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Celtic substrate of the Crimean Gotiya



a materiala on archeology and the history of the antique and medieval Crimea. The issue IV

M.Yu. Rakhno's

the CELTIC SUBSTRATE of the CRIMEAN GOTIYA

the Celtic presence in the territory of the Crimea of the period of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages is fixed by both historical, and archaeological sources. Historians-numismatists find the image of typically Celtic swords on bosporsky coins still of the second half ІІІ centuries. Some data which speak about possible presence of Celts at this area contain also in works of antique authors. In this regard it is possible to refer to Plutarkha1 according to whom "Keltika - such extensive country that it from the External ocean and the cold countries goes towards solar rising and Meotida where borders on the Pontic Scythia". There Celts and Scythians mix up, "and exactly from there", Plutarch continues, "where these tribes mixed up, they were moved not by one continuous impact, but every summer, moving forward all and being at war, passed the continent for a wide interval of time. Therefore though they were divided into many parts with different names, all their army was called by keltoskifam" 1 2 3.

the Toponymic data which remained in works of authors of antiquity and the early Middle Ages confirm to

these data on the Celtic presence in Priazovye. In particular, the fragment of the VII.5 Pevtingerovy card contains a phrase Tanasis. Oa_ayaye. In the first word most of researchers sees Tanaitae ethnonym - ‘inhabitants (the cities?) Tanaita’. As for the second word, it was compared with information of "Notitia episcopatum" long ago - Maeotis palus quae nunc Galatia 'The Meotiysky Swamp Is Called Galatia Now'. Most likely, this toponym displays presence of Celtic galatians here. Really, Maytd of X&i |rnr| h nun GaHat&a meets in rather late Byzantine metonomasiya, and this passage was recognized by researchers mysterious. It is remarkable that the fragment VIII, 2 same cards contains partially readable B[.]ruani in which, among other things, see Britani.

Linguists and historians offer

also Celtic atributirovaniye of some nationalities of Northeast Black Sea Coast and Priazovye of gothic time in particular mentioned by Jordan from Ravenny4 and Prisky Paniyskim5 in relation to the middle of the 4th age of boisk (Boiscos, Vo&yukad) which are rather reliably compared with the Celtic tribe boyev. Now their breeding name is recognized as morphologically Celtic. Their advance from Central Europe confirms an epigrafik of the Greek cities of the northern coast of the Black Sea, in particular, antropony Voyukod who in I-ІІ is attested centuries in an inscription from Kallatis (nowadays Mangaliya) in Dobrudja, and in ІІ a century

1 Plut. Mar, VI.
2 Kazakevich of G. Kelti on lands of Ukra§ni: Arkheolog_chna, a movna that is cultural a spadshchina. Ki§v, 2010. C. 167; A.I. Falileev. Celtic linguistic remains of southeast Europe. Some results and prospects of a research//Acta linguistica Petropolitana: Works of Institute of linguistic researches. SPb., 2009. Volume V. Part 1. C. 287-288; Kelty-tanaity: interpretation attempt//Bosporsky phenomenon. Population, languages, contacts. Materials of the international scientific conference. SPb., 2011. C. 683.
3 A.V. Podosinov Eastern Europe in the Roman cartographic tradition. Texts, translation, comment. M, 2002. C. 338-339; O.N. Trubachev Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast: Reconstruction of relics of language. Etymological dictionary. M, 1999, C. 231; A.I. Falileev. Celtic linguistic remains of southeast Europe. C. 288; Kelty-tanaity: interpretation attempt//Bosporsky phenomenon. Population, languages, contacts. Materials of the international scientific conference. SPb., 2011. C. 684.
4 Iord. Get, 126.
5 Prisc. Pan, 1.
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>. The Celtic substrate of Gotiya Krymskaya

appears in Chersonese twice, reflecting contacts of Greeks and late Scythians with the lateniziro-bathing population. Also the ethnonym of neighbors of boisk - itimara (Itimaros, & І t_rlro§d) by origin is recognized as Celtic which etymology is built to Gallic itu-maro-where the first component has obvious Indo-European origin and also bread, grain is connected with drevneirlandsky ith-’. These linguistic data are well agreed with manifestations of the Celtic influences in the Chernyakhovsk archaeological culture. Its emergence is connected with arrival to Northern Black Sea Coast of the German tribes it is ready which throughout two centuries played a role of the leading military-political force in this region. The multiethnic circle of chernyakhovets included also late Scythians, the Sarmatian, alan, Slavs and representatives of other people. Presence at material culture, a ceremony of burial and the anthropological structure of this population of certain reminiscences of Latin traditions caused in researchers the assumption of infiltration of descendants of Celts together with Germans in borders of Ukraine and their further assimilyatsii6 7. It is quite interesting that those Celtic bases which are available in the Black Sea ethnonyms mentioned above will be present further at an imenoslova of ostrogot. In particular, Kassiodor Senator in the first half of the 6th century mentions a name ostrogotsky a comet in Massiliya - Marabadus which contains the Celtic component * maro-‘big well-known’ and has parallels in an antroponimika of keltizirovanny Germans, in particular, of Marobodu (u) s - a name of the leader of the German tribe of markomann Celtic by origin, in І a century populated the earth mentioned above boyev. At Kassiodora8 it is possible to find also Bojo - the name of the incorrect trustee-ostrogota testified in the form of a dative case of Boioni. The last is considered Celtic by origin and to related own names of Celts like Boiorix. Perhaps, the gipokoristika from the Celtic or kelto-German antroponim of binomial structure is presented here. The main etymology of this name, according to linguists, needs to be considered data to an ethnonym of the same Celtic tribe boyev9.

Considering old and close communication of Celts with the German people, it is advisable to look for further traces of the keltskoyazychny population of Northern Black Sea Coast among descendants of ostrogot who continued to live there throughout fourteen centuries. Especially as recently, after the long break caused by the extra scientific reasons the interest of linguists, archeologists, historians and culturologists in Crimean gothic language and destiny it nositeley10 became aggravated. Special

6 Kazakevich of G. Kelti on lands of Ukra§ni. C. 236-238, 288; O. Kelti's Hairstyles y Ukra§na//Ukra§na. Science і culture: Shchor_chnik. Ki§v, 1989. VIP. 23. C. 271, 272, 274-276; A.I. Falileev. Celtic linguistic remains of southeast Europe. C. 289-292; Kelty-tanaity: interpretation attempt. Page 683-686; Maenchen-Helfen O.J. The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. Berkeley-Los Angeles-London, 1973. P. 23, 402, 453-454; Malzahn M. Back Into the Fields and Into the Woods: Old Irish lath & land, field’ and fiad & wild; deer; uncultivated land’ Revisited//Journal of Indo-European Studies. Austin, 2011. Vol. 39.
7 Cassiod. Var. III, 34, IV, 12, 46.
8 Cassiod. Var. I, 38.
9 of N.A. Ganin. Gothic names: Problems and interpretations//Imenoslov. Istoriya language. Cultural history. SPb, 2010. Page 45, 50-51; Wrede F. Uber die Sprache der Ostgoten in Italien. Strassburg, 1891. S. 111, 115-116. About Marobod's fate (See: ShchukinM.B. Gothic way: Gotha, Rome and Chernyakhovsk culture. SPb., 2005. Page 41-43).
10 of A.I. A.I. Ethnic history of the early Byzantine Crimea. Simferopol, 1999; H. H. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready as interpretation of the Legend of Matfey on city of Feodoro. Yekaterinburg, 2001; N.A. Ganina. Crimean and gothic language. SPb, 2011; To new etymological edition of Crimean and gothic data//Latvijas universitatis raksti. 720. sejums. Valodnieciba. Studia etymologica germano - balto - slavica. Riga, 2007. Page. 7-20; B. Magomedov. Chernyakhovsk culture. Ethnic group problem. Lublin, 2001; Pioro I.S. Gotiya Krymskaya (Essays of ethnic history of the population of the Crimea during the late Roman period and the early Middle Ages). Kiev, 1990; Tyshchenko of K. Etnomovn _stor_ya pradavnyo ї Ukra§ni. Ki§v, 2008; V.N. Toporov. Ancient Germans in Black Sea Coast: Results and prospects//Balto-slavyansky researches-1982. M, 1983. Page 227-263; O.N. Trubachev Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast...; M.B. Schukin. Gothic way...; Gronvik O. Die dialektgeographische Stellung des Krimgotischen und die krimgotische cantilena. Oslo, 1983; Kohler G. Gotisches Worterbuch. Leiden, 1989; Lehmann
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attention is paid by

to preservation of gothic language heritage, the place krymskogotsky among the German languages now and to display in its vocabulary of contacts of community of Crimean is ready with the next people, i.e. ethnic processes.

Judging by ostrogothic material, keltizm have to were remain in an antroponimika of Crimean is ready. Oktsidentalny onomastichesky relics in the Crimea and Northern Black Sea Coast are very not numerous, nevertheless a circle of data, apparently, it is possible to expand somewhat at the expense of the Byzantine hagiography. The Greek prototype of Zhitiya Stefan Surozhsky did not remain, there were only a summary and the translations. Nevertheless the detailed editorial office of Zhitiya of this Crimean Saint in kiyevorussky language, especially an episode with its posthumous miracles, got big publicity in the history of Central Eastern Europe: some prince by the name of Bravlin with a big host "from Novagrad" won the earth from Kherson to Korchev and took to Sugdey (Surozh, i.e. a modern Pike perch). About same reports the Armenian translation, naming the forward Pravlis from the angry and incorrect people. In the laconic Greek version the legend on posthumous miracles and Bravlin's attack is absent, but it got in a row kiyevorussky and Moscow letopisey11. The described campaign in several years after the death of the Saint took place therefore is hardly later than 800. The last moment of chronology and also that circumstance that the Crimea was the scene of action, very complicated historical constructions with the assistance of Slavs and Normans. It is rather more logical to see in this host of the Black Sea Germans as it becomes for a long time. Very perspective identification of Novagrad with Naples Scythian near present Simferopol sheds light on origin of forwards and stands on local hind legs of these military operations: on the one hand - a priberezhny strip of the Byzantine possession, with another - ethnic conglomerate complex by then which inhabited the mountain and foothill Crimea. After broad German expansion of Gotha borrowed in Novagra is mute the leading position, and the prince "-yes", most likely, came from them. Taking into account scarcity and ambiguity of written certificates the value of data of language, in this case etymologies of a name of Bravlin, Bravalin, Pravlis, * Bpa | 3(a) of Xivo increases? 11 12.

very probably vizigotsky name Braulio Existed - it was carried by Tsezaravgu-sta's bishop, i.e. Zaragoza in Spain who died in 651, the author of "Sacred Milan Zhitiya" and epistolary sbornika13. For a name of the leader of the Crimean barbarians convincing Indo-Aryan and German interpretations are offered in own way, nevertheless interesting is represented the fact that its analogies like Breval, Brewal, Brewala, Brevalarz, Brevalan, Brewalan, Brewalen are traced in a medieval and modern antroponimika

of W.P. A Gothic Etymological Dictionary. Leiden, 1986; Rousseau A. Esquisse d’une histoire du Gotique de Crimee. La role du Busbecq//Sur les traces de Busbecq et du Gotique. Travaux Recherches. Lille, 1991; Stearns M. Crimean Gothic: Analysis and Etymology of the Corpus. Stanford, 1978; Tischler J. Neu-und wiederentdeckte Zeugnisse der Krimgotischen. Innsbruck, 1978.

11 V.G. Vasilyevsky. Works. Petrograd, 1915. Volume 3. Page CLII-CCLXXXVIII; F. Gilyarov. Bringing to the Russian initial chronicle (for 969). M, 1878. S. 102-104; Mogarichev Yu.M., Sazanov A.V., Stepanova E.V.,

A.K. A.K. Zhitiye Stefana Surozhskogo in the context of the history of the Crimea of iconoclastic time. Simferopol, 2009. Page 65-66, 80, 210-212.

12 H. H. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready... Page 73, 139, 149; M.Yu. Braychevsky. The statement of Christianity on

of Russia. Kiev, 1989. S. 37-41; Vernadsky Ancient Russia. Tver-Moscow, 2000. Page 289; N.A. Ganina. Gothic

names: Problems and interpretations. Page 61-62; O.M. Rapov. The Russian church in _kh - the first third of X ІІ century. Adoption of Christianity. M, 1988. Page 67-72; A.N. Sakharov. Diplomacy of ancient Russia: IX - the first half of the 10th century of M., 1980. Page 25-30; V.N. Toporov. Ancient Germans in Black Sea Coast: Results and prospects... Page 255; O.N. Trubachev Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast... Page 88-90, 263.

13 of Altamira-i-Krevea R. Istoriya medieval Spain. SPb., 2003. Page 100; V.G. Vasilyevsky. Works. Page CCLXXXIV; Cloude D. Istoriya Visigoths. SPb., 2002. Page 154; Yu.B. Tsirkin. Antique and early medieval sources on the history of Spain. SPb., 2006. Page 207; A.K. A.K. Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast//Questions of linguistics 5. M, 2005. Page 39; Thompson E.A. The Goths in Spain. Oxford, 1969. P. 61, 168, 171, 173, 180, 184-187, 201, 195, 197-199, 241, 255, 289, 303, 316.
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>. Celtic substrate of Gotiya Krymskaya

Bretoni's

>. All of them are transformation of the drevnebretonsky name Branwalatr formed from bases of bran 'crows' and uualatr 'prince, leader' peculiar to names of the Celtic masters, governors, voyenachalnikov14. It is possible to assume, as krymskogotsky and vizigotsky names have the same origin.

to

in search of the Celtic historical trace on the Crimean peninsula could be helped by also place names. And, to the greatest regret, at the moment it should be noted that the modern Crimean toponymics is meanwhile insufficiently studied. Works of local local historians are incapable to give her objective picture. Huge toponymic material of the Crimea is meanwhile very little ordered, is not studied in diakhronny aspect and not correlated almost to a real ethnohistorical background, including to Germans. The toponyms of the non Greek origin recorded by medieval sources including epigrafiky remain the most reliable in respect of identification. First of all it concerns the gothic Principality of Teodoro which even after the Mongolian invasion did not lose the independence and as the inscription of 1361-1362 which is once inserted into one from crypt walls in Mangup shows, conducted considerable serf construction. This inscription reports that the local prince Dimitrii Huitanis restored "Teodoro together with Poika (| і the ¾t a top PoHkad)" 15. Meant, obviously, fortresses in these two points. The name of their builder is interpreted as gothic, and the name Poika (Po§ka), considering the settled transfer of foreign-language breakthrough b as p in Greek of the 12-14th centuries, it is necessary to identify with the massif of Boyk near Mangup, between the rivers Belbek and Kokkozk on whose plateau there are remains of fortifications, the chetyrekhstolbny temple and medieval poseleniy16 17. This Crimean toponym which has also the form Quickly both quite doubtful Indo-Aryan and Turkic etymologies is very close to Bo&LKi at the Byzantine emperor Konstantin Bagryanorodny - names of lands in Prikarpatye which originally belonged to the Celtic tribe boyev and on which lived in the early Middle Ages white serby18.

the mountainous area of the southwest Crimea in which lived Gotha was known to

at the time of the early Middle Ages in the Byzantine sources under the name DorOd, Dori, Dori, Giltheads or DOraptod. Gothic and Alania etymologies of the name neubeditelny19. There is an explanation which connects also origin of the name of Dore, Grew with the Celtic influences. One of the Celtic words which repeatedly meets as compound place names, - duro-, duru-, douro-, dor-. This basis often appears as the second part of difficult place names like Augustodurum, Lactodorum, Batavodurum, Divodurum, Nemetodurum, Teodurum, Ibliodurum, Breviodurum, Venaxamodurum, Sorviodurum, Boioidurum, Iciodoro, Iciodorum, Brivodurum, Ernodorum, Autessiodurum, Ictodurus, Octodurus, Epamanduodurum, Salodurum, Vetatuduro, Vitudurum, Oktodouron, Ilduro, Mutudurum, Audurus, Boudoros, Boudoron from which one of the most ancient is Octodurus, Martinya, in Switzerland now. However this Celtic word often occurs also in the first part of difficult place names in Great Britain, Ireland,

14 A.G. A.G. Nachalo Russia: Mysteries of the birth of the Russian people. M, 2003. C. 259, 408; Baudoin J. Grand livre des saints: culte et iconographie en Occident. Paris, 2006. P. 143; Smith W.B. Dictionnaire etymologique de la toponymie bretonne. New York, 1966. P. 20; Stephan A. Tous les prenoms bretons. Paris, 1996. P. 7, 26, 117, 108.
15 N.V. Malitsky. Notes on Mangup's epigrafika. L., 1933. C. 9-10.
16 BayerH. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready... C. 137-138, 182-187; N.V. Malitsky. Notes on Mangup's epigrafika. C. 10-14; A.L. A.L. Medieval Crimea. Essays of history and history of material culture. M.-L., 1964. C. 123, 175.
17 Const. Porp. De admin. 32.
18 O.S. Etnon_m_ya Gerodotovo's hairstyles ї Sk_f і ї. Ki§v, 1988. C. 74-76, 81; Celt y Ukra§na. C. 51, 119-120, 215, 262; A.K. A.K. Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast. C. 43.
19 of A.I. A.I. Ethnic history of the early Byzantine Crimea. C. 105, 107, 119; Pioro I.S. Gotiya Krymskaya... C. 61-66; O.N. Trubachev Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast. C. 45, 48, 234; Rousseau A. Esquisse d’une histoire du Gotique de Crimee... P. 163.
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of France and in the Balkans: Durotriges, Durocornovium, Durobrivae, Durovigutum, Durocobrivis, Duroliponte, Durobrivae, Durolitum, Durovernum, Durocasses, Duro(i)coregum, Duronum, Durocortorum, Durocatalaunum, Durotincum, Douros, Duronia and t. item. In Bulgaria, in a ponizovya of Danube there was a city of Durostorum, modern Silistriya who appears in sources also as Dorostero, Durostero, Durosterus, AoroatoHo? at Theophanes the Confessor, AoriatoHop of the deacon Lev Kaloysky, annalistic Drjstr. Some scientists recognize this name as Celtic, others rank it as autochthonic Balkan toponymics. The Celtic word duro-s, Duron meant ‘the yard, the square; the strengthened fortress’. Behind an assumption of researchers, the name of the gothic center in the Crimea of Dore - Grew - Doras especially answered with a word with such value to its topography - the powerful rock with steep slopes and flat vershinoy20. So, in the territory of Gotiya Krymskaya, toponyms which have parallels in the Celtic West are traced.

to

To number of the most interesting and at the same time mysterious late certificates on Tavriya's Celts possesses information of very good expert on the Crimea and the Caucasus, Dominican Ioann de Galonifontibous - judging by a name, the native of Gayfonten in the Top Normandy whom in 1377 the Pope Grigory H_ appointed the bishop of Nakhchivan which was then under the rule of Timur. In 1398 John on command of dad Bonifation _kh became the archbishop of Sultaniya who also was in Timur's possession, in the northwest of Persia. Then the archbishop Ioann returned to the East, however in several years it was in Europe again, this time having become one of the ambassadors sent by Timur and his sons to the European yards for negotiating. In 1403, after visit of Genoa, Venice and, perhaps, some other the states, John appeared in Paris where it was directed with diplomatic mission Timur and his son Miran-Shah. It delivered letters from them with Latin translation to the king of France Charles VI and other European governors. After receiving the answer from the French king, the archbishop Ioann visited the yard of the king of England Henry IV. On an own initiative the king transferred it letters of recommendation to the European and Asian governors, including emperors of Byzantium and Trebizond, the king of Cyprus, the doge of Venice and the tsar of Georgia Georgy VII.

needs to be mentioned the political importance of the Sultaniysky archbishopric Here. At the beginning of the XIV century Baghdad still was one of the most important centers of Islam, and in world trade only Mosul could resist to its turn. However for a short time Tabriz, and later the new capital of Sultaniya which was located to the west from Qazvin and was founded in 1305, reached their level and soon exceeded their value. Sultaniya at Timur's government turned into the blossoming city. The Persian, Chinese and Indian goods - silk, zolototkany clothes, spices, carpets and gemstones passed from hand to hand on rich city markets, and city fairs were world renowned. Trade was free for all Arab, Judaic and Christian merchants who arrived from Asia, Africa and Europe. As the water transport could not satisfy transportation of numerous goods and, especially quality spices, merchants employed caravans which rendered assistance to growth of a priority of Sultaniya over seaports. At the time of the archbishop Ioann the continuous caravans guaranteed to Sultaniya's markets constant existence of goods, handicraftsmen prospered, and their products were also a contribution to a variety of market goods. The western merchants on the way to the diocese of the archbishop stopped in Cafe and Trebizond, and big trading houses of Venice and Genoa based the constant warehouses in Sultaniya. Numerous favorable opportunities most gave to the archbishop Ioann a reason for establishment of contacts with

20 FalileyevA. Celtic Dacia: Place-Names and Ethnic Names of Celtic Origin in Dacia and Scythia Minor. Aberystwyth, 2007. P. 12-13; Sims-Williams P. Ancient Celtic Place-Names in Europe and Asia Minor. Oxford-Boston, 2006. P. 7578; Vasiliev A.A. The Goths in the Crimea. Cambridge, 1936. P. 56.
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with

the Western Christian world, enriching his knowledge of life of the people of the basin of the Black Sea.

the Archbishopric of Sultanii was important as in terms of prestige, and popularity, and his head had a title of the archbishop Sultaniya of all East. Since the beginning of the XIV century the highest dignity in Asian Catholic church the archbishop Hanbalika in China took over fifty years, and dad Kliment V in 1307 based it. Jurisdiction of the archbishop extended to all Mongolian empire, and later when in 1368 because of prosecution of Christians by Chinese this dignity was abolished and became the nominal archbishopric, the rank of the archbishop was replaced with the metropolitan who individually headed episcopacy in territories which once made the empire of Mongols. This service - when it existed - was headed by Franciscans. On other lands also subject Ilkhanidam, including the most part of Persia, Georgia and Armenia, the Archbishopric of Sultaniya was the first in rank. It was founded by dad Ioann of XII at the tacit consent of an ilkhan of Abu Said governing in Sultaniya. Jurisdiction of the archbishop included five, and from time to time also more episcopal dioceses - Tabriz, Izmir, Sevastopol, Maraga, Sivas, and later Samarkand, Tiflis, etc. Ioann de Galonifontibous who thanks to only only to the rank could obtain first-hand information concerning a way of life and existence of the people of the Crimea and the Caucasus was the eighth archbishop of this very episcopate to whom among others also the Catholic population of Georgia belonged. In 1410 dad John XXIII charged to the archbishop Ioann after his arrival to Rome management of the Archbishopric of Hanbalyka in China - an event, undoubtedly, important as it meant that the archbishop Ioann received control over the existing churches as the metropolitan of bishops on lands of Mongols, and from now on the management of two Asian archbishoprics of Catholic church was joint in his face. On the way home he visited a number of the Royal Courts and monasteries in Central Europe. The end of life carried out in the Crimea as the archbishop Hanbalik, however the Crimean episcopacy also was under its jurisdiction.

Ioann de Galonifontibous provides many valuable certificates on the people which lived on both sides of the Caucasus Mountains and on the Crimean peninsula, their past, life and customs In the work "Book of Knowledge of the World" which was ozakoncheno in 1404 and sums up the result of its stay in the east. He repeatedly mentions that he obtained a part of the information generally from the wandering merchants whereas in other cases he in detail points to the fact that the mentioned impressions - its own. It mainly concerns his Caucasian and Crimean experiences to which researchers of a Crimean and gothic perspective still did not pay attention. Among other things John notes: "Along and around the Black Sea there live two small the people: Tats and a certain quantity it is ready. In the religion they follow Greeks and use the Greek letters. Gotha apply for origin from Scots and speak as British. They live along the coast near Kafy here, as well as in Tataria and Kumaniya" (VIII) 21. The archbishop Ioann was in England long time and its observations over language is ready are very important, and the awareness beyond the borders of the Crimea quite finds an explanation in church life of gothic Christians of the Greek ceremony and their resettlement. It is possible to assume what under the cattle Crimean Gotha, obviously, was meant, unlike the archbishop, not Scots, but Irish famous to them carrying this name during a time of the early Middle Ages better to whom gothic trade ways and with

21 degalonifontibus once stretched. Information about the people of the Caucasus (1404). Baku, 1980. C. 13.
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which they identified local descendants of Celts. A little further John mentions is ready in the list of the people of the North Caucasus.

can be trusted Ioann de Galonifontibous's Information about the Crimean nationalities. There is many evidence of existence in Black Sea Coast of the people now is ready also existing of gothic language. In particular, the anonymous Venetian dealer who carried out a travel from Venice through Constantinople to Tana in the mouth of Don from 1404 to 1407 calls all earth on the southern coast of the Crimea to Genoa Cafe the countries is ready * 23. Bavarian Johann Shiltberger in 1396-1427 wandering the East as the soldier noted existence in the Crimea of the Area of Gotiya inhabited by Christians of the Greek religion who had gothic language. Muslims called it Tat24. The Venetian Dzhosafat Barbaro who arrived in Tana in 1436 and lived about sixteen years there, testified that Gotha speak German and that his German servant could have a talk with them the same as carriers of closely related Romance languages among themselves. Cac i de Galonifontibous, Barbaro who was interested in old times recorded at is ready something like epic retellings about last times. Once in these parts were the first Alana, then came Gotha which won these countries and mixed up with them. The Venetian also noted that Crimean Gotha, Alana and the Azov Circassians follow ceremonies Greek tserkvi25 26. The Polish chronicler Maciej from Mekhov whose fundamental work was published in 1517, reported that two last princes of the Mangup lock, the killed

Turks of nearly a half-century ago, were Ghats by origin and talked on

26
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gothic language.

the Silesian chronicler Joachim Kureus retold the story about the Nuremberg dealers heard by it about 1554 who wandered by the Venetian ship and were wrecked near coast of the Black Sea near Bospor. They heard there as one young man going on the cart sang in the German language. He told them that its homeland nearby, in mountains and that there lives its tribe which is gotami27. The German theologian and the humanist of the same era, Johann Kokhleus (1479-1552) who was interested in history of ostrogot according to a scientific volokh of Nikolay Spafariya who carried out as the translator are a lot of years in Constantinople at the Ottoman yard, claimed that in the Crimea there are about three hundred villages with the population of gothic origin. These people apply special German language and are Christians. They have a gothic bishop with the residence in Cafe, it Teodosiopolis, and they call the language gotskim28. Accommodation it is ready which are engaged in wine growing, in the mountains of the Crimea testified in 1555 also

22aleman A. Alana in ancient and medieval written sources. M, 2003. C. 221-222; de Galonifon-tiboussi. Information about the people of the Caucasus... C. 15.
23 BayerH. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready. C. 230.
24 H. H. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready. C. 234; I. Shiltberger Puteshestviye across Europe, Asia and Africa. Baku, 1984. C. 45, 65; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere: eine ethnologische Untersuchung. Halle, 1896. S. 114-116, 242; Tomaschek W. Die Goten in Taurien. Wien, 1881. S. 56.
25 H. H. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready. C. 237-238; Barbaro and Kontarini about Russia. To the history of the italo-Russian communications in the 15th century. Introductory articles, preparation of the text, translation and E.Ch. Skrzhinskaya's comment. L., 1971. C. 131-132, 157; Tyshchenko of K. Etnomovn _stor_ya pradavnyo ї Ukra§ni. C. 360-361; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 21, 51, 55, 116, 177, 178, 197, 201, 254.
26 M. Mekhovsky. The treatise about two Sarmatiyakh. M.-L., 1936. C. 71, 91, 166, 169; V.S. Ravdonikas. The cave cities of the Crimea and a gothic problem in connection with stadial development of Northern Black Sea Coast//the Gothic collection. GAIMK news. L., 1932. T. 12. Issue 1-8. C. 10; 62, S. 51, 86-88, 90, 124, 181, 222.
27 H. H. is F. Istoriya of Crimean it is ready. C. 242-243; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 47-48, 116-124; Rousseau A. Esquisse d’une histoire du Gotique de Crimee... P. 152; Stearns M. Crimean Gothic... P. 7; VasilievA.A. The Goths in the Crimea. P. 273-274.
28 Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 187-192; StearnsM. Crimean Gothic. P. 16; Vasiliev A.A. The Goths in the Crimea. P. 274.
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Swiss scientist Conrad of Gessner29. The German theologian and the historian George Torkvatus in the work written about 1561 reported that he the remains is ready live in mountains of the Taurian peninsula near Bospor, speaking at home in the own language very similar to language of Saxons, but outdoors and communicating with foreigners, - on Greek, Tatar and vengerskom30. Therefore it is possible to think that Crimean Gotha really kept the memory of some population of the Celtic origin to which they contacted in the past.

However the most interesting to germanists and celticists data contain at Ozhye Gislen de Byusbek (1522-1592) - comprehensively educated Flemish humanist, the writer, the botanist and the diplomat on service of three generations of the Austrian monarchs. He was born in Flanders as Charles V's citizen and until the end of the life remained connected with a dynasty Gabsburgov. Ozhye was an illegitimate son of George Gislen, the señor de Busbec, and his loved Ekaterina Gespiyel, and after him recognized. He grew in the Byusbekov31 lock, studying in Vervika and Komin - by then all this there was Spanish Western Flanders, province of the Sacred Roman Empire. Mental abilities of the boy induced it to get further education at the latinoyazychny university of Leuven where it registered in 1536 as Ozhye Gislen from Komin. After that he studied at the best universities of Europe - in Paris, Venice, Bologna and Padua. Busbec was Erasmus Rotterdamsky's pupil and since 1552, as well as his father and the grandfather, chose diplomatic career: at first visited the secretary at embassy England which had to get married in the Winchester between the English queen Maria Tudor and Philip ІІ Spanish. In the fall of 1554 the Roman-German king, and over time the emperor Ferdinand I attached him to Constantinople to conduct negotiations with the Turkish sultan Suleyman II Pyshny on truce which had to exempt the weakened empire of Gabsburgov from a war burden.

C of 1556 for seven years Busbec held a position of the ambassador in Constantinople. Delimitation of border between his master, future emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire, and the sultan across the disputed territory of Transylvania was a hard task throughout the majority of time of its stay in Constantinople. It was interfered by the sultan's viewfinder, Rustem pasha, and only at his successor, Semiz to Ali pasha, business began to progress. Despite insufficient then still knowledge of language and a lack of diplomatic experience, Busbec's mission made success, he managed to manage to get the long-term world despite the fact that the empire was forced to pay off to Turks considerable contribution and to recognize their protege in Transylvania, Hungarian Janos Sapoyai. During this time Busbec acquired over hundred Greek manuscripts which are in National library in Vienna, in particular, the copy of the treatise Dioskorida about medical plants now, collected many ancient coins, medals and antique inscriptions found in Ankara in Asia Minor including known "Monumentum Ancyranum" which reported about life and acts of the Roman emperor Augustus. The ambassador identified its origin thanks to what was read by Svetoniya, and published the copy of his parts in the "Turkish letters". Busbec wrote this famous work which was a meeting of personal correspondence with the friend and the colleague, the Hungarian diplomat Nicholas Mikholt who at that time was in Flanders while he stayed in Constantinople. Letters describe its adventures connected with the Turkish policy and remain one of

29 H. H. there is F. Istoriya of Crimean is ready... C. 243; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 119, 124; Rousseau A. Esquisse d’une histoire du Gotique de Crimee... P. 152; Tomaschek W. Die Goten in Taurien. S. 56.
30 H. H. is F. Istoriya of Crimean it is ready. C. 242-243; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 47-48, 121, 125; Rousseau A. Esquisse d’une histoire du Gotique de Crimee... P. 152; Vasiliev A.A. The Goths in the Crimea. P. 274.
31 Now Busbek in department of Holes in France.
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Materials on archeology and the history of the antique and medieval Crimea. The issue IV

of the main primary sources for researchers of the Ottoman yard of the 16th century. Ozhye told also very much about plants and animals whom he met in Turkey. Busbec was a passionate collector, the fan of antiquities, rarities and various funny things who imported from Turkey to Western Europe a tulip, a lilac and a horse chestnut. His passion for botany induced it to send tubers of the Turkish tulip to the friend Charles del Eclyuz who acclimatized them in the Netherlands. Less, than in century of a tyulpanomaniye covered the Integrated Provinces and destroyed their financial markets. Also attribute to Busbec import to Europe of the Angora goat.

the emperor's Ambassador was deeply interested in Turkish, and orientalists by right consider him the founder of modern turkology. Knowing several languages, Busbec combined personal linguistic endowments with the best achievements of science of that time, as defined its invaluable contribution to Germanic studies. Being the ambassador in Constantinople, Busbec often heard that on the Crimean peninsula there live people, language which customs and appearance indicate their German origin. About 1560 it met two men from the Crimea, one of whom was Ghat and looked as the Fleming or the Dutch, and the second was Greek with typical appearance, but, living among is ready, not bad knew their language. It were messengers from the Crimean Germans to the sultan. From them Busbec learned about Ghats much - the aggressive people which lived in numerous villages near the main towns of Mangup and Skivarin, exposing upon the demand of the Tatar khan eight hundred infantrymen with guns. It is necessary to emphasize a merit of the erudite Fleming. Contrary to all other travelers who were satisfied with a mention of the German adverb of these people Busbec had scientific conscience which induced it to write down 80 words and short expressions which are our uniform source about language

32

Crimean is ready.

the Well-known Crimean and gothic Busbeca dictionary stated in 1562 in it "The fourth Turkish letter" became a subject of linguistic disputes more than once. In general it is possible to state its German character. In vocabulary it is ready peninsulas the words of the German etymology in the broadest sense are most extensively presented - from the all-German words of Indo-European origin and specific all-German lexemes (including early loans) to areal germanizm. At the same time, as it is possible to see even on limited material, loans get into some very steady groups of vocabulary.

Such ratio of conservatism, on the one hand, and serious innovations - with another, is characteristic of Crimean and gothic as relic language. It contains the all-German keltizm to which, for example, Crimean and gothic mycha 'ensis' 'sword' belongs (not ‘gladius’!). Gothic compliance - meki to the Greek maxaipa 'short sword' (an accusative case of singular in the context of the bible message of the apostle Pavel to efesyanam32 33) to which there correspond drevnedatsky runic makija (Vimoze), drevneislandsky mkir, Old English maece, drevnesaksonsky maki34. Its basis - not from time immemorial German designation of a sword, but the cross-cultural term which starts from some external source. The fact of loan of the new foreign-language name of some arms usually fixes import of more perfect, better weapon. Therefore the most convincing version of its penetration into the German - from Celtic,

32 BayerH. - F. Istoriya Crimean is ready... C. 244-258; Loewe R. Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere... S. 127-179; Tomaschek W. Die Goten in Taurien. S. 57-58.
33 Eph. 6:17.
34 Balg G.H. A Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Language with Especial Reference to English and German. Mayville-New York-London-Halle, 1887-1889. P. 276; Lehmann W.P. A Gothic Etymological Dictionary. P. 250; Loewe R. Altgermanische Elemente der Balkansprachen//Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen. Gutersloh, 1906. Band XXXIX. Neue Folge Band XIX. S. 316; Uhlenbeck C.C. Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Worterbuch der gotischen Sprache. Amsterdam, 1900. S. 109.
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as derivative bases * mecc-'shine, shine' which remained in the Breton mecet, micet 'shine, shine, sparkle', from where andemecet ‘honor?

crimea celts crimean gotha crimean gothic language relic languages byusbek etymology zaimstvovaniya substrate the crimea
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