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2004. 01. 008. C. Aguirre Rojas - A. Fernán Brodel and modern social sciences. Aguirre Rojas C. - A. Fernand Braudel und die modernen Sozialwissenschaften. - Leipzig, 2002. - 215 p



2004.01.008. C. Aguirre ROJAS - A. Fernán BRODEL AND MODERN SOCIAL SCIENCES.

AGUIRRE ROJAS C. - A. Fernand Braudel und die modernen sozialwissenschaften. - Leipzig, 2002. - 215 p.

the Author of the book - the Latin American historian. In 1955 completed an educational course of economic sciences and history in Mexico City (Universidad Etudes en Sciences Sociales Autónoma de Mexico) and in Paris (Ecole des Hautes). Now - professor of the independent university in Mexico City.

Aguirre Rojas was one of organizers of the I international conference devoted to F. Brodel's creativity (Mexico City, 1997) and some of founders of "Marc Bloch's Association" (Association Mark Bloch) created in 1992. The area of scientific interests of the author of the book includes the French historiography, especially works of "School of Annals". whether

"Can tell

about specific understanding of history F. Brodel?" - the author of the book asks and answers on him in the affirmative. He seeks to prove it, characterizing "the main intellectual lines" of "the creative project" of F. Brodel, the system of a mirovideniye and thinking of this outstanding scientist, and invites readers to the corresponding reading of the known works F. Brodel, entering them into the world its creative the practician. Aguirre Rojas emphasizes that his research is also intended to open that influence which F. Brodel rendered on modern to it the international historiography, in particular, in teoretiko-methodological area and, especially, in judgment of the concept "global history".

According to objectives the author builds structure of the monograph. It includes teoretiko-methodological general "Introduction" (page 7-15) and eight chapters: 1. "Fernán Brodel and his time" (page 15-32).

2. "Key to understanding of opinion of Brodel on history and its treatment" (page 33-62).
3. "Lessons of studying Mediterranean" (page 63-92). 4. "Sketch of new structuring paradigms in social sciences" (page 93-112). 5. "Interpretation of universal world history (in the context of the general theory of a civilization)" (page 113-130). 6. "Historical and theoretical discussion of capitalism" (page 131-160). 7. "Discussion of a problem of Europe in the world: in its advantage or against?" (page 161-182). 8. "Back in Heksagon. Researches about the French identity" (page 183-204).
Thus in general the perspective of consideration offered by Aguirre Rojas is focused by

on assessment of creative heritage of F. Brodel in his identity, integrity and the hidden and obvious prospects underestimated by contemporaries.

the Historian as any scientist, especially such scale as Fernán Bro-del, the author of the book writes, always has "own face" because solves and puts those problems which are given rise by its time. But it often causes irritation of "lineal descendants", quite often already during lifetime of their teacher. There passes time and "the crowd which grasped only nominal sentences disappears forever", but the ideas which trampled quite recently, suddenly find relevance and invite in direct, to direct reading and reconsideration of texts. Especially it is relevant and indicative, Aguirre Rojas, for the social sciences of Latin America formed under strong influence of the French "School of Annals" writes. Under the sign of Brodel, his language and concepts ("time of big duration", "global history", "material culture", "world economy") there was a formation of social sciences in the Latin American historiography, as well as in general in the European and world science of the last twenty years of last century. Presenting the book to the reader, Aguirre Rojas writes that it is designed to open that influence which "the outstanding representative of historical science rendered long time for a historiography of the 2nd half of the XX century in the teoretiko-methodological plan. At the same time Brodel was rather closed and ironic in a self-assessment. He complained that his ideas were not understood, feeling as the intellectual single. Not having in the strict meaning of followers, it had hundreds and thousands of "pupils". Though his ideas became simpler, and the main theses were forged, F. Brodel played the leading role in institutional space and was "a true cartridge of social sciences in France" and "the powerful public person" not only in the country, but also beyond its limits. Are indicative, the author, various nicknames of Brodel and epithets with which he was allocated writes: "the prince of history", "king Brodel", "Dad of historians", "a shumpeter of history", "president Brodel", "the boss of a modern history", "Prudon XX centuries", etc.

But it on a surface. The creative identity of F. Brodel was not exhausted him by institutional activity and patronage of social sciences. Whether in one of an interview on a question he is happy with the fate of the scientist, Brodel answered: "yes and no". "People and scientific works die, become obsolete, - it continued. - But in each case I could enrich myself intellectually. I analyzed and understood a real condition of humanitarian knowledge in general, having worked the corresponding works and not only which are near at hand and easily available and it very much helped me. I studied a real condition of the humanities in Russia, America, India, China, and it promoted success of my own scientific search and researches (page 10). The answer and to the second question of the interviewer is indicative: "Do you feel lonely?". "In the intellectual relation - yes. Because people whom I met were not for me in the same degree relatives as at the time Lucian Febvre. Intellectual life makes you open in relation to others, but at the same time it promotes that you are drawn towards yourself and are guided by yourself" (in the same place).

F. Brodel's Creativity, Aguirre Rojas claims, remained misunderstood the contemporaries placing it in space of traditional approach to a historiography - "in space of historical spontaneity" against what Brodel fought for the rest of the natural. In destruction of this myth sees the task and Aguirre Rojas, because as he believes, be the focus of attention of Brodel and his historical analysis there was perhaps deeper penetration in historical process and understanding the deep social mechanisms setting it in motion and changing his picture.

From this point of view, the main monographic compositions of F. Brodel, the author believes, undoubtedly can (and have to be) are ranked "as a classical historiography of the XX century". The author (following Brodel) carries to them first of all two books: "The Mediterranean and its world during Philip II's era" (the first edition - 1949) and "A material civilization, economy and capitalism. XV-XVIII" (1979). They contain the critical analysis of the previous historiography and offer new prospects for assessment and an explanation of earlier brought up basic and major subjects, such as "the birth of the modern world (civilizations of modern times")", "formation of modern Latin American culture", "a fundamental role of the Mediterranean in universal (general) history", "historical and theoretical explanations of the major capitalist structures", "distribution and a role of the European culture and its impact on formation of the world economy including modern", etc. For the most part of modern historians and sociologists the works called above became an important starting point for researches.

Along with the listed monographic researches F. Brodel put forward the theory of temporary rhythms in historical process which is bringing closer us as Aguirre Rojas writes to understanding of social realities. Relying on M. Blok's ideas, F. Brodel suggested to allocate three temporary rhythms: "time of the big duration (longue duré)" - time of geographical, material and mental structures, "quasimotionless" in which changes are not notable; "time of average duration" - time of environments, the cycles estimated decades; "short time - time of events". "The total description", Brodel believed, it is possible only when accounting all systems of "global society" and all cycle time. Focusing the attention on economic and material life, Brodel, respectively, concentrated it and on "time of big duration. The main reasons for historical changes, according to Brodel, lie in "time of big duration"; historical changes are made slowly, is imperceptible for people, kind of besides their will. Nevertheless consecutive studying "big time of history", also as well as "multidimensional complexity of its forms", traditional ideas of "social factors, the phenomena, processes" destroyed. And it was important, Aguirre Rojas, not

only for historians, but also for all who are engaged in social researches because F. Brodel's ideas offered "new prospect, new forms of approach to realities of vital processes writes, calling into question dominating in social history and sociology into "the simplified paradigms".

the concepts which are Put forward by F. Brodel initiated extensive discussions around traditional subjects and problems, in particular, the concerning interrelations and interactions during historical process of the person and the natural world; daily occurrence and material culture; "concrete dynamics of the relations of exchange and the conflict" between cultures, "which resulted" during process of formation of the world capitalist market. All this, in turn, initiated Brodel to development of the general theory of "the world capitalist economy during a modernist style era", as well as to development of the complete theory of capitalism and, proceeding from it, theories of its culture that, eventually, opened an opportunity "to highlight fundamental problems of general history of human societies".

Estimating in general creative identity of F. Brodel and his place in intellectual history of the last century, Aguirre Rojas writes that "Fer-nan Brodel offered prospect of deep layers of historical process", "deep history" (tiefgreifenden Geschichte) which he developed as one of the largest social thinkers of the last years of century and as one of the greatest historians of the "short 20th century" which began in 1914-1917 and came to the end with a huge break in 1989 (page 13).

Historical works of Fernán Brodel, Aguirre Rojas writes, "deserve that they were read and intensively studied. Respectively, Aguirre Rojas considers the main task of the book acquaintance of the reader with "cogitative laboratory" Fernán Brodel, the main lines of researches and the ideas of his creative workshop which were born at different stages of his creative activity, inciting to their concrete development.

A.L. Yastrebitskaya

social sciences historical process brodel f
Frank Stine
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