find already in Dagestan

a mudflow Chervlenny Breakers. There they are blocked at boarding school which then will be just burned volleys of flame throwers. At the same time one more militiaman will die, several will be wounded, including the commander of the Dagestan SOBR. Besides the issue of the combat was turned by help from Khankala... Estimates of the trophies taken on the place of fight in Tukuy-Mektebe strongly differ though all proceed from official sources. Let's tell, according to some data, eight automatic machines, two heavy machine guns, three grenade launchers of RPG-26, a flame thrower "Bumblebee" and the figurative radio set are found in ruins. Very powerfully. In other report the quantity of trophy machine guns suddenly grew to five, and grenade launchers - up to 15! But the number of automatic machines is invariable - eight: means, these eight fighters also beat off to the last - 300 OMON fighters and special forces soldiers...

It seems that, scandalous nonprofessionalism and a continuous amateur work are available: the small militia group which entered the village for routine "check of a passport system" was shot simply as partridges. Survivors lay down, having called the backup. Be it competently planned operation and have the administration operational data, definitely not 30 militia fighters went to the village as was first. All this combined also forces to doubt the official version: about successful special operation on prevention of large terrorist attack as the destroyed fighters allegedly planned to take hostages, "as in Beslan": whether at local school, whether even in kindergarten.

according to UFSB in Stavropol Krai, "a raid on the aul of Tukuy-Mekteb... the gang which place of reserved dislocation is Shelkovskoy the region of Chechnya made". Then accents changed: was not, it appears, any raid of terrorists on the village, but fighters there "were sent for carrying out terrorist attacks". Farther the version of the prevented terrorist attack, without having received any confirmation, already just goes to all pieces, and it is quietly forgotten. And at the most violent imagination it is just impossible to imagine the Nogais occupying school with hostages or kindergarten in... native mudflow! As Tukuy-Mekteb - the Nogai village, the killed fighters are identified - locals. So to the village the fighters came, it seems, to rest. Yes there was a turmoil.

In the Nogai steppe an obstanovochka now purely Chechen. The Nogai steppe - a concept both historical, and geographical: the desert and steppe and quite extensive Caspian territory which is formally divided by administrative borders into three parts - Stavropol, Chechen and Dagestan. In Stavropol Territory - it is first of all the Neftekumsky district inhabited mainly by Nogais, Kumyks, Chechens. Now there is far hotter, than even in next Dagestan Nogai and Chechen Shelkovsky areas. Also almost same hunting for militiamen, as in Dagestan is conducted. Here small sample of incidents in Neftekumsky district: On August 8, 2001 in the Nogai village Mahmoud-Mekteb two militiamen are killed, one is wounded; in October, 2002 in the Nogai villages of the area conduct large-scale special operation on opening of a local Wahhabi underground; in August, 2003 in the Nogai settlement of Kayasula from grenade launchers and submachine guns carried department of militia. Then there were some more firings of cars with militiamen. Also the 2005th was rich in events: on the night of August 9 in the village of Kayasula in own houses the militiaman, the director of local school and his wife are shot; On August 23 in Neftekumsk the car of the chief of office of the Organized Crime Control Department of the regional Municipal Department of Internal Affairs is shot down with the submachine gun - the lieutenant colonel Kamaludin Lachinov and his wife is wounded, the terrorist disappeared on... bicycle; On August 25 clash happens in the Nogai village Yamanguy - at storm of the house with fighters one militiaman died, two two fighters are wounded, killed... The village Tukuy-Mekteb which thundered in recent reports in general nearly officially is considered "the Wahhabi capital" if not all Stavropol Krai, then precisely Nogai steppe. And remarkable events take place regularly especially since the end of the 90th here: too much offenses, unresolved national and territorial and religious problems, other explosive material collected. It is difficult to tell precisely when the Nogai steppe "zaiskrit", but in May, 1999 there already raged. Then murder of two villagers of Tukuy-Mekteb was the formal cause of performances of Nogais (again it!) militiaman in the beat. However, from purely household requirement to punish the militiaman murderer the protesters smoothly came down to policy, having demanded creation for them the national area. Generally, "you give national and territorial autonomy!", and in passing the crowd then with might and main glorified "brave fighters for independence - Chechen brothers" and uplifted praise to "brave Shamil Basayev".

I Will notice

>, outside still was 1999, to a basayevsky campaign to Dagestan there were only a few months and the hand was to give to sovereign Ichkeria which by then seemingly proved that some problems can be solved by force of arms. Whether it is worth being surprised that since 1998 the youth of the Nogai villages of the Neftekumsky Region of Stavropol Territory directed in training Basayev and Hattab's camp - certainly, for receiving "Islamic education". It is claimed that those guys also made frame of the so-called "Nogai battalion" which was at war against federal forces. whether

actually the battalion from Nogais Existed or it is an imagination fruit? Here the main positions are also designated, and both treatments - official! First representatives of security agencies claimed: no battalion existed, the myth in the propaganda purposes was invented by Chechens and, certainly, journalists. As supposedly on Basayev's party then no more than 17-20 Nogais were at war. The "battalion" version which supporters assure that it is at least about 700 guys who had military and diversionary training in the Chechen camps of Hattab where paid them monthly from 500 to 1 thousand dollars is nowadays more widespread. And for people from the poor Nogai villages of Stavropol Territory with the average salary of 300-400 rub of that time such money was just fantastic wealth. But in it it is not believed: even the Chechen fighters in eyes did not see then such huge money what here to speak about alien Nogais - who would begin to pay them so much?! Anyway, these guys will put the gained knowledge into practice, in fights where were at war allegedly not "a small scattering", and is compact - as the structured separate military unit.

However both designs sag. If side by side only 20 Nogais once battled against the Chechen fighters, it turns out what each of them was destroyed on four-five times?! And on two-three of times took prisoner? And whether could keep only two dozen people in suspense the whole Region of Stavropol Territory several years?! The "battalion" version is so defective: 700 prepared Nogai "bayonets" - such power cannot be hidden from third-party eyes, to destroy without remainder that only the legend and remained. And Chechens had no national formations - either battalions, or companies. Also could not be:

any normal field commander sought to dissolve alien volunteers in the bulk the - so it more reliable and upravlyaemy. Nogais on the party of Chechens were at war, but, probably, it is about one hundred - another of guys, is hardly more, but there were they there not at the same time and, it seems, not as a part of uniform division. Many survivors returned, were amnestied (and on operational accounting) and in general it was impossible to prove that the so-and-so such up in arms was at war against the Russian army. The statement that in Chechnya the person only studied Islamic values was a standard excuse. Though many of these "pupils" will be marked out in fighting collisions already to Stavropol Territory and in Dagestan subsequently.

Remains to

the fact that after their return to native places the situation in the Nogai villages strongly changed: veterans of the Chechen campaign found where the big authority and influence, than former elders and mullahs there. Recent fighters, however, pretty fast dealt with mullahs: in Tukuy-Mektebe and other villages they just displaced former mullahs, having appointed imams themselves. Practically right after it on the Nogai steppe leaflets with appeals to jihad against incorrect were distributed. And though in March, 2002. Spiritual management of Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol Territory of these self-appointed imams formally displaced, it was not succeeded to break a situation: official mullahs do not hold special authority, fighters - being and acting - at the population in honor, and mosques still remain the centers of distribution of "new trends". As a matter of fact, it is already possible to say that in the Nogai villages the most real underground - diversionary was created, terrorist, guerrilla - as call, an essence one. And enjoying support of local community. Feed of this underground is promoted in no small measure also by the policy of the present Stavropol authorities preferring to resolve ethnic questions by methods exclusively prohibitive and retaliatory. Though, of course, threads of this knotty Nogai problem last in the past - both in recent, and in depth of centuries.

the family tree Nogais conduct

from the ancient Turkic-speaking tribes of Priirtyshje, Northwest Mongolia and Central Asia. In difference, say, from Chechens the Nogais can be proud even of the former statehood: The Nogai Horde,

the state of nomads, having allocated from the Golden Horde, occupied the extensive territory from Northern Prikaspiya and Cisural area to Kama, from Volga to Irtysh. In the second half of the 16th century. The Nogai Horde broke up to several formations. From the second half of the 18th century. Nogais, having appeared in millstones of the Russian-Turkish opposition, lose the remains of the statehood and independence. Till 1920. The Nogai steppe administratively - a part of the Tersky region. Further perturbations began: The Nogai steppe is included in structure of Dagestan, together with the Kizlyar area transferred to the Ordzhonikidzevsky region (name of Stavropol Krai of that time). In 1944 when abolished Chechen-Ingush ASSR, formed the Grozny region - there included also the Nogai steppe. Next "reshuffle" was made in 1957 when the Nogai, Kizlyar and Tarumovsky districts gave to Dagestan, Shelkovskaya - Chechen-Ingushetia, and Petrogodmothers sky - to Stavropol Krai. Moreover screwed up in the 70-80th when at the Nogai collective farms began to select lands in favor of Dagestanis and Karachays, and Dagestanis managed to strive for transfer of the Nogai pastures to them even in the Neftekumsky Region of Stavropol Territory.

In all regions the position of the Nogai minority was various: it was rather more comfortable in Dagestan where at least there were national schools, taught the native language and newspapers on Nogai were issued. In Stavropol Krai and Chechen-Ingushetia all this was covered. The economic situation of the population of the Nogai steppe was always considered, to put it mildly, as poor, especially in Neftekumsky district though externally and you will not tell it, seeing solid households. But with jobs it is intense here, earnings in villages are simply scanty, the social sphere is disorganized almost completely: the Stavropol authorities on Nogais if turn attention, then only in the form of checks of a passport system and planned cleaning. Outside 21st century, but in many villages and auls of a problem with water supply, there is no gas. At the same time the same Nogai areas of Stavropol Territory - literally knot of concentration of various power communications: gas pipelines, high-voltage power lines. In other words, through the Nogai steppe millions of cubic meters of fuel, billions of kilowatts of the electric power flow, but to locals from it neither it is cold, nor is hot. So does not surprise at all that since the end of the 80th in the Nogai areas at first the idea of creation of national and territorial autonomy began to enjoy wide popularity, and nowadays business reached guerrilla skirmishes.

Of course, for the full war of conditions in the Nogai steppe is not present and too Nogais are small. However invariable support by the population of local fighters whose number does not decrease makes think: whether it is possible to solve a problem punitive measures alone, without offering anything instead of "check of a passport system"?

"Modern times", M., 2006, No. 8.

Igor Izmodenov, Alexander Karavayev,



Migration of Azerbaijanians to Russia took place during the royal period. However, it gained the greatest scope at the time of the Soviet Union. It is possible to allocate several large-scale waves of migration during the Soviet and Post-Soviet period.

First - post-war, connected with policy of development of Siberia and the Far East. Chronologically the period begins with the end of the 40th - the beginning of the 50th years and includes mass resettlement of the Azerbaijani oil experts to regions of Western and Eastern Siberia within the 60th years. Many famous Azerbaijanians (Sabit Orugev is the minister of the gas industry of the USSR from 1972 to 1981, Pharman Salmanov is the minister of geology of the USSR, the winner of an award of Gubkin, the corresponding member of RAS) were founders of the oil industry of the Soviet Union, laid the foundation for present Russian oil and gas infrastructure.

the Second wave includes

decade since the end of the 70th until the end of the 80th years. The flow of people plying on a route of Baku-Moscow, consisting generally of student's youth and the intellectuals belongs to this wave which had the economic background in a basis and having unregulated character. Probably, for the first time in relation to this period it is necessary to refer appearance of such group as business owners though the phenomenon of business in the USSR was under a criminal zapre-

Ashlie Angelica
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