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96. 03. 006. Runia D.T. Philo Aleksandriysky in early Christian writings: review. Runia D. T. Philo in early Christian literature: survey. - Assen: van Gorcum; Minneapolis: fortress Press, 1993. - XV, 418 p. - (compendia rerum ludaicarum ad novum Testamentum; sect. 3, Jewish traditions in early Cristian lit.; Vol. 3). - bibliogr.: p. 357-392. Indices: p. 393-418








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since 1973 there are 4 times a year the RZh 2 index the index of series 2.6 papers 96.03.001-96.03.045


is insignificant. Respectively, the main part of Mitridata army was made by mercenaries of various barbaric tribes of Asia Minor and Black Sea Coast. She outnumbered the armies of the Roman republic operating in the east, but significantly conceded to them in a qualitative sense, first of all on the level of organization and discipline and also on arms and tactics. Qualitative superiority of professional regular army of Rome over different races hordes of Mitridat was the main factor of defeat and death of the Pontic tsar and disintegration of the power created by it. All this, nevertheless, did not eliminate action integrating (economic and political) factors within the Black Sea basin. & #34; Not without reason the idea of vsepontiysky association continued to live also after death of Mitridata" - the author (page 142) concludes.

A.E. Medovichev

96.03.006 RUNIA D.T. Philo ALEKSANDRIYSKY IN EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITINGS: REVIEW. RUNIA D.T. Philo in early Christian literature: A survey. - Assen: Van Gorcum; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. - XV, 418 p. - (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum; Sect.3, Jewish traditions in early Cristian lit.; Vol3). - Bibliogr.: p. 357-392. Indices: p. 393-418.

the Book by professor of ancient and medieval philosophy of the Leiden and Utrecht universities David T. Runia contains the critical review of modern literature on a problem of impact which is had by Philo Alessandrino's ideas (apprx. 25 BC - apprx. 50 AD) on formation of ideology of early Christianity.

the Author distinguishes two, apparently, contradictory modern researchers of approach to assessment of the relation of early Christianity to Judaism. The first focuses attention on specifics of development of Judaism of the Second temple (i.e. the Judaism existing since restoration of the Jerusalem temple in the 6th century BC - a comment ref.) during the period from 63 to 66 AD (i.e. from capture

of Jerusalem Gney Pompey before occupation of the city by Tit Flavy. (Comment ref.).

Supporters of this approach are inclined to consider Christianity the obnovlenchesky movement in the Judaism which broke up during this period to sects of Pharisees, Essenes, Sadducees and also to the rumors confessing in diaspora. Allocation in the separate religion resisting & #34; коренному" to Judaism, the Christianity is obliged to counteraction from the ravvinizm uniting these sects since 2nd century AD (page 63).

Supporters of the second approach consider that the Christianity initially conflicted with & #34; нормативным" & #34; обычным" Judaism with its aiming at the Temple, at the Law and obedience to the Law and also on the earth of Israel. Diaspora Judaism as more ellinizirovanny served in this sense as the natural soil for emergence of the new, wide dogma aimed any more not at the earth of Israel, but at all world around (page 65).

according to the author, at assessment of accessory of Philo and his doctrine to early Christianity, & #34; these it would seem various approaches in fact do not comprise a contradiction as in practice are two parties of one medal. That general that is the cornerstone of Judaism, is quite enough for maintaining its unity (it is not represented lawful to say how it is done by some, about existence during emergence of Christianity & #34; several иудаизмов"). Philo belonged to this uniform Judaism, but gave it a distinct shade that allows to see a striking example of the synagogue existing in диаспоре" in its doctrine; (page 65-66).

Confirmation to it contains in the analysis modern researchers of those provisions of the synoptic Gospel which are tekstualno very close to Philo's ideas. So, for example, idea & #34; плоти" at St Paul differs from the idea & #34; тела" at Philo, and & #34; дух" at St Paul means absolutely not that & #34; душа" at Philo. & #34; Undoubtedly, - the author considers, - that the apocalyptic and eschatological component in

to Pavel's idea as it most brightly appears in the First Epistle to the Corinthians where Pavel speaks about two Adamakh1), resolutely separates it from Philo. Pavel sees revival of a body in revival that is absolutely unacceptable neither for his opponents in Corinth, nor for Filona" (page 72).

In the same way the most known parallel between & #34; Словом" from a prelude to Ev. from Ioanna2) and the idea & #34; Логоса" Philo, according to the author, on closer examination modern researchers, is found by rather a divergence with tradition of ellinizirovanny Judaism to which Philo belonged, and for which Logos's embodiment in Jesus would be just inconceivable (page 81).


Recognizing as fair a conclusion of modern researchers that the ideas of an evangelical Word and filonovsky Logos originate in some general Judaic tradition and that the Gospel of John most likely would remain in the same, the look which reached us even if Philo would never exist, the author of subjects not

of Ev., the 1st Epistle to the Corinthians by the St. apostle Pavel, Chapter 15, Article 44 Is sowed a body sincere, the body spiritual rises. There is a body sincere, there is a body and spiritual; to sg.45 And it is written: & #34; the first person Adam became hulk живущею" and the last Adam is spirit life-giving; Article 51 I Tell you a secret: not all of us will die, but all we will change; Article 52 Suddenly, during a moment of an eye, at the last pipe; because vostrubit, and the dead will revive imperishable, and we will change; Article 53 Because perishable this should clothe in not decay, and to mortal this - to clothe in immortality; Article 54 When perishable this will dress not decay and mortal this will dress immortality, then the word written will come true: & #34; death победою" is absorbed;; Articles 55 & #34; Death! where your sting? hell! where your victory? & #34;; Article 56 death Sting - a sin; and sin force - the law.

2) Ev. from Ioann, the Word was Chapter 1, Article 1 At the beginning, and God had a Word, and the Word was God.

less: & #34; First, without Philo we would know much less about sources of this evangelical idea, and, secondly, if Philo was not, then interpretation of the Gospel by fathers of church would be in many respects иным" (page 83).

In the book pays attention to importance of more in-depth study by modern science of the sources known as works of Apostolic fathers. Being written to the period between 90 and 160, i.e. during drawing up, but not canonizations of evangelical texts yet, these documents reflect an era of formation of Christianity when it, being located on border of the Greek-Roman world, still was in many respects directed in the Jewish community, hesitating to throw down a challenge to the ancient art dominating beyond its limits.

Though the obvious similarity of a number of the ideas does not give the grounds to claim that Apostolic fathers (Kliment Rimsky, Ignatius of Antioch, Varnava) just as the first apologists (Aristide, Yustin Muchenik, Athenagoras, etc.) whose works also belong to this period, were familiar with Philo's texts, the author considers that these early & #34; теологи" the Christianities combining criticism of Jewry with a support on tradition of ellinizirovanny Judaism paved the way to the latest assimilation of a filonizm of Ottsami church (page 93).

it is Very remarkable that though Philo lived and created in Alexandria where his works were stored, for at least 130 years after his death it is not possible to find almost any traces of direct use of these works in the works by the Alexandria Christian theologians (page 119) which reached us.

Only after arrival to 180 g. to Alexandria Clemente named later Alessandrino it is possible to speak about inclusion of the ideas of Philo in early Christian theology with confidence. Clemente, being a pupil in the beginning, and subsequently the coach of the Alexandria katekhichesky school, not only directly refers (though it is not frequent) to Philo's works, but also the obvious similarity in a number of provisions to approach of the last to exegetics (interpretation of the Writing) and cosmology (page 152-153) finds

according to most of modern researchers, active inclusion of works and Philo's ideas in process of formation of a Christian canon began under direct influence of the pupil Clemente Alessandrino Origuen (185-253). Use by Origuen of the filonovsky approach to cosmology approving primacy of the Creator in relation to the star world was a link between Christianity and ancient philosophy of Platon, Aristotle and stoik (page 177).


that in this meaning of Philo it is possible to consider, perhaps, one of & #34; почетных" Fathers of church, the author emphasizes that & #34; Origuen, at the same time with Clemente, provided a starting point for inclusion of the ideas of Philo in Christian традицию" (page 183). Not less important was the fact that Origuen included Philo's works in the library which took out from Alexandria to Palestine. Without it hardly they would live up to now.

In the book the tendency of a number of modern researchers of early Christianity to consider Philo the confessor of arianism is considered by

>. Noting obvious insufficiency of authentic information about Arius and his doctrine that about two Logosakh (one - incognizable and another - cognizable & #34 hardly gives the grounds for direct analogy of the idea of Philo; отпечатка" the first) with the interpretations of the idea of Arius which reached us about & #34; сотворенности" and, therefore, essence, other than God, Christ, the author is inclined to consider arianism as substantially an independent product of broad polemic about fundamentals of dogma, peculiar to the Alexandria Christians of the 4th century (page 193).

the Author pays considerable attention to modern estimates of the works Evseviya Kesariyskogo (apprx. 260 - apprx. 338) whose well-known & #34; Church история" as well as two subsequent fundamental works about sources and the beginning of Christianity, not only contain the complete list of works of Philo 10-3297


>, but also furnish the clue to understanding of its value for formation of early Christian theology.

Emphasizing with

importance of a further research of this problem still far from permission, the author considers the indisputable evidence of influence of filonovsky tradition assimilation by patriots & #34; a significant amount of terms which it is possible to call & #34; verba Philonica" for the first time entered by Philo, or for the first time meeting in it работах" (page 226-227).

the Authority Evseviya Kesariyskogo, considering that in the descriptions of the Egyptian therapists Philo, being actually Jesus's contemporary, testifies to early Christian communities, according to a number of modern researchers, laid the foundation of the legend of Christian Philo occurring in the circle of theologians of early Christianity (in the same place).

opinions of modern researchers on perception of the ideas of Philo the western Christianity of the 4-5th centuries in detail understand the book. According to most of modern researchers in spite of the fact that certain Fathers of church in the West, in particular Ambrose Milansky, Blessed Augustine and his pupil Orozy, find good acquaintance to works and Philo Alessandrino's ideas, the last is not perceived by them as the Christian thinker, though appreciated as the living witness of evangelic activity of the apostle Mark in Egypt (page 330).


in conclusion of the book what the purpose of the undertaken review of modern researches about Philo's role in early Christian tradition is not so much to reveal the attitude towards Philo as to the carrier Judaic or Alexandria, i.e. the Hellenistic tradition how many as to the thinker who made a contribution to tradition of early Christianity, the author notices that & #34; Philo's title Christian, being assigned to the thinker's shoulders in his time, would hardly be it even понят" (page Ya47).

At the same time, perception of the ideas of Philo Ottsami of church undoubtedly represents the important phenomenon. It helped to inform of Philo's works up to now and left a noticeable mark in the most Christian ideology.

of BL. Lapshov


96.03.007. BLACK SEA COAST IN the MIDDLE AGES / Under the editorship of S.P. Karpov - M., 1995. Issue 2. - 192 pages - (Works of Department of history of MSU).

the Second release of the collection (the 1st, published in 1991, is devoted to the XVIII International congress of vizantinist) reflects results of work of the history of Byzantium and Black Sea Coast of Department of history of MSU directed by the prof. S.P. Karpov Laboratorii in 1992-1994. The researches presented in it introduce for scientific use new sources and new research techniques. S.P. Karpov's article opening the collection (& #34; Black Sea Coast in the 15th century on materials of the message of Botegyugit, PYs of Confidential archive Genui") it is devoted to characteristic of the unique collection of documents which is stored in the Genoa state archive and those opportunities which open its study for the history of Black Sea Coast. Over 86% of documents, are noted in article, make the materials of judicial proceedings connected mainly with the petition claims relating to the period of 1375-1398 and 1420-1477 of Petiuiya & #34; recreate a life palette in trading stations, with its difficulties and disappointments, and demonstrate priorities of the Genoa businessmen * (page 11). They reflect geographical and economical and political - orientation torgovopredprinimatelsky activity of genoeses in Black Sea Coast. Documents of Opgegyugit fix a little known phenomenon of decolonization - outflow of the population of the Black Sea trading stations in yu *

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