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Formation and development of heraldry of Krasnoyarsk Krai



a deklaration, and Russia and China - the autonomy of Mongolia. It is possible to claim that the crucial role in permission of the Mongolian question was played by Russia which intervention was dictated, first of all, by the aspiration to keep that prevailing situation in Mongolia which it had by contractual acts and also desire to receive on the borders the buffer state in case of aggression of China. Adhering to the careful and weighed politicians during the Russian-Chinese negotiations on Mongolia, royal diplomacy promoted settlement of the Chinese-Mongolian relations and preservation of peace in the Far East.

List of references:

1. A. Berzin. The chosen works on the Buddhism and a tibetologiya. Part 1. - M, 2005.
2. Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiyev Russia and Mongolia. - M, 1987.
3. Russian-Chinese contract and legal acts (1689-1916). - M, 2004.
4. State Duma. Verbatim records. Convocation of III. The session V is SPb., 1912.
5. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire. T. 340. Op. 610. 122.
6. The collection of diplomatic documents on the Mongolian question (23.08.1912-2.11.1913). - SPb., 1914.

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT of HERALDRY of KRASNOYARSK KRAI

© S.P. Hmarskaya *

Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk the Krasnoyarsk office of the Siberian heraldic board, Krasnoyarsk

Scientific work contains theoretical generalizations of functioning and evolution of regional heraldry of Krasnoyarsk Krai, the main features and trends of its development.

Now we observe the increasing interest in heraldry. The modern heraldry of edge dynamically develops and the Krasnoyarsk office of the Siberian Heraldic Board promotes it. Many heraldic signs of our subject are based on the historical coats of arms of the cities and lands therefore comprehensive study of heraldic experience of this territory is necessary. The relevance of a research of development of modern heraldry of Krasnoyarsk Krai is also connected with about * the Undergraduate of department of Production management of SFU. Research supervisor: V.B. Dyukov, Chairman of the Krasnoyarsk office of the Siberian heraldic board, member of council of heraldic officers of the Russian Federation.

the blemny questions of heraldic providing subjects and municipal units of the Russian Federation caused by the situation which developed in connection with municipal reform [2].

Formation of heraldry of Krasnoyarsk Krai, as well as the majority of other regions of the country happened within the all-Russian heraldic creativity, point the following facts to it: the city and regional coats of arms can be treated as the sources reporting about development in the city of any given economic activity, crafts about natural wealth, external the image of settlements, a plant and animal life (it as the coats of arms of the cities of Krasnoyarsk Krai: Turukhansk ("In the dark red field the silver going polar fox" [7]), Bogotola ("In the dark red field on the green extremity the rising silver unicorn with gold eyes, a horn and hooves striking with the left front hoof in a rim put on the right in the bottom of a gold wheel" [7]) (fig. 1 d), Beryozovka ("In the birch bark field an azure column and over everything - two gold Cossack peaks crosswise accompanied above - a trilistny cross of the same metal, below - a silver papakha of astrakhan fur with dark red top; on the parties the column and peaks are accompanied by pairs of green birch earrings with a leaf at each couple" [7]) (fig. 1 e), the Kansk district ("In the cut dark red and azure field the grain sheaf which is tied up by the fluttering tape and below supported two turned to each other lions, all figures gold"), and other Russian cities: Irkutsk ("in the silver field on the green earth of the running beaver on the lookout bearing in teeth of a dark red sable: both animals are turned to the left" [7]), Lipetsk ("the modern municipal coat of arms of Lipetsk represents the image of a big emerald lime tree in the gold field meaning a city name; the bottom of a tree - the natural green hill" [7]), Samara ("in the blue field the white wild goat standing on a grass" [7]) and many others).

of the Description of the coats of arms in the 18th century were some kind of hallmarks of the new city. The images representing certain figures of heraldic characters are far from perfect. These are the simplest drawings of the only symbol of the coat of arms with lack of difficult graphics, an ornamental frame and other characteristics of graphic means.

the Coats of arms of the cities of the Yenisei province of the 19th and 20th centuries present to

more complex group at which there is already "a number of elements of a sign and figurative heraldic system. They are distinguished by more difficult composite solution, beauty of an internal part of a board of the coat of arms, the external symbols disclosing by the Russian heraldic rules the administrative-territorial status of the respective region" [5]. There is strengthening in territorial heraldry "pro-czarist trends that was expressed almost in obligation for each created city coat of arms on a lichiya in it such emblems as a crown or a dvukhglavy eagle" [3]. Also, the cities of many provinces including Yenisei, since the end of the 19th century had the double coat of arms - in the top part vicegeral, in lower - city. The emblem of the city was at such composition kind of minor, and the provincial coat of arms remained the main thing. At the same time this form of the coat of arms corresponded to real structure of administrative-territorial division of Russia. The bulk of the Russian city coats of arms, that is practically everything that arose in the last quarter of XVSh-nachale XIX of centuries, have the similar form. It is very easy to distinguish them by the form from "old", earlier composed at which in a stamp board one emblem is located.

a) Krasnoyarsk 1804 b) Krasnoyarsk 1851 c) Yenisei province of 1878

d) Krasnoyarsk 2004 e) Bogotol 2008 e) Berezovsky area of 2003

of Fig. 1. The historical and modern coats of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai

the Majority of symbolical images was lost by

>, part of them were not known, some remained in the history as peculiar monuments history, material and spiritual culture of any given edge. And only the little, such as, to the coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk managed not only "to live" up to the present, but also to become regional symbolics of edge.

on the other hand also:

1. Many cities direct predecessors of the coats of arms had their emblems on the seals. However, unlike the majority of the cities of the Russian state, the emblem on the press of the Krasnoyarsk jail did not become a prototype of the coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk, further the image of an inrog did not gain development in city heraldry, however the emblem was used by heraldic officers of edge by drawing up a municipal municipal coat of arms of Bogotol (fig. 1 d).
2. In 1804 on a municipal coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk entering the Tomsk province there is not a heraldic figure - the red mountain (fig. 1 a) which reflected natural - geographical features of the place on which it was founded.
3. In the middle of the 19th century Krasnoyarsk possessed several coats of arms at once, it was caused by difficulties to keep strict account of all former and newly created coats of arms.
4. Nearly thirty years later after Krasnoyarsk became the center of the Yenisei province, on November 23, 1851 for the city the second coat of arms is approved (fig. 1 b), at the same time on it the heraldic figure of a lion appears in spite of the fact that the animal is not peculiar to the city. Probably therefore in hands at it a sickle and a shovel as reflection of economic activity of the population.
5. The Yenisei province was formed in 1822, and its coat of arms was approved more than fifty years later, only in 1878 (fig. 1 v).
6. The second coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk with some changes in the image of a lion was the basis for the provincial coat of arms.

Important was search of genesis of mythological and zoomorfny symbols of material culture of the Russian Siberian city. Among heraldic animals of the explored region the most widespread images - the strongest are distinguished from animals - a lion, a bear, a sable. Therefore we can say that these images are borrowed from emblems of tsars and are embodied on the coats of arms of the Siberian cities.

Thus, the heraldry of Krasnoyarsk Krai developed in line with the general trends of public policy, at the same time had the special lines.

List of references:

1. Archival agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsk Krai. G.V. Yudin's fund (No. 796. Inventory 1. Unit xp.5021) "The coats of arms of the Irkutsk, Yenisei, Tomsk, Tobolsk provinces and the Yakut area approved in 1878".
2. Federal Law No. 131 from 6. 10. 2003. "About the general principles of the organization of local government in the Russian Federation".
3. The Russian city and regional coats of arms of the 18-19th centuries - M.: Science, 1981.
4. A.G. Silayev. Sources of the Russian heraldry / A.G. Silayev. - M.: FAIR-PRESS, 2002.
5. Soboleva H.A. The Russian city and regional coats of arms of the 18-19th centuries - M.: Science, 1981.
6. www.sovet.geraldika.ru/article/4669.
7. www.geraldika.ru.
Leona Howard
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