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The third university charter

transition from a mass and reproductive paradigm to an individual-based and multilevel education system lyatsya. Sources of this approach can be found in M.V. Lomonosov's ideas about the organization of activity of the Moscow university and attempts to carry out individualization of process of training at the beginning of the XX century.

Thus, for improvement of a domestic system of preparation and retraining of research and educational personnel it is necessary to know the history of its emergence and development. Historical approach allows to investigate genetic linkages of an education system, to track its formation in diakh-ronny and functional aspects.

the Carried-out retrospective analysis promotes implementation of integration of the higher school of Russia into world educational process taking into account positive experience of own development.


1. G.U. Matushansky, L.I. L.I., So-snovskayaN.B. Training of research and educational personnel in Russia//the Information analitical bulletin of MOPO.-1997. - Issue 1-2 (6-7). - Page 59-64.
2. G.U. Matushansky, L.I. L.I. Formation of a system of additional professional education of teachers of the higher school of Russia//Professional education. Kazan ped. magazine. - 2000. - No. 1. - Page 48-51.

Yu. GALKIN, Minister of Justice of the Saratov region

F. GRIGORIEV, the prof., the rector the Saratov academy is right V. Kolesnikov, the RAS academician, the rector the Rostov transport university E. OLESEYuK, professor

the Present stage of reform of an educational system is characterized by aspiration to fuller mastering experience of the past. Care of preservation and multiplication of achievements of domestic school dictated need of reconsideration and the analysis of the richest history of university construction, specification of some of its phenomena and processes taking into account achievements of a source study in this sphere.

From this point of view the university charter of 1863

is of interest of

the Historiography has it mainly complementary character. In literature on it there was a stereotype, as about a certain break to democracy, the academic freedoms and university autonomy. whether

university charter

So it? Let's address background of a question. For the first time the question of restriction of the university autonomy concerning the right to choose professors of a competition rose when developing the special charter for the university of St. Vladimir in 1835. The dispute then arose between M. Speransky, the supporter of university autonomy objecting to restriction of the rights of council and the minister's companion at Uvarov the count P. Protasov considering that the persons making the field of science should not be withdrawn from the general rules of service to have independence which "is not appropriated even to the major government officials in Russia". Protasov believed necessary to give to heads "the most direct resolute

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the power independent of spirit of the parties and intrigues which are often shaking actions of scientific estates". This power, the count continued, "being corresponding to spirit of other public institutions, will strengthen the main idea of the new charter - to bring together, at last, our universities which were hitherto only pale copies foreign with the radical and saving beginnings of the Russian management". The issue then was resolved by the royal resolution of Nicholas I which said: "He absolutely agrees with the count Protasov". And still the charter of 1835 included the provision on elections of the rector with the subsequent statement by the royal decree, and professors - with the statement of the minister.

Then autonomy problem in the Russian public opinion as the alternative which is artificially turned into the main knot of contradictions of university construction arose. Running forward, say, that at the beginning of the 20th century she got legal permission: in 1905 elective order of appointment at the universities, and in 1908 was restored. The ruling Senate explained contents and borders of high school autonomy. According to explanation, it should have been understood in the sense of selectivity, but in the system of public institutions.

the Direct reason for development of the third charter were the significant restrictions of the charter of 1835 undertaken in the late forties in connection with bourgeois revolutions in the West. Seriously concerned by growth of political activity of students, the authorities strengthened offensive at university autonomy and the academic freedoms enshrined in the second charter. In the fall of 1849 the ban on the elective beginning in formation of governing bodies of the universities was imposed. Changes were at the same time entered into curricula for the purpose of an exception of any freethinking. Then teaching the state law of foreign countries was suspended; and in 1850 the highest command followed to stop teaching philosophy. Abolition of departments of philosophy caused transformation of philosophical faculties, and on January 26, 1850 they were divided into independent historical and philological and physical and mathematical.

Step by step the Russian universities moved away from accepted in the west of classical practice, paving own ways of university construction, approving the high state status as imperial educational institutions.

it is natural

>, any administrative measures it was impossible to stop social progress, and the authorities, having made sure of futility of attempts of power pressure, began to weaken gradually the extraordinary mode on the ways of former educational policy. Since 1856 the normal order of educational life gradually returned to higher education institutions. B1857 of was renewed teaching the state law of the European countries, independent departments of philosophy are revived. At last, the highest command restored on May 13, 1861 the choice of rectors and vice rectors in strict accordance with the charter of 1835. Business went to total rejection of emergency measures and return to the former charter.

the Third charter became not denial, but continuation and development of the second. The analysis of its contents leads to an unambiguous conclusion that it, having fixed the increasing role of representative bodies, in general strengthened a role of the state in university construction.

With increase in budget financing of the higher school (about 70%) the number of regular teachers significantly increased. Also funds for the maintenance of the university museums, libraries, laboratories, offices and other educational and auxiliary institutions increased. In Moscow, Kharkiv, Kazan and the Kiev universities of St. Vladimir they increased more than twice, and in S. - St. Petersburg - even four times.

that circumstance that the liberal charter supported more rigid in comparison with former a regulation of duties of students Attracts attention.

As for the relations of management and submission, contrary to the statements of numerous authors, in this part the charter brought nothing radical. Rather a practice of rule-making by the time of adoption of the charter came to positions of the second charter, and the third charter only developed its basic provisions. So, the new charter confirmed and developed selectivity of administrative functions due to some strengthening of competences of collegial bodies - council of the university and faculty meetings (the prerogative of the last included now development and the approval of curricula and programs) and also introduction of the disciplinary charter for students (for the first time in standard and legal practice of Russia).

the Noticeable innovation of the charter was also the cancellation of entrance examinations at the universities which abruptly changed the habitual course of university life. In number of students all were accepted now, having the certificate about the end of a full gymnasium course. The new charter the university court, however, with significantly limited rights in comparison with those that were defined in the charter of 1804 revived. Without recreating any special corporate jurisdiction, the legislator extended activity of university court only to students, having limited to affairs disciplinary in university corporation. Actually, it was not the court, but rather new disciplinary instance.

More or less serious amendments to the charter began to be made by

as soon as he entered contact with real life which was characterized by further rise of the country movement, activization of political opposition. As it turned out, democratic reforms did not bring calm in the country.


In the sphere of the higher education of D.A. Tolstaya, continuing reform of both the universities, and special higher educational institutions, prepared new university reform which main goal was "resolute strengthening of the centralized beginning, the state control over the course and content of teaching and the statement of a due order and discipline among students".


In 1873 in "The Russian bulletin" published article of professor of physics of the Moscow university N.A. Lyubimov who, having joined in discussion of current problems of university life, continued and developed the idea of the phenomenon of atavism or a rudiment of university autonomy introduced in the environment of the high school public in a western way. Supporting strengthening of the state control system, he wrote: "Our universities are founded by the government, scoop the main means from the state treasury therefore in the decisions on a little important issues of management are connected by need of bossy permission". Article caused a wave of sharp criticism from liberals; none of them, demanding the special rights for "professorial corporation", did not remember the rights of society and state whose employees the first were, receiving the corresponding salaries, ranks and privileges.

meanwhile succession of events resulted

in need of new decisions. Students continued to give serious trouble to the authorities, again there was a question of "settlement of an order and discipline among pupils". At the end of 1874 the commission under the chairmanship of the secretary of state Valuyev considered the main reason of student's disorders the internal organization of the universities and supported its reforming. In April, 1875 under the chairmanship of the secretary of state I.D. Delyanov the commission for development of the draft of the new university charter was formed. By the end of 1879 its project was ready. On February 6, 1880 Tolstaya's columns submitted it for consideration of the State Council.

the history of the university charter of 1863 So ended with
Thorsen Johanna
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