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Category: History


svetlana of BALDANO


In article the system of training of the new Buryat intellectuals according to the general line of party and the strategy of the Soviet state reveals.

The article is devoted to the problem of mutual relations of the Buryat art intelligentsia and the Soviet power in 1920-1930 and the Bolshevic doctrine as an instrument of the ideological influence on the Buryat society.

intellectuals, national intellectuals, socialist construction, national culture; art intelligentsia, national intelligentsia, socialist building, national culture.

The problem of relationship of the intellectuals and the power is considered as the phenomenon not only political, but also spiritual and cultural life of society today. Of course, it would be ideally desirable that the art intellectuals separated from the power. However in practice during various periods of history her representatives were included into structures of the power and quite competently solved objectives.

Paying much attention to involvement of the old intellectuals in socialist construction, the Soviet state at the same time solved also other major problem — training of the new intellectuals. The Communist Party defined the accurate political line concerning its various categories. In the environment of the local Buryat intellectuals there was a serious stratification. To the first group the faces which united around the nationalist purposes were carried to the second — supporters of the Soviet power. It was that part of the sovetizirovanny intellectuals which left mainly labor groups of the Buryat population. Its political line answered strategic objectives of party and the principles of the Soviet power. They also made the vast majority of the Buryat intellectuals.

According to this gradation the political line of party and Soviet power concerning these categories of the national intellectuals was defined. It was based on ruthless suppression of hostile elements regardless of a form and a being of their performances, on suppression of all attempts of expression of the positions from that part of the national intellectuals which was dissatisfied with the national policy plaid by Bolshevik Party. At the same time the measures encouraging the representatives of the intellectuals who are honestly working and firmly standing on the platform of the Soviet power were provided. And it was possible only on the basis of deepening of differentiation in the environment of the Buryat intellectuals and strengthening of positions of its sovetizirovanny part. Representatives of the party device understood that some measures of physical pressure you will not win round the art and scientific intellectuals. Therefore especially in the late twenties — the beginning of the 1930th it encouraged the discussions developed concerning development of art culture.

BALDANO Svetlana Viktorovna — to. and. N, research associate of Department of history, ethnology and sociology of Institute of a mongolovedeniye, buddologiya and tibetologiya of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

To this period there was a heated debate about ways of formation and development of the Buryat Soviet art, about its contents and a form, about cultural heritage. Some representatives of the Buryat intellectuals (P. Dambinov, M. Saridak — B. Naydakov, D. Ivanov — B. Badrino) found possible and even necessary during creation of national art, in particular theatrical, to use datsan-sky art. Others, on the contrary, showed the nigilistic relation and underestimated a possibility of use of richness of folk art the Buryat during creation of socialist culture. The first were accused of nationalism. But also positions of others were not supported. The regional party organization rejected both of these currents and presented the development of theoretical issues of development of national culture which found reflection in decisions VII of the Regional party conference, regional party meeting (1930) and a plenum of regional committee (1931) on cultural construction and also in resolutions of bureau of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks).

The October revolution defined a priority of class values as the highest achievement of justice. Everything that was connected with old ideology and former statehood, by 1930th appeared beyond the scope of revolutionary legality. Analyzing the program of socialist construction of Bolshevik party, it should be noted that theoretically it was equitable to the interests of the overwhelming part of the art intellectuals living expectation of sweeping changes, aspiring to them and proving them. Party leaders of Bolsheviks understood the importance of the intellectuals. But the truth was that looked at the intellectuals, first of all, as on material for a great social experiment which in process of its successful implementation will become a by-product of social development.

The Bolshevist doctrine for the 1920-30th gradually turned into a uniform world outlook system. In the late thirties it became the main in activity of the party and state device, the tool of its ideological impact on society. All diversity of ideological views was as a result unified and it is provided exclusive

provision of "socialist realism". The advocacy department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee — Agitprop which defined strategy and tactics of cultural development became the coordinating center of this activity in the country. The agitprop was created also in BMASSR. Similar reorganization reflected the increased role of party in socialist construction and its aspiration to cover all sites of ideological work.

The essential role in the mechanism of ideological impact on the art intellectuals was played by censorship. In 1922 in the country Glavlit was created (Head department for literature and publishing houses). The problem of preview of all works intended to publication was assigned to Glavlit and its local bodies. In the mid-thirties when the "closed" Soviet society was created, censorship was alienated from cultural tradition, worked against it and eventually against most sotsiuma1. Besides OGPU watched the structure of funds of libraries, bookstores, withdrew and subjected to destruction of the edition, entering the lists of the forbidden books prepared by Glavlit's bodies. The Soviet censorship had negative effect on training of talented experts as limited freedom of creativity, complicating dissemination of new information and access to it. Censorship exercised control and of theater. For this purpose in 1929 in the Narkomprosa system and its departments on places managements for arts were created. In 1935 the management of all theater life was transferred to hands of uniform public authority — Committee on affairs of arts at SNK USSR as a part of which also the Head department of theaters remained.

For example, the Buryat drama theater till 1936 was under Narkompros BMASSR'S authority, and since 1937 was transferred to Management for arts at Council of People's Commissars of BMASSR. New management arose from need to put activity of the art intellectuals under strict party control. Reflection of this political line was also creation of sectors and departments of questions cultural systems -

1 I.E. Levchenko. Censorship as sociocultural phenomenon//Sotsis, 1996, No. 8, p. 88.

telstvo in structure of Komsomol bodies.

The special body controlling the repertoire of all theaters of the country of (Glavre-pertkom) demanded repertoire plans of the largest theaters on preview and a statement. Thus, through the party and state organizations the theater was gradually integrated into political system of society.

Questions of theatrical and concert life of the republic the Management of the Theatrical and Spectacular Enterprises (MTSE) at Narkompros BMASSR knew. It controlled all activity of theater: the repertoire, work of actors, director, director, artist, conditions of their life and also the questions connected with production. Controlling theater, did not do to UTZP a step without the knowledge of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks).

Its involvement in the creative unions created in the 1930th became the most important form of ideological impact on the art intellectuals. If till 1932 the creative unions of the intellectuals still kept any similarity of voluntary associations, independence, then then their organizational and legal status changed. In essence, they were turned into an appendage of state mechanism. Their charters were approved not at constituent congresses any more as earlier, and the government. The state leadership was more and more replaced party, and over time they turned in "conductors of cultural policy of the party".

Expulsion and physical repressions against all groups of the intellectuals including art, prosecution of the last for political, ideological motives and class signs when even at lack of evidence the defendants were entered in the category of counter-revolutionaries became a component of policy of the authorities. In Buryat Mongolia the bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs inspired widely known case of the so-called counterrevolutionary espionage "pan-Mongolian" organization which members were repressed. During this period in Buryatia the campaign against clergy was launched. Repressions fell upon Buddhist, pravoslav-

ny, Old Belief and other faiths.

Researches show that the repressive policy accrued gradually. For the first time the formulation about an unsuccessful situation in Buryatia appeared as a result of operational investigative actions in Leningrad when at the beginning of 1937 the big group of attendants of a Buddhist cult of the Leningrad datsan, employees of the Tibetan-Mongolian group and also eminent public figures and scientists of Buryat-Mongo-lii1 was arrested.

1937 — 1938 became peak of a new wave of mass repressions. For 1937 and ten months 1938 in Buryatia were arrested 6,836 people from which 4,907 people are condemned. Color of the Buryat national intellectuals was destroyed. ED died. Rinchino, Ts. Zhamtsarano, B. Baradin, Cuolbone Tui, Ts. Don, Zh. Batotsyrenov, B. Togmitov, Zh. Radnabazaron and others which names throughout long time were buried in oblivion. Convicts were accused of nationalism, attempt of creation of the pan-Mongolian organization, espionage and diversionary activity in favor of militaristic Japan. Affairs of representatives of art culture and the creative intellectuals were allocated in separate group to show "special refinement" of panmongolist in fight against the Soviet power.

Political repressions caused irreplaceable damage to development of national art culture. The label of the pan-Mongolian moods and charge of creation of the mass kept dark counterrevolutionary organization were pasted to several generations of the Buryat intellectuals.

The command control system in relation to art combined carrot and stick policy. Artists got to direct dependence on the power. In the conditions of nationalization of the trade creative unions there was (though less noticeable in the province) an ideological and political polarization of representatives of the art intellectuals.

1 A. Andreyev. Buddhist shrine of Petrograd. — L., 1989, p. 42.
Bruni Marta Ambra
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