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2010. 04. 015. People of the Volga region and fight of the southern Slavs for national release. 1875-1878: sb. Documents and materials / sost.: Yu.P. Anshakov, V.M. Hevrolina, etc. - Samara: Publishing house of the Samara scientific center RAS, 2009. - 822 with



vsekh other estates underwent & #34; европеизации" kept customs, folklore and traditions of self-government" (page 120).

the Main objective of official ideology, A.V. Sharapov calls preservation and strengthening of the empire and personal regime of Nicholas I, and Slavophiles, according to him, set as the purpose modernization of the country which consolidates the split Russian society and selectively liberalizes political system, having kept national peculiarities and historical experience.

Yu.V. Dunayev's
2010.04.015. PEOPLE of the VOLGA REGION AND FIGHT of the SOUTHERN SLAVS FOR NATIONAL RELEASE. 1875-1878: SB. DOCUMENTS AND MATERIALS / Sost.: Yu.P. Anshakov, V.M. Hevro-lina, etc. - Samara: Publishing house of the Samara scientific center RAS, 2009. - 822 pages
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In the collection prepared by the staff of Institute of the Russian history of RAS and IRI RAS Volga region branch publish the documents and memoirs heritage lighting full support (including financial support) the population of the Volga region to national liberation fight of the southern Slavs in the Balkans during East crisis of 1875-1878. Collection materials also reflect direct participation of natives of the Volga region in the voluntary movement in Serbia in 1876, in fighting in Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. The book contains data on service of the eminent Samara public figure P.V. Alabin on a post of the first civil governor Sofia in the freed Bulgaria.

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the collection consisting of introduction and four parts included many earlier not published documents from a number of archives of the Russian Federation (GARF, RGIA, RGVIA, regional archives), materials of the press of the 1870th years are widely presented. As it is noted by

p in introductory article, in the history of the Russian and Ottoman empires, the neighboring powers, there were eras of the unions and wars, and the Balkan Peninsula at the same time always played key

a role in geopolitical plans of two powers, generated sharp rivalry between them. For the Ottoman Empire the Balkans had great strategic and economic value: on the one hand, they covered approaches to the capital, with another - rich Balkan provinces were the main source of income of the empire. For Russia which geopolitical interests demanded an exit to the Black and Mediterranean seas the Balkan region also had a strategic and economic importance. "But unlike Turkey Russia had, besides, a powerful political and ideological factor - the idea of release of the coreligion and edinoplemenny people from an Ottoman yoke. All this caused a series of the Russo-Turkish wars in HUSh-H1H of centuries. And after each war which came to an end with a victory of Russians the chains which were holding down the Turkish Christians weakened. Independent Greece, autonomous Serbia and the Danube principalities, Montenegro independent de facto - all this fruits of joint fight of Russian and the Slavic people" (page 5).

remained

By 1870th years under the Ottoman power in the Balkans still huge territories - Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, etc. The constant revolts caused by strengthening of economic, religious and national oppression from Turks cruelly were suppressed with the Ottoman authorities. By 70th years of the 19th century, rivalry of the European powers in the Balkans owing to the economic and strategic reasons accepted the considerable sizes, the western powers had imperial ambitions in the Balkan region. Austria-Hungary wanted to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, England sought to strengthen the positions in the Black Sea passages. The aspiration not to allow strengthening of influence of Russia in the Balkans and to provide stability in the region by carrying out reforms for strengthening of Turkey and dominant position of the Turkish nation (doctrine of "osmanizm") entered a problem of the western powers. However penetration of Western Europe to the Balkans was complicated by two circumstances - instability of the region and influence of Russia which after the Crimean war increased the presence here and carried out diplomatic and also - secretly - financial and military aid to the fighting Slavs. In the latter case activity of non-governmental public organizations - Slavic committees through which the most part of financial transactions and supply of insurgents with weapon were carried out was used. The Russian society always with attention and sympathy treated fight of the Balkan Christians for the release.

in the Summer of 1875 the revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina began

>, in June of the next year fight against Turkey was entered by Montenegro and Serbia, and in Bulgaria with special cruelty Turks the revolt which broke out at the end of April, 1876 was suppressed. It were the initial stages of the new East crisis in the Balkans which led to the Russo-Turkish war 1877-1878. Crisis by the Berlin congress (June, 1878) which changed the map of the Balkans came to the end.

Throughout these events the people of Russia took an active part in the wide movement of sympathy to Slavs. In one other country various classes and population groups did not show such readiness to render full assistance to the Balkan Slavs including military. Except as in Russia, this movement did not gain such mass character anywhere.

the documents Published in the first part of the collection say

that the population of the Volga region in the majority welcomed war, seeing in it the only means of release of Slavs. According to messages of chiefs of provincial gendarme managements, mobilization was carried out to the shortest terms. The population, class and public organizations, individuals large donations for sanitary needs of army became. Committees of the Red Cross actively acted in the provinces.

At once after declaration of war the Samara City Council decided to hand

to one of teams of the Bulgarian militia which is a part of field army, the banner prepared in 1876 for the Bulgarian insurgent groups. For its delivery in Ployeshti (Romania) the delegation from Samara as a part of the mayor E.T. Kozhevnikov and public P.V. Alabin of the Samara thought left. In a festive atmosphere the Samara banner as a symbol of sympathy of the Russian people to Bulgarians 6 was solemnly handed on May (18), 1877 to the 3rd team of the Bulgarian militia.

the materials about actions of the military units billeted in the Volga region and consisting generally of local natives placed in the collection are of Great interest. To the Balkans from the Volga region provinces in field army, infantry divisions as a part of the 5th Kaluga, 6th Libav-sky, the 7th Revel, 8th Estlyandsky, the 9th Staroingerman-landsky and the 10th Novoingermanlandsky of regiments, were sent to

to the Caucasus - the 40th division as a part of the Imereti, Kutaisi, Gurian and Abkhazian regiments

the 2nd and 3rd. At the time of mobilization these parts were filled up by natives of the Volga region (about 73 thousand people). The structure of divisions and regiments was multinational, in their ranks besides Russians in considerable quantity Chuvashs, Tatars, representatives of other nationalities of the Volga region were at war. So, for example, the 6th infantry Libavsky regiment for 30% consisted of Tatars who perfectly proved further in fights, had awards for the courage shown in battles. Besides, a significant amount of volunteers went to army. Sanitary groups were everywhere formed, hospitals and infirmaries were arranged.

the Second part of the edition includes materials about direct participation of natives of the Volga region in military operations in the Balkans both during the Serbian-Montenegro-Turkish war of 1876, and during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Memoirs of one of volunteers - V.V. Yashcherov who was at war in Serbia in Timoksko-Moravsky army under command of the general M.G. Chernyaev are published in the collection. His memoirs besides military plots contain data on customs and customs of the Balkan people.

Active part in the voluntary movement was taken by doctors and students. The collection included memoirs of N.I. Stu-denskogo working in the Kazan sanitary group in the Serbian city of Kragujevac. In total in Serbia there were about 95 Russian doctors, more than one hundred paramedics and 60 nurses. The organization of sanitary matter in Serbia during war was only work of the Russian public, the European doctors were practically absent.

the Valuable source are magazines of military operations of the 5th infantry Kaluga regiment, the 7th infantry Revel and 8th infantry Estlyandsky of regiments and also the 2nd artillery crew of the 2nd infantry division. Originals of diaries and magazines are stored in the Russian state military and historical archive (Military and Scientific Archive fund). As a rule, diaries and magazines were formed regimental officers in headquarters of military units at once after war and were based on primary

sources (orders, reports, reports, field notes, etc.). They give the chance in details to track actions of military units, the attitude of commanders towards the soldiers, reaction of the Main apartment (Rate) to the course of fighting, behavior of soldiers, military life, food supply, etc. The most detailed is the magazine of the Kaluga regiment most of which of soldiers was natives of the Volga region, mainly the Simbirsk province. Military units from the Volga region were at war on the most important sectors of the front (in fights at Selvi and Lovche and also at Plevna). In fights near Plevna at the end of August, 1877 (third storm) they were directed to the order of the general M.D. Skobelev and participated in an attack on the Turkish redoubts. Except Kaluga parts of Libavsky, Estlyandsky and Revel regiments were at war here. The magazine of the Kaluga regiment confirms big losses: from 42 officers and 4000 soldiers 11 officers and 700 soldiers fit for further fights functioned.

the memoirs of participants of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 published in the collection are of special interest. Memoirs of the fighting general, chief of the 3rd infantry division P.P. Kartsov whose name belongs to a group of the talented military leaders who moved forward during military operations are distinguished from them. P.P. Kartsov headed the Trojan group which in the most difficult winter conditions stormed the Trojan pass which was considered as impassable and left to the Southern Bulgaria where the Turkish troops were finally broken. Memoirs of officers of the Kaluga and Libavsky regiments contain not only military details of combat operations; they are interesting also that authors pay much attention to the description of daily life of soldiers, to their relationship with the Bulgarian population, etc.

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the third section devoted to the Bulgarian militia included memoirs of the lieutenant colonel E.E. Rynkevich, the closest employee of the chief of the Bulgarian militia of the general N.G. Stoletov. They give rather complete idea of formation of a militia, its structure and participation in fighting. It is necessary to allocate also especially notes of Bulgarian Stefan Kisov, the officer of the 3rd team of the Bulgarian militia, and the diary of the colonel F.M. Depreradovich battling the volunteer in Serbia, and in the Russo-Turkish war ordering the 1st crew

of a militia. Depreradovich's diary contains the most interesting details of battle at Eski-Zagre where under the Samara banner the Bulgarian militia accepted baptism of fire. In A.M. Stessel's memoirs actions of the 3rd znamenny team in this fight are in details traced.

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In a final, fourth part traces public and state work in the freed Bulgaria of the outstanding resident of Samara P.V. Alabin who brought a powerful contribution to business of an economic recovery, development of education and the culture of Bulgaria on a post of the first civil governor Sofia.

in general documents of the edition confirm a significant role of the population of the Volga region in release of the Slavic people from a centuries-old Ottoman yoke, its big contribution to the victory of Russia which had result creation in the Balkans of independent Serbia, Montenegro, Romania and autonomous Bulgaria.

S.V. Bespalov

2010.04.016. B.N. MIRONOV. Welfare of the POPULATION AND REVOLUTION IN IMPERIAL RUSSIA: XVIII - the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY. - M.: New chronograph, 2010. - 911 pages

the Monograph consisting of introduction, 12 chapters, the conclusions and 6 statistical applications, are characterized by the author as the first in a world historiography research on historical anthropometry in Russia which main goal is the analysis of dynamics of welfare of the population of the country during the imperial period. This aspect of life of society is important not only in itself, but also can be considered as an important component in the generalizing analysis of development of Russia in the period of the empire and at assessment of policy of ruling circles.

B.N. Mironov notes that now in scientific literature there is no unambiguous interpretation of the concept "standard of living" or its synonym "welfare" as "standard of living" - very capacious concept. In modern economic science model sets of many dozens of indicators for assessment of the standard of living are offered. The author came to the following conclusions:

balkans east crisis 1875-1878 national liberation movement of the southern slavs help of the people of the volga region
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