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Category: History

State policy on traditional economy (question historiography)


by T.S. Gogolev's

In article considered historiographic (the analysis of evolution of public policy) also the social parties of the state reforms in the field of traditional economy of indigenous ethnic groups of the North. Features of the relation of the state to ethnic northern communities and their traditional economy at various historical stages of development of Russia are noted. The role of informal rules in preservation of traditional tenor of life of these people is shown.

the Indigenous Ethnic Groups of the North (IEGN) since the most ancient times mastered extensive spaces of the North, Siberia and the Far East of our country, created the unique economy based on assignment of natural resources and on keeping of the cultivated reindeer.

of One of large language families of these people is Ugrian (Mansi, the Khanty, Hungarians). The main attention in article is paid to traditional way of Mansi (the old name Voguls) which main area of accommodation is in the Cis-Urals part of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug now. On modern administrative division - it is Berezovsky's territories, the Kondinsky, Soviet and October Areas of KhMAO-Yugra, the small group of these people on number (about 150 people) is available in the north of Sverdlovsk region (Ivdelsky district). Materials of censuses demonstrate growth of number of the people as countrywide (5.8 thousand people - 1926, 8.3 thousand people - 1989, 11.4 - 2002), and within Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (respectively: 5.3; 6.6 and 9.9 thousand people) [1, page 12].

of Feature of the natural and geographical environment promoted formation of certain traditional economic complexes. Numerous publications of domestic and foreign researchers, descriptions of travelers, local historians, missionaries are devoted to a question of Ugrian economic traditions. The first the foreigners passing through the Urals to Siberia on office affairs [2] addressed judgment of ethnographic material. First of all they were interested in the people about which did not know in Western Europe yet. The head of the Russian Embassy I. Idey on the way to China in 1692 got acquainted with life of chusovsky Mansi (on average a watercourse of Chu an owl) [3, page 73].


has huge amount of material today. It includes an uralistika and an altaistika, and plays a noticeable role in the first ugrovede-ny. Sibirevedeny and ugrovedeny are connected with such names as G. Novitsky, K.F. Karyalainen, A.M. Kastren, B. Munkachi, V.N. Chernetsov, Z.P. Sokolova, E.I. Rohm-bandeeva, V.M Kulemzin, N.V. Lukina, and other researchers among whom there are a lot of our contemporaries.

With an exit in the second half of the 20th age of the generalizing works of V.N. Chernetsov [5] who presented a hypothesis of origin of the Ob ugr the studying ethnography of the Khanty and Mansi on various aspects became more active.

Ugrian economic traditions became an object of research of the whole group of scientists - V.I. Vasilyeva, A.I. Pika, A.B. Golovnyov, E.G. Fyodorova, E.V. Perevalova, V.G. Babakov, E.P. Martynova, V.P. Pakhomov, V.N. Belyaev, V.G. Loginov, etc.


about traditional economy of indigenous people of the North, authors note that it was never based on any one type of activity, always was complex.

is Considered that her viability in the past was provided, as a rule, by three & #34; кита" subsistence taiga economy - hunting, fishery, reindeer breeding. The southern groups instead of reindeer breeding had a cattle breeding and crop production. The taiga was a natural board for free self-development of the people, and rich trade grounds - reliable sources of existence.

Social stability of Mansi was connected by

with economic activity and also forms of ownership on the territories. At the Ob ugr, as well as at other pedestrian hunters of a taiga, the standards of behavior on trade were developed. They were reflected in representation about & #34; своём" and & #34; чужом" [6]. And as the nature was represented by the house, Ugra treated it as to the property, but in case of violation of the parity beginnings (giving - return) spirits owners kind of withdrew the nature from the property of the person. Strict observance of rules was required: not to cut a live tree, to begin trade with the victim of a gift to wood spirits, not to get an animal during rutting, not to leave a wounded bird, etc. of A.B. Golovnyov [6] notices in this regard that at such relation to the nature hunting is combined with fur farming, fishery - with fish breeding. Loss of the earth is accompanied by loss of meaning of life.

Use of lands was carried out by

on the communal patrimonial beginning. The community of native peoples of the North performed various functions: production, judicial, communicative, ceremonial and household, religious and cult.

the Task of traditional court was multidimensional: to define the truth, to punish the guilty person, to restore justice. But, the main thing to make so that the conflict did not last, exhausted.

V.A. Zibarev [7, page 173 - 182] notes that the customs regulating questions of hunting, fishery, reindeer breeding at peoples of the North were in details fulfilled; the institute of the hunting right normalized all its essential cases, including affirmed the right for the hunting territory. Hunting was allowed all and everywhere - under a condition that nobody interfered with each other.

Other situation developed in later time and in those places where Voguls and ostyak the civilization began to restrict. There are hunting grounds mastered by residents of the settlement, were considered only as their possession; nobody else had the right to conduct in them crafts.

the self-sufficiency of traditional way of the Ob ugr is demonstrated also by existence of extensive communications of the different plan - economic, socio-political, cultural. These people do not sit not movably in the place, his representatives drive about across all Urals and adjacent territories, up to the Arctic Ocean. Diary entries of the Hungarian researcher A. Reguli convincingly demonstrate to it [8]. In the middle of the 19th century the scientist made the first map of the Urals, and Mansi were its main conductors in this expedition.


In the 17th century of the politician of the Russian state it was directed to fixing of again developed territory. In 1637 for management of the Siberian territories the Siberian order was created. The solution of administrative, customs, military and diplomatic matters fell within the scope of its activity. The Siberian order knew collecting a yasak from the native population. At the order there was a special sable treasury where the furs received from Siberia were stored.

the Territory of Western Siberia was subdivided by

into counties, Mansi were ranked as several dozen yasachny volosts of Berezovsky, Pelymsky, Tobolsk Counties. The government during this period applies methods of direct and indirect colonial control. The judicial and administrative authority on places was fully given to voivodes. At the same time yasachny collectors went in & #34; улусы" and & #34; kochevya ясашных" accompanied by the Cossack teams for collecting a yasak.

the Difficult situation yasachny, features of perception of the policy pursued at this time were reflected also in the corresponding archive materials which remained up to now.

for the XVI-XVIII centuries Siberia, including its western part, was explored more widely, than any other part of the Russian Empire. However during this period there were a few sources devoted to a problem of finding of Mansi in a management system of the Russian state. Researches had more often fragmentary character, partially and not deeply affected the aspect interesting us.


Researchers of the XIX century accurately raised a question of communication of methods of management of indigenous people of edge with the general direction of government policy in Siberia, of communication of management and the fiscal interests of the state which guarding course concerning the yasachny population was explained by aspiration to its exclusive operation.

Should note

that a difficult situation Siberian & #34; инородцев" it was realized by progressive scientific community. Spoke out in defense of their interests not only scientific organizations, but also the whole social and political movements, the most known among which was the movement of the Siberian oblastnik, such prominent scientists as N.M. Yadrintsev, G.N. Potanin, P.M. Golovachyov, S.S. Shashkov, N I were its participants. Naumov, F.N. Usov, etc.

Should celebrate a historical and ethnographic research of N.M. Yadrintsev, made attempt to open essence & #34 the first; foreign вопроса" in the system of its historical development [9]. The author emphasized what at the first stage of development of Siberia the main objective was & #34; easing foreign элемента" and it & #34; уменьшение". Later there was a purpose & #34; suppressions инородцев". At this moment of steel the most relevant two questions: & #34; about submission and опеке".

Continuing by

the thought, the scientist noted that gradually because of peaceful life and in process of retraction of Siberia in the system of the all-Russian state communications other relations between autochtons and Russians begin to be formed. Before the government there was a problem of involvement of aboriginals in structure & #34; equal поданных". Need of reforming of the current legislation, formation of a new system of regulation of position of indigenous people is updated.

the First large reform of the 19th century which affected natives of the North was the reform of 1822 connected with a name of the largest reformer of Russia - M.M. Speransky. Its major act & #34; The Charter about management of foreigners of Sibiri" it was developed by one of the closest associates of Speransky, the Decembrist G.S. Batenkov [10].

were assigned by

Under the Charter of 1822 to each sort in possession of the earth which they used by the right of initial settling. At the same time most precisely, in our opinion, the basic principles according to which it was supposed to reform management of the Siberian autochtons are formulated in a research of A.Yu. Konev who, in particular, allocated:

1. The principle of preservation of a traditional basis which provided organic communication of newly established structures with the existing social organization of the Siberian indigenous people.
2. The principle of partial rationalization according to which were defined: status, uniform for all autochtons, rights and duties & #34; foreign администрации" order of its submission to bodies of the state fiscal and administrative supervision.
3. The principle of the differentiated approach. According to it the ratio traditional was defined and rational began in & #34; foreign управлении" depending on the level of social economic development of any given group of indigenous people [11, page 90].
the New stage in studying Mansi began

during global socio-political transformations of the second half XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, designated in the most Russian state by an abolition of serfdom, territorial, city, military, judicial reforms. These transformations affected also the policy of the state in the relation & #34; инородцев". Thus, in 1892 acting & #34; The Charter about management инородцами" taking into account the state transformations, it was replaced & #34; Situation about инородцах" [12].

From very considerable number of the scientific and descriptive works devoted to the people of Northwest Siberia which were issued at a boundary of the XIX-XX centuries should note the three-volume work A.A. Dunina-Gorkavich [13]. In it is mute detailed characteristic of a social and economic, administrative and legal status & #34 is given; инородческого" population of the North of the Tobolsk province.

the Researcher tried to correlate the traditional social organization to the system of the administrative device of indigenous people, rather in detail described practice of management and legal proceedings at various groups of local community, gave characteristic to the foreign justices formed in the middle of the 19th century, considered the economic party of traditional industries.

the Soviet period in development of a historiography covers the works of scientists-local historians published in 1917 - 1980. However on character and methods of study it is non-uniform. In our opinion, in it it is conditionally possible to allocate two big periods: pre-war (20 - the 40th) - the formation period in the Ob-Irtysh North of the Soviet power; and post-war (50 - the 80th) - the period of industrial development of the North.

the government allocated

In 1924 from the lump of other people in separate group and took under protection of state 26 small nationalities of the North. Same year at Presidium of VTsIK the Committee of assistance to small nationalities of the North (Committee of the North) was organized. The most outstanding North Veda, not one year which lived side by side with the studied people, were a part of Committee planned the smart and exact administrative policy of the new power for prospect. Its essence consisted in gradual familiarizing of northern ethnic groups with a modern civilization, with careful preservation at the same time of their peculiar mental warehouse, moral values and organic communication with the environment.

First of all, it should be noted the attempt of introduction of self-government among peoples of the North made in 1924 - 1929. For this purpose at first the Tobolsk committee of the North, and later - Committee of the North at VTsIK, developed and approved drafts of Provisional regulations for management of the northern people and their judicial system.

Transition to native councils began

during the elective campaign winter of 1925 - 1926. The first experience yielded positive results. The indigenous people showed apparent interest in patrimonial councils, perceiving them as the traditional power close to them. During action of patrimonial councils, coincided with a number of positive economic transformations, position of Mansi improved a little. On October 16, 1925 the government cancelled yasak from indigenous people. The integrated cooperation in the best way answering to the nature of complex northern economy gained strength.

Traditional way of economy, and so and the natural way of self-development of northern Mansi, was left without special changes till 30th years of the last century.

the totalitarian regime Approved in the country put by

an end to search adequate to economic way and public consciousness of the northern people of forms of national-state construction. Since 1930 everywhere there took place liquidation of patrimonial councils.

Nationalization of trade grounds, the burst industrial boom (since the period of the 60th) led

to the fact that islands of a traditional way of life of the Ob ugr, so small and vulnerable, are under the threat of disappearance now. Serious measures of the state support are required.

For optimization of traditional economy of indigenous people, in our opinion the useful ideas are put in the concept & #34; northern неотрадиционализма" (A.I. Pika, B.B. Prokhorova, etc.) [14]. According to them, a conscious support on own cultural and historical heritage - the most important means for survival, development and advance for peoples of the North. Him it is necessary to think of how to survive, keep itself and to construct the better future for the children. A debt of the state - to help and support them on this way by all means which are available for it - finance, resources and the rights.

the Retrospective of development of the traditional industries in regions of the North, in particular to KhMAO (reindeer breeding, fishery, hunting), and their current state confirm continuous deterioration in their functioning from the moment of the beginning of pro-myshlenno-transport development of the territory of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

of the Enterprise of the traditional sector of economy already many years are in crisis state. Problems with sales of products of crafts, especially during the warm period of season, the shortage of the equipment and vehicles for storage and transportation of products, the outdated material and technical resources which are not renewed in recent years, absence of processing industries in places of production and preparation of trade resources are the main reasons for the situation.

Krom of above-mentioned both the other objective and subjective reasons influencing to a degree functioning of the enterprises of the industry exist. Treat them violation of the production and economic relations which developed at a planned system, sharp decrease in volumes of public financing, process of reorganization and incorporating, incompetence of heads in the changed working conditions, a problem of adaptation of the appeared national tribal communities to the market [15].

Historically developed customs of indigenous people which due to the lack of writing at them passed in the oral way from father to son promoted preservation of their traditional way of life both at the time of planned economy, and in modern conditions. They so took roots at these people that all

of action of the Soviet power, directed to their destruction, were insolvent. Therefore when the state pressure disappeared, customs quickly revived, even at that part of indigenous people which was sawn-off owing to various reasons from a traditional way of life.


to Maintaining customs, habits and routines at the native population was promoted by such factor as their adaptation to the environment, extreme for other people. It was shown not only in purely physiological relation, but also in a food allowance, creation of samples of clothes and footwear, pieces of utensils, vehicles and dwellings, especially brightly it is expressed at the reindeer-breeding people. And even alternative analogs of clothes, footwear, many objects from house use of the nomadic people are not created now [16, page 126 - 127].


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3. To the idea I., A. A. Notes about the Russian Embassy to China (1692 - 1695). M, 1967.
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16. V.G. Loginov. Social and economic assessment of development of natural and resource regions of the North. Yekaterinburg: Institute of economy OURO RAHN, 2007. 311 pages
Christopher Christopher
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