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2000. 04. 010. V.A. Tvardovskaya., B.S. Russkiye and Carle Marx's Itenberg: choice or destiny? / RAS. Ying t Ros. Stories. M.: Editorial of URSS, 1999. 215 with

2000.04.010. V.A. TVARDOVSKAYA, B.S. ITENBERG. Russians AND KARL MARX: CHOICE OR DESTINY? / RAS. Ying t grew. stories. - M.: Editorial of URSS, 1999. - 215 pages


In the book presented a series of essays about the Russian public figures of the 1840-90th years among which - Annenkov, Herzen, Bakunin, Chernyshevsky, Tkachyov, Daniyelson, Rusanov and Mikhaylovsky. Authors show, how the Russian intellectuals perceived Marx's doctrine and him as the personality that attracted in Marxism of his Russian opponents and what caused in them a protest.

Despite diversity and contradiction of estimates of the Marxist ideas by Russian intelligentsia, authors, with a certain share of convention, designate some common features in perception of Marxism by heroes of essays. First of all, all of them to a degree called in question the universal nature of the laws of social development opened by Marx, in particular concerning "inevitability" of a capitalist stage for Russia.

Marx's sentence to the peasantry as the class doomed, which does not have the future "second-grade" in comparison with the proletariat could not find understanding in the environment of the liberal and democratic intellectuals. Are deaf there were heroes of the book and to justification of a historical mission of working class, and dictatorship of the proletariat seemed to most of them dangerous.

Marx and Engels predicted inevitability of revolution in Russia and decades waited when "Russia breaks into a dance", with hope noting any strengthening of social tension in the country. A number of the Russian figures did not recognize after Marx in revolution of a universal way of transition to a new step of social development and, contrary to Marxism, continued to look for a bezrevolyutsionny way of development.

Debatable in the environment of the raznochinsky intellectuals remained the corner provision of Marxism about the nature of a way of production which, according to Marx, defines social, political and spiritual processes in society. In post-reform Russia stable was a superiority of policy over economy.

the Social thought of Russia in the attempts of the solution of the imminent social and economic contradictions concentrated on problems of the power. And in these conditions the Russians waited from Marx for the special analysis of prospects of development of the country - "overdue", according to S.M. Solovyov. They considered that the backwardness brings Russia out of effect of marksovy laws and creates for it historical chance - having used experience of Europe, not to repeat it, and to go the way, leaning on traditional way of country life. Nevertheless

the "Russian chapter" promised by Marx was not published in the Russian edition of "Capital". Thus, the Russian thought continued to look for independently the, special way, rejecting foreordained by Marx as unacceptable for Russia.

Nevertheless the divergences with Marx noticed in his doctrine defects and miscalculations did not cover

for Russian intelligentsia of the huge contribution made by it in social sciences. The Russian opponents appreciated Marxism as attempt to submit the harmonious logic diagram of development of humanity from a primitive-communal system before socialism, however the master of thoughts of the Russian liberal and democratic intelligentsia Marx did not become. Most of the Russian intellectuals rejected Marxism, and here played a role not only ideological disagreements, but also the fact that behind Marx's interest in Russia the Russians did not feel his participation in the fate of the country, alarm for it, sympathy to its troubles, authors conclude.

O.V. Bolshakov's
k. marx. and russia marxism-leninism in russia public opinion - russia - the relation to marxism
Klausen Haldor
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