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M.V. Lomonosov great Russian erudite scientist and organizer of science



KHRONIKA

UDC 001 (092)

M.V. Lomonosov - the GREAT RUSSIAN SCIENTIST - the SCIENTIST AND the ORGANIZER of SCIENCE

A.M. ASKHABOV

Institute of geology of Komi NC OURO RAHN, Syktyvkar xmin@seo.komisc.ru

The report opens a series of the messages dated to 300-year anniversary of the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov. The main stages of life of the scientist are lit. The main lines of its scientific and scientific and organizational activity are considered. The value of heritage of Lomonosov for young Russian science is shown.

A.M.ASKHABOV. M.V.LOMONOSOV - THE GREAT RUSSIAN SCIENTIST-NATURALIST AND THE ORGANIZER OF SCIENCE

The report starts a series of presentations dealing with 300-th birth anniversary of the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. The main stages in life of the scientist are given. The basic lines of scientific and organizational activity of the great Russian scientist are considered. Value of M.V.Lomonosov’s heritage for young Russian science is shown.

At the beginning of the 18th century Russia was subjected to Petrovsky modernization which considerably reconstructed all sides of the patriarchal country. The tsar-reformer attached particular importance to science as he firmly believed that the economy and military power of the state are in indissoluble connection with development of scientific knowledge. Natural sciences became the state necessity. There was a need for own academy of Sciences which was approved in Russia in 1724 at the initiative of Peter I. The scientists who are exclusively invited from Europe were members of Academy. The scientific genius was necessary for final fixing of science in Russia. This historical role also dropped out on Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov - the Pomor man.

M.V. Lomonosov promptly reached tops of world science, his works made the whole era in development of the Russian science, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He really became the founder of domestic science, one of the most outstanding erudite Encyclopaedists of the time. A.S. Pushkin's words are known: "Lomonosov was the great person, connecting unusual will power to the unusual force of a concept, Lomonosov embraced all branches of education. Thirst of science was silneysheyu passion of this soul which was full of passions. The historian, a ritor, the mechanic, the chemist, the mineralogist, the artist and the poet, it tested everything and all got.... He created the first university; it, better to say, was the first university".

Creative activity of Lomonosov covered various areas natural, technical and the humanities. As S.I. Vavilov wrote: "Lomonosov on immensity of his interests, apparently, cannot oppose any other figure in cultural history of mankind". According to A.E. Fersman's remark, there are more than ten sciences and arts argue at us on the one who possesses the main heritage of Lomonosov: physics and chemistry, mineralogy and crystallography, geochemistry and physical chemistry, geology and mining, geography, both astronomy and astrophysics, education and economy, history, literature, linguistics and equipment?

Lomonosov was born on November 18, 1711 in the village of Mishaninskoy Kurostrovskoy of the volost of the Dwin County of the Arkhangelogorodsky province at the chernososhny peasant of the Pomor Vasily Dorofeevi-cha Lomonosov and his wife Elena Ivanovna, nee Sivkova. In 19 years he received the passport in Holmogorsky voyevodsky office and with a fish wagon train went to Moscow. Contrary to the standard legend he was not an overage ignoramus. The young man in Holmogorakh got a good education, according to some information even knew several foreign languages. Having arrived to Moscow, it came to Slavyano - Greek-Latin academy where it was sharply distinguished from pupils. Owing to the education M.V. Lomonosov was not really satisfied with study and orders in academy. Tried to leave. On some

time, perhaps, went to Kiyevo-Mogilyansky academy. And life was hard. As he wrote "Studying at Spassky schools, I had disgust from sciences presilny aspirations from all directions. having one three-copecks piece in day of a salary, it was impossible to have in day more as on a money of bread and on a money to kvass, other on paper, on footwear and other needs. Thus, I lived five years and sciences did not leave...".

The fatal role was played that M.V. Lomonosov appeared among 12 pupils selected for continuation of study at the Academic university in St. Petersburg. From here soon together with D.I. Vee-nogradovym and G.U. Rayzer it was sent to Germany for training of chemistry and to mining.

Years of training at the Marburg university were very salutary for M.V. Lomonosov's formation as scientist-scientist. Here he wrote the first student's thesis "Work on physics about transformation of a solid body to liquid depending on the movement of the previous liquid" (on October 4, 1738). In March, 1739 he finished "The physical thesis about the distinction of the mixed bodies consisting in coupling of corpuscles". After Marburg not for long studied mining at the academician I.F. Genkel in Freyberg. However Freyberg disappointed him. "Natural history cannot be learned in Genkel's office from his shkap and boxes, it is necessary most to visit various mountain plants and mines, most to study on the place situation and property of mountains and the relation to each other the minerals which are in it...". It's a blessing in disguise. The quarrel with Genkel made Lomonosov the father of practical geology and metallurgy in Russia.

Its researches on mineralogy, studying ores, in other fields of geology and mining had exclusive value for formation of the corresponding sciences. Lomonosov had rather clear understanding of contents and the main problems of geological science and practice. As the academician V.I. Vernadsky wrote: "The treatise by M.V. Lomonosov "About layers of Earth" is in all literature of the 18th century - Russian and foreign - the first brilliant essay of geological science". At least, in Lomonosov's works the principles of evolution, historicism, adequate ideas of geological time, tectonic movements, mountain building are accurately stated. Relying on its works, we with ease can prove that Lomonosov was not only a founder of scientific geology, but also the foremost mineralogist and the crystallographer. He began the way to science with geological observations and finished it with "news of the composed Russian mineralogy". In general in the years of stay the foundation for successful creative activity of the young scientist in various fields of natural sciences abroad was laid, there was its acquaintance to progressive ideas of the time.

In 1741 Mikhail Vasilyevich returned to Russia where his scientific power and organizing abilities fully revealed. Occurred

it in the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences where in January, 1742 it was defined by the graduated in a military academy of physical class AN, and in July, 1745 became the full member of academy (professor of chemistry). In March, 1757 Lomonosov was appointed the head of geographical department of AN, and since January, 1770 he directed the Academic university gymnasium. Quarter of the century of Lomonosov in Academy of Sciences were marked by the largest discoveries which outstripped the time for decades and centuries. In this plan the recognition of our outstanding soil scientist Dokuchayev is curious: "... I with surprise learned from the prof. Vernadsky that Lomonosov stated that theory for which protection I received doctor's degree in the compositions for a long time, and stated, it is necessary to admit, more widely and more generalizing image".

It is interesting that M.V. Lomonosov managed to make "the review of the major opening with which Mikhaylo Lomonosov tried to enrich natural sciences." from 9 points. And many major fundamental and applied results of which by right, thanks to Lomonosov, the Russian and world science is proud were not included in this list. If to make the list of the same 9 points, then here, undoubtedly, the following its most important achievements have to be included:

1) conservation law of matter and movement;
2) atomic and kinetic concept of warmth;
3) an extensive circle of the new ideas in the field of metallurgy, mining and geology;
4) opening of the atmosphere of Venus;
5) theory of atmospheric electricity;
6) an osnovopolozheniye of new science - physical chemistry;
7) creation of the Russian scientific terminology;
8) invention and production of various devices;
9) development of technology of colored glass.

With the last point story, cautionary for the present, is connected with implementation of the innovative project on production of glasses. Lomonosov's invention was pioneer and possessed as would tell now, high innovative potential. As Euler "wrote... Worthy business you is that you can give possible flowers to glass. Local chemists will read this invention for big business". And M.V. Lomonosov undertook implementation of this innovative project. In 1753-1754 near Oranienbaum in the village of Ust-Ruditsy of the Koprsky County it receives an allotment for construction of glass factory, and in 1756 the lands to it were appointed in eternal use. It was given more than 200 peasants. The 30-year privilege on exclusive production of colored glass in Russia was provided, the government directive to institutions is issued to order mosaic pictures at its factory. Nevertheless, the great scientist lacked enterprise talent. Successful commercialization of knowledge did not happen.

M.V. Lomonosov had considerable achievements in different areas which could become a basis for production projects. In particular, with good reason it is possible to call him the father of domestic instrument making. He is the author of numerous inventions, perspective devices. It designed astronavigation tools, the thunderous machine, the water elevator, a nochezritelny pipe, the viscometer, etc. Mikhail Vasilyevich left a noticeable mark in meteorology, optics, in hour business. Here what was written by S.I. Vavilov: ".po to the volume and originality of the optikostroitelny activity Lomonosov was... one of the most advanced opticians of the time and, certainly, the first Russian creative optomechanic". It is interesting that on December 12, 1754 at a meeting of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences Lomonosov showed the working model of the aircraft - a prototype of the modern helicopter. This event is recognized as the first-ever documentary test of the aircraft is heavier than air.

Among the largest organizing achievements of M.V. Lomonosov:

• creation in Russia chemical laboratory (first research institute);

• foundation of the Moscow university (reported the offers on the organization of the university in the letter to I.I. Shuvalov in July, 1754);

• development of a number of projects of reorganization of Academy of Sciences on purpose "to bring Academy to a kind state...";

• preparation of geographical expeditions, including for studying the Northern Sea Route.

Any of these great causes would provide to the person the place in the history of the Russian science and grateful memory of descendants, and all together bring us into admiration of the Russian genius.

Especially it should be noted that circumstance that the scientist perfectly realized a role and value

Academies of Sciences for Russia. It is thought that Lomonosov was made substantially by Academy of Sciences, and the Academy in not smaller degree remained in Russia thanks to Lomonosov. Not accidentally appear in its valedictory a number of the word "fatherland", "science", "academy": ". I regret only that I could not make all that was undertaken by me for advantage of the Fatherland, for increment of sciences and for glory of Academy!"

A number of lines which do not lose the relevance and today are inherent in scientific creativity of M.V. Lomonosov. Treat them: a) belief in science force ("sciences human give all affairs on the top of perfection..."); b) unity of the theory and practice ("from observations ustanovlyat the theory, through the theory to correct observations - there is the best all a way to research of the truth"); c) need of integration of knowledge ("sciences much very promote sciences...").

It should be noted also such line of the identity of Lomonosov as patriotism, his love for the country, aspiration to its benefit and prosperity. He wrote: ". from sincere heart I wish that in process of extensive this state the high sciences in it extended and that in sons Russian to it hunting and jealousy was evenly increased".

Lomonosov all the life and the example proved that "Platonov can own and fast reason Nevtonov the Russian land to give rise". It is worth to remember Lomonosov's words: "Protect science, protect natural sciences, in it pledge of force and prosperity of the people". They are addressed to all of us: to the authorities, scientific, all and everyone. This appeal is especially relevant today when natural sciences try to expel from the school program. We should remember more often (and not only in a year of its 300 anniversary) our great ancestor, the Arkhangelsk man who became national pride of Russia, gave the life to matter of formation of sciences in Russia.

Violet Nash
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