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2009. 04. 050. B. Baum. Rise and decline of the Caucasian race: political history of racial identity. Baum B. The rise and fall of the caucasian Race: polit. History of racial identity. - N. Y.; L.: new York univ. Press, 2006. - x, 343 p



ETNOLOGIYA And PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

2009.04.050. BAUM B. Rise AND DECLINE of the CAUCASIAN RACE: POLITICAL HISTORY of RACIAL IDENTITY. BAUM B. The rise and fall of the caucasian race: A polit. history of racial identity. - N.Y.; L.: New York univ. press, 2006. - X, 343 p.
the Research of professor of political science of the university of the state British Columbia is devoted by

to history of the concept "Caucasian race" of the political history of racial identification. It is obvious that the concept "Caucasians" is ambiguous. There are Caucasians as the people of the Caucasian region, for example, Georgians, Dagestanis, Chechens, Circassians, Ossetians and others which are representatives Caucasian (or Caucasian) races. This designation of racial type appeared at the end of the 18th century and remains prior to the beginning of the 21st century. The ratio of major importances of the term - "specific people" and "Caucasian (white)" race - throughout more than two a table - tiya changed owing to various historical reasons. During the existence the theory of the Caucasian race endured the periods of rise and decline which reasons are investigated by the American scientist.

Early mentions of the 13-15th centuries of the people inhabiting the Caucasian region were connected by

with a slave trade in which the Genoa and Venetian merchants were engaged. In legal documents XIX-XX of the USA of centuries the concept "Caucasian race" was applied as a synonym "Caucasian" to recognition "white" natives not only of Europe, but also of the Asian countries, in particular India and the Middle East. Legislators emphasized that the term "Caucasian race" is the most acceptable as possessing the strong scientific reasons and at the same time corresponding to practical problems of development of the law on naturalization of foreigners in the USA.

Fighting in Chechnya at the beginning of the Post-Soviet period of history of Russia designated by

as the author considers, a new stage of doubts in an europeoidnost of Caucasians and their inclusion in category of "black". Thus, the history of the Caucasian race represents

rather a history of "policy of race" or racism, and the race acts not so much as biological category, how many a social and political design in more general context of purposeful formation of social identities. The racial identity serves as way of interpretation of position of the individual in modern society. It serves also for justification of oppression and social stratification, and for various forms of anti-racist policy.

In the head "To & #34; Caucasian расы"": predecessors of racism in 1000-1684" the author analyzes early forms of public stratification according to anyway the expressed distinctions of people. Tough structuring society by the principle of ethnocentrism existed already in Ancient India, China, Egypt, Greece, Rome.

Formation of a scientific system of racial classification of mankind is connected with formation of the western society of Modern times as a result of a number of epoch-making processes. Already in the Middle Ages the gradual judgment of Europe as special part of Eurasia began. With opening and colonization of extensive "overseas" territories there was a need for justification of intellectual, cultural, religious, moral, at last, superiority of Europeans over indigenous people of America, Asia, Africa. The author connects the invention of race also with growth and gradual distribution in the world of capitalist economy.

Acquisition of colonial experience allowed the European elite to create the new system of social stratification based on representation that people are divided into various types (races) according to the hereditary physical characteristics defining and others - intellectual and moral - qualities and abilities. This idea had strong impact and on the scientists working in the field of "natural history" and biology.

In heads "Science of the age of Enlightenment and an invention & #34; Caucasian расы" 1684-1795." and "Review of development of a concept & #34; Caucasian раса" 1795-1850" the author analyzes developments of scientific interest in the racial structure of mankind, on the one hand, and to distribution of household racism in Europe and North America - with another. Both of these phenomena chronologically coincided with wide

public recognition and the statement of universal ideals of freedom and equality in the world.

Both faces of the age of Enlightenment were organic

for it equally. In Europe during transition from the feudal relations to capitalist there was a formation of a new system of inequality which looked for forms of the embodiment. The European colonization provided to ruling elite the rasializirovanny option of justification of inequality based on "natural" distinctions of people.

the deepest development the category "Caucasian race" received Goettingen in works of the German scientist I. Blumenbakh (1752-1840), professor of medicine of the university. Its main anthropological work "About Natural Distinctions of Mankind" was several times republished. In the first I. Blumenbakh edition (1775), as well as K. Linney, allocated four main racial types, though on other "borders", than his predecessor. 20 years later, in the edition of 1795, the German anthropologist increased number of races to five: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American and Malayan (Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay (page 76). The mankind, according to him, arose in the uniform center and, having settled on the world, under the influence of climate and a way of life found the modern historical appearance.

the Main racial versions were described by Blumenbakh in terms of the principles of esthetic harmony which were going back to classical European antiquity. The Caucasian race was presented as an archetype of the human standard from which there was divergence of other races. In the works of the beginning of the 19th century I. Blumenbakh repeatedly emphasized that he as a result of own scientific efforts came to understanding of "symbolical" nature of attempts of reading of "the book of the nature". "The Caucasian race" became one of widespread symbols of a scientific and household racial discourse of the first half of the 19th century in Europe and North America.

Blumenbakh's Contemporary German philosopher Mr. Herder, irrespective of their quantity, considered division of mankind into races

insignificant. Much more important for understanding of differentiation of a uniform human look, from his point of view, was studying cultural adaptation to the environment, as defined specifics of shape of each people. Besides, to each of the people, according to Herder's views, the special "national spirit" was inherent (Уо1к^е181) (page 93).

Head "Rasializirovanny nationalism and disappearance & #34; Caucasian расы" 1840-1935" it is devoted to century throughout which the racial theory was the most demanded. In the middle of the 19th century from heritage of both German scientists, "anti-racist" on the ideological contents, those provisions which began to be perceived as racism symbols were demanded. The concept "Caucasian race" (Caucasian) served as the embodiment of the idea of "white superiority". There were even attempts to consider races as different types of people.

At the same time during this period more often the question of various "races of Europe" arose. Historical roots in an ethnic variety of the population of the continent since Antiquity era had ideas of racial heterogeneity of Europeans. From the second half of the 19th century these representations began to receive a form of scientific racial theories. New views on race were included in the ideology of the national state which was widespread in Europe. To this period there go back, in particular, attempts of creation of model of mythical Aryan race as one of components of official state ideology of Nazi Germany.

At the same time category "Caucasian race" completely did not disappear, it kept the value for justification of global domination of Europeans, "forced to stand shoulder to shoulder against color hordes" (page 121). The concept "Caucasian race" was the cornerstone of demarcation border - the line of color - between white/not white. At the same time theories of "the European races" built new hierarchy in the most Caucasian race.

economic and political developments of the European countries led

To the middle of the 19th century to "loss of roots" by millions of Europeans. From 1820th years the mass character was gained by migrations in the New World. In the 1840th years about two million people crossed Atlantic in search of new life. In general from 1815 to 1939 Europe was left by more than 50 million people. Migrants kept the racial status of the region of an outcome: natives of Britain or Germany were at top of racial hierarchy, immigrants

from "peripheral regions": the South European, Scandinavian, Slavic countries - at its lower steps.

In scientific racial schemes this process was reflected as change of uniform category of the Caucasian race by several europeodny racial types. In the 1870th years in T.G. Hexli's works "light" and "dark" types of Caucasians were allocated. This scheme was used by E. Taylor in his article "Anthropology" in Encyclopedia Britannica (the 11th prod., 1911). At the same time in article "Ethnography and Ethnology" (without instructions of the author) more traditional three-part classification with allocation of "The Ethiopian, Mongolian and Caucasian races" was used. In the next edition Encyclopedia Britannica (1922) of Europeans subdivided into "dark, or Mediterranean, Alpine, or armenoidny, and Nordic races" (page 157).

Classification of Caucasian races caused the critical relation of many famous anthropologists of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century F. Boas, for example, shortly before the beginning of World War I denied a possibility of scientific justification of any superiority of so-called Aryan and Teutonic race and also existence of special Pan-German or Pan-Slavic mental characteristics. Nevertheless by the end of the 1930th years the racist and rasialistsky ideas, any more not in the form of the concept "Caucasian race", and under other names, gained recognition both among scientists, and in wide parts of society

the author paid Special attention short, all to the fifteen-year period in the middle of the 20th century, having devoted it the head "The line of color and revival & #34; Caucasian расы" 1935-51". In this short period in science about races there was a radical transformation. After two centuries of existence of scientific racism since an exit of works of K. Linney "the critical mass" of scientists chose a position of an egalitarian rasializm. Though the problem of the epistemological status of the concept "race" in general and "the Caucasian race" in particular was not solved, new views received reflection in the documents "Statement for Race" accepted by UNESCO (Statement on Race, 1950) and "The statement for the nature of race and racial distinctions" (Statement on the Nature of Race and Race Differences, 1951).

the Main result of adoption of both documents. As the main racial classification the three-part scheme (Caucasians, Mongoloids, Africans) fixing the external, steadily inherited signs (skin color, texture of hair, a shape of a skull, etc.) which do not affect other characteristics of the person as a uniform species was accepted. The author connected acceptance by politicians of positions of scientific objectivity with the growing egalitarianism of the social relations in the world (page 191).

However even in the name of the following chapter - "Not such a kind rasializm: & #34; Caucasian раса" after decolonization, 19522005" - B. Baum tried to emphasize discrepancy of development of ideas of races in the second half of XX - the beginning of the 21st century. The growing scepticism of scientists of rather real existence of biological races was caused by progress of researches in the field of genetics. The world racial order, or global racial policy was reinterpreted in connection with decolonization processes. However the refusal of the concept "race" did not happen, despite the statement of some researchers that biological races do not exist, but recognizing at the same time objectivity of existence of racial classifications (page 218).

the Concept of race for two hundred years was a key component of scientific efforts (in the field of biology, anthropology, ethnology) to understand the nature of human distinctions. But though "race" not only a scientific concept, but also political and social to consider it only as "a social construct" it is impossible as it has the incontestable biological reasons.

the concept of race is the most obvious than

reveals in social and political processes of a rasialization, or purposeful creation of races though to deny existence of such natural differences between people as skin color, features, texture of hair, etc., it is also impossible. As a result of special researches, distinctions on blood types, a shape of a skull and other characteristics are detected. Nevertheless, as the author considers, racial distinctions do not "open", create them according to historical needs of elite for forming hierarchical

of relationship of various groups of society which are allocated with "racial lines".

"Rasializirovanny identities" usually include also a cultural component: usually it is not just differing stereotypes of daily activity, but also level of education, income, the social status in general. Ideas of races in a historical context are formed not only "the power-submission" system, but also receive broad household and special scientific judgment. Different types of the scientific racial classifications created in such disciplines as anatomy, anthropology, ethnology on the basis of objectively existing natural differences in not smaller degree reflect political, social, cultural influences of the time (page 14).

Racial views in society change when the complete cycle of development of a scientific, political and household racial discourse comes to an end and to it another comes to change. So, for the present stage of judgment of racial problems large-scale population shifts and their consequences became one of key factors.

Special chapter "Where & #34; кавказцы" means & #34; черные"; the race, the nation and the Chechen wars" is devoted to racial problems of the Russian history. Actually Caucasian region at the same time is also connected with the history of the myth about "the Caucasian race", and discharged of it. The German doctor and the anthropologist I. Blumenbakh formulated the concept "Caucasian race" directly on the Caucasian anthropological materials. The scientist considered the Caucasus the ancestral home of mankind, and in the people living in the region, especially Circassians and Georgians saw a standard of appearance of white race for this reason having called it "Caucasian".

However in the 19th century not all European scientists referred the people of the Caucasus to the "Caucasian", or Caucasian race. Her representatives considered rather the western and northern Europeans, than Georgians, Chechens, Dagestanis, Armenians, the people of North Africa, India and the Middle East.

the European scientists returned to

In the 30-50th years of the 20th century the people of the Caucasus to category Caucasian, or "the Caucasian race". In Russia at a boundary of the 20-11th centuries the Caucasian population in a household racist discourse received the status "black" that contacts the author the beginning of military operations in Chechnya. Application of the racial term in judgment of this conflict demonstrates, certainly, not new turn in the history of the racial theory, and active processes of a rasialization in the region - formation of category "ra-sovo different others".

the People which served European scientific 18th century. standard of white Caucasian race, in the homeland in one and a half centuries received the status of "black". Sources of this reconsideration are caused by several historical reasons. Main of them - long opposition of Christianity and Islam in the Caucasian region of Eurasia; more than two-centuries fight of the Caucasian people against imperial Russian and Soviet domination; Post-Soviet political struggle for the status of Russia and the new states of the Caucasus in Europe and Asia; at last, the military opposition in the North Caucasus connected with the approval of new state Russian identity in the region.

the Caucasus throughout all the history was the largest Eurasian intersection of Christianity, Islam, the Persian civilization, the Russian imperialism. Besides, the indigenous people is characterized by linguistic and ethnic diversity and variety. More than fifty people of various language families live in the region. In Transcaucasia the Christianity became the state religion earlier, than somewhere in Europe: in 313 g in Armenia and in 330 g in the state education in the territory of modern Georgia.

the Persian influence was dominating in the region in the 5-6th centuries, in the 7th century the penetration of Islam approved in the North Caucasus the millennium later - in the 17-18th centuries began. In Chechnya and Dagestan Islam became an ideological basis of resistance of the Russian expansion in the Caucasus. The foundation was laid for it by the Cossack attacks in the 16th century. Regular mass advance of Russia to the region began in 1783-1824 after Russia guaranteed to Georgia the contract of 1783 Of St. George territorial integrity and protection against Islamic invasion.

the Historical heritage differently proved

during the Post-Soviet period. Islam, as before, often forms a basis to identity of the North Caucasian people. It is difficult to explain why many of them became a part of the modern Russian state whereas aggressive Chechens tried to defend the independence (page 223) again. In Transcaucasia Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia restored the statehood, and Christian Caucasians Georgians took the most hard anti-Russian line.

History of the Russian-Caucasian relations in many respects determines by

representations and prejudices of modern Russian rather modern Caucasians. In the Russian literature of the 19th century of North Caucasians quite often represented some kind of "savages". The eagerness to fight and fearlessness, but at the same time and perfidy, extreme cruelty, tendency to robberies and murders were attributed to Chechens by the general Yermolov (1777-1861) and his colleagues (page 228).

higher status in ethnic hierarchy of aboriginals of the Caucasus Russians were occupied by the Transcaucasian Christians, Georgians and Armenians. Russians appreciated commercial enterprise of the Armenians taking the dominating positions in regional trade. Representatives of notable Georgian surnames for their bravery and courage were highly esteemed.

Anti-Islamic prejudices of Russians during the Post-Soviet period were increased by military operations in Chechnya and Tajikistan. Besides, in Post-Soviet Russia the ideas of criminal tendencies of Caucasians are connected with activity of so-called ethnic Chechen mafia though number of Caucasians in it in general and Chechens in particular is small. Crimes of representatives of these people make only a small part from the general indicators of crime across Russia.

18-20 million Sunni Muslims live In Russia now. Their most part is concentrated on the North Caucasus and in the Volga and Ural region won by Russia in the 16th century. Among the Russian nationalists it is accepted to represent Russia some kind of "noble crusader" in this region of Eurasia where one of the largest contact zones of interaction of Christianity and Islam was historically created.

Historical ideas of Europeans of the 19th century of Russians and Caucasians also developed within a rasializirovanny discourse of that era. Article about the Caucasus reflected the European ideas of indigenous people of the region in Encyclopedia Britannica (1853) which left at the beginning of the Crimean war - Circassians, Georgians,

imeretinets - as "the most beautiful people which representatives were tall slender persons and possessed regular features and expressive eyes" (page 227). Trade was widespread occupation of local community, but it turned out substantially undermined in connection with invasion of Russians, "only partially civilized nation" as it was reported in the same article.

In the 1930-1970th years the Soviet anthropologists, according to article "Races of the Person" (N.N. Cheboksarov) in the Big Soviet encyclopedia (1978), classified Caucasians and Slavs as different racial types as a part of big europeodny race. Unlike the designation of Caucasian race accepted in Anglo-American tradition in general as "Caucasian", in the Soviet science definition "the kavkazoidny or armenoidny type" belonged only to one of its divisions. Processes of a rasialization of Caucasians, that is attempts to present them as racial distanced "others", began in the conditions of Post-Soviet changes. The liberal and democratic market economy was heartrending experience for most of Russians. The author connects by the major reason that the "dark image" of the Caucasian people which was already existing in the history of Russia was again updated with conducting military operations in Chechnya.

T.B. Uvarov's
2009.04.051. DAKOSTA KM. CREATING MULTIRASIALIZM: The STATE, FAMILY AND the MARKET IN RELOCATION of the LINE of COLOUR.

DACOSTA K. M. Making multiracials: State, family a. market in the redrawing of the color line. - Stanford (Cal.): Stanford univ. press, 2007. - XV, 259 p. - Bibliogr.: p. 251-259.

by

In work of professor Harvard un-that, the specialist in problems of the African heritage and African American researches analyze problems of modern racial identity in the USA. The general plan, structure of work according to it

racial identification political history & #34; caucasian РАСА"
David Cole
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