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Category: History

Creation and strengthening of autonomy of the Adygei people (1920-1937)

r. B. Kagazezhev



Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Kabardino-Balkarian state university. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor M. 3. Sablirov

In article on rich actual material the process of national-state construction in the first postrevolutionary years, creation of network of extraordinary authorities - revolutionary committees in Adygea in 1920-1921 reveals, transition from a revkom to Councils is shown, features of work of the Soviet bodies in national areas are revealed.

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The article shows the process of national government building in the first postrevolutionary years on the basis of a great number of facts. It also describes the creation of the system of emergency government authorities, such as Revolutionary Committees in Adygei in 1920-1921. The author also considers the transition from the Revolutionary Committees to the Soviets and peculiarities of the Soviet bodies& activity in national regions.

National-state construction in Adygea was actively developed at once after the end of civil war and proceeded in exclusively difficult conditions. The absence of national group of the proletariat, imperfect administrative management affected its development (auls were divided between several departments: To Ekaterinodarsky department 31 auls, Maykop - 13 submitted, to the Tuapse district - 9 auls), notable dominance of clerical elements, total absence of the party organizations, economic ruin, gangsterism revelry, etc.

In these conditions at restoration of Councils on places, in Adygea, it was necessary to involve Muslim clergy. As the chairman of regional executive committee to Sh.U. Hakurata noted, "in 1920-1922 we could not influence elections in the Circassian auls and were guided only by mullahs, old men and only through them built the Soviet power in Adygea" 1.

Kubano-Chernomorsky revky with the purpose to intensify the Soviet construction among Adyghe at the meeting on April 8, 1920, having discussed the statement of representatives of Muslims of Mr. Ekaterinodar, solved: "At section on national affairs of department of Management to organize section on Muslim affairs. The manager of section to appoint comrade Mishuriyev" 2. The section developed work among Circassian mountaineers Mai - cape, Ekaterinodarsky, Batalpa-shinsky departments and the Tuapse district where more than 100 thousand chelovek3 lived.

The I congress of the working Adyghe in Krasnodar was on August 11-15, 1920 the following step on the way of national-state construction and creation of self-government institutions. At a congress there were 84 delegates

from Ekaterinodarsky, Maykop, Ba-talpashinsky, Labinsk departments and the Tuapse district. Having discussed a number of political and economic affairs, the I congress of mountaineers of Kuban and Black Sea Coast made the decision on formation of Mountain section at the Cuba-but-Black Sea revkom 4.

The II congress of the working mountaineers (on March 2-8, 1921) decided "to recognize as necessary to organize Mountain executive committee for management of the mountain population, with submission to its regional executive committee across and Nar-komnatsu - down. The mountain executive committee by the rights is equated to provincial executive committees. For establishment of more close connection with the center, the Mountain executive committee has the representative in Narkomnatsa in Moscow" 5.

The issue of desirability of allocation of Adyghes to the independent autonomous region was for the first time positively resolved by a plenum of Mountain executive committee on December 6, 1921 and submitted for consideration of the regular III mountain congress (on December 7-12, 1921). Carrying out will of all Adygei people, the congress solved: "Quickly to develop a question of allocation of mountaineers of Kuban and Black Sea Coast to the autonomous region then to take measures to initiation of the corresponding petition before the center" 6.

The mountain executive committee started implementation of decisions of a congress, but its work met numerous difficulties. The difficult administrative-territorial device of area slowed down work on construction of the Soviet power directly in the Adygei auls. "Intervention of the relevant otdelsky executive committees in work of Mountain executive committee in auls, - it was noted in the report to Sh.U. Hakurata about activity of executive committee on zase-

Denmark of Presidium of Kubchernoblispolkom on September 19, 1921, - mainly, in the field of land, extremely harmfully affects work of Mountain executive committee" 7. There was obvious a need of improvement of process of the Soviet construction and implementation of measures for the national-state device. The Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies made efforts on expansion of functions of administrative facilities of local authorities, involvement of the increasing number of the representatives living natsionalnostey8.

However this work met counteraction from heads of departments where the Adygei auls entered and the Kubano-Chernomorsky regional executive committee did not wish to issue the guide from the hands. That is why there was a document where it was written down: "Recognizing in principle creation of regional Circassian autonomy in the future as expedient and finding this policy impracticable at present, to recognize as necessary to organize Mountain executive committee for management of the mountain population, with submission to its regional executive committee" 9. It was in March, 1921 when all people of the North Caucasus, including also related Adyghe - Kabardians and Circassians, received the autonomy. The Adygei people, the management of Mountain executive committee had to put a lot of effort to prove, as they have the right for autonomy. Drawing up comprehensively reasonable references, numerous appeals to VTsIK, work of the commission of VTsIK of RSFSR in Adygea led to only correct conclusion in the attitude towards the Adygei people. So, the commission of VTsIK of RSFSR, having in details got acquainted with all materials, documents, having visited all settlements where Circassians lived, on July 12, 1922 came to conclusion that "allocation of the territory with the Circassian population to the autonomous region is in a modern political situation in Kuban a necessary condition..." 10

On July 15, 1922 the chairman of the Mountain okrispolkom presented the report in which need of formation of autonomy was proved to VTsIK and it was specified that "it is any motives and data to allocation to the autonomous region at the Kuban Circassians not less, than at the Caucasian nationalities which are already allocated in such: Abkhazians, Adzharians, Kabardians, Karachays, etc." 11. Narkomnats supported "allocation of Circassians in a special av - tonomny Circassian area" 12.

Thus, almost two years' fight for autonomy came to the end with adoption of the Resolution of presidium of VTsIK of July 27, 1922 where it was said: "To allocate from the Krasnodar and Maykop departments of Kubano-Chernomorsky area the territory which is nowadays inhabited by Circassians (Adyghes) with inclusion in it of cherespolosny settlements and farms, with the yurtovy lands and the woods entering this territory and to form of that the Circassian (Adygei) autonomous region..." 13 On the Russia map one more autonomous region - Adygei appeared.

From 52 Adygei auls with the population of 104 thousand people the autonomous region included 45 auls with the population of 68 thousand people. There was unresolved a question concerning the Black Sea Shapsugs.

At the same time declaration of the Autonomy of Adygea gave the chance to the Adygei people to create the national state entity, to exercise the right for national self-determination, promoted strengthening of economic and political connections with more economically developed areas of the country, developed economic and cultural life naroda14.

The presidium of VTsIK decided on August 24, 1922: "In order to avoid the misunderstanding and confusion coming from mixture in different departments Karachay-Cherkess and Circassian (Adygei) autonomous regions to rename after


I spend the day to the Adygei (Circassian) autonomous region" 15.

Still on August 10, 1922. The plenum of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies decided "to assume before convocation of the Circassian (Adygei) congress of Councils all completeness of the power in the educated autonomous Circassian (Adygei) region with Kubcherokrgoris-polkom's renaming into the Circassian (Adygei) regional executive committee" 16.

In June, 1923. The plenum of regional executive committee suggested okrispolkoma "to start immediately strengthening of bodies on places selection of the corresponding secretaries, technical employees of volost and rural executive committees both all inappropriate and disabled element to fire - having minimized the state" 17. Particular importance was attached to involvement of Circassian mountaineers in the Soviet construction.

For the purpose of training of skilled workers of the Soviet bodies in Krasnodar courses were open. In 1923/24 academic year Adygoblispolk directed 44 representatives of local nationality for study for them.

In June, 1923 the commission it was recommended to break area into 2 districts and 14 volosts, it was offered to abolish one okrug18. VTsIK approved abolition of the Shirvan district. The territory subordinated to it was divided "between districts Psekupsky and Farssky, the border between them was established on river. Béla" 19.

In 1923 changes were made to administrative-territorial division of the country, the decision to create areas instead of districts, to liquidate volosts is made. New division into districts of Adygea coincided with elections to Councils which were held in October - November, 1924. Regional executive committee, making division into districts of area, strictly considered local conditions, sought to bring closer authorities to the population. Special attention to national structure of settlements, cheapening was paid

management personnel, identification of local economic opportunities for wide satisfaction of interests of workers and creation of the most favorable conditions for further development of the Soviet democracy.20

finally the area was divided by

as a result of the carried-out division into districts into 5 areas and 32 Village Councils: 1) Takh-tamukaysky district (the center - the aul of Takhtamu-kay) united 7 Village Councils; 2) The Gigi-hablsky area (the center - the aul of Ponezhukay)-6 Village Councils; 3) The Preobrazhenskiy area (the center - the village of Preobrazhenskoye) - 7 Village Councils; 4) Hakurinokhablsky district (the center - the aul of Hakurinokhabl) - 8 Village Councils; 5) The Na-tyrbovsky area (the center - the village Natyrbo-vo) - 4 selsoveta21.

New division into districts of the Adygei area in 1924 made change and to the system of Councils. Instead of the former Village Councils, volispolkom and okrispolkom, district executive committees and village councils were created. There was a noticeable reduction of the office of Councils on places (instead of 1 okrispol-lump, 18 volispolkom and 20 Village Councils began to work 32 Village Councils and 5 district executive committees). Were abolished 18 volostey22. Everywhere considerably the structure of local councils improved, they approached workers massam23.

Separate measures for disaggregation of the Village Councils were undertaken. So in 1925 3 new Councils in Natyr-bovsky district (Volnensky, Ignatyev-sky, Bezladnensky), 2 Councils in the Area of Preobrazhenskoye were formed. (B-Oidorovsky, Saratov) and 1 Council in Hakurinsky district (village of Shturbino). It improved management on places.

In 1925 5 district executive committees, 42 Village Councils served 112,500 people.

However the location of the regional center in Krasnodar, i.e. outside Adygoblasti, created certain difficulties though the regional executive committee tried about -

to drive field meetings in villages and auls, in the same place carried out work with rural an asset istami24.

New steps were taken for improvement of the translation of office-work into the Adygei language, the staff of aulsovet was increased, the position of the assistant to the secretary of the aulsovet and the typist was entered. These issues were in details discussed at meetings of Presidium of regional executive committee, meetings of secretaries aulsovetov25.

1936 it was noted by an important event in life of the Adygei people. The resolution of Presidium of VTsIK on April 10 Maykop became the administrative center of the Adygei autonomous region. The territory of the area was considerably expanded. Giaginsky district and the Hansky Village Council were attached to Adygea. Since 1936 the area consisted of 6 areas, 54 Village Councils, one city Sovet26 operated on their territory.

With formation of autonomy the Councils of Adygea were engaged in elimination an afterbirth -

stviye of civil war and intervention, recovery of the national economy, establishing industrial production, implementation of agrarian actions and cultural construction. For lifetime of autonomy in the village 96 new school buildings were built, the network of health care, cultural and educational uchrezhdeniy27 is created.

It is necessary to recognize that entry of the Adygei autonomous region into structure more developed in economic and cultures - the number the relations of large regions what were North Caucasian, Azovo-Chernomorsky, and since 1937 Krasnodar Krai, had positive value. Thanks to socialist transformations for rather short historical term Adygea overcame many difficulties and reached the modern level of development of economy and culture, saved up considerable intellectual, spiritual and personnel potential.

I Storage of documents of the contemporary history of GU "National Archive of the Republic of Adygea" F. 1. Op. 1. 129. L. 24.

2 State archive of Krasnodar Krai (further GAKK). F. R-158. Op. 1. 53. L. 20.
3mekulov X. National-state and Soviet construction in Adygea: initial stage, trends//North Caucasus: national relations (historiography, problems). Maykop, 1992. Page 69.
4 Establishment of the Soviet power and national-state construction in Adygea. 1917 — 1923. Maykop, 1980. Page 160.
5 In the same place. Page 190.
6 M.A. Taov. The Adygei autonomous region - the Soviet socialist national state entity//Scientific notes of the Adygei scientific research institute. T. IX. Page 114.
7GAAAO. F. R-49. Op. 1. 86. L. 145.
8mekulov X. Decree. soch. Page 71.
9 Central state archive of the October revolution of the USSR (further TSGAOR of the USSR). T. 1318. Op. 1. 190. L. 1.
10 In the same place. T. 1235. Op. 39. 49. L. 40.

II In the same place. Op. 1. 669. L. 7.

12 In the same place. Op. 39. 49. L. 39.
13 Establishment of the Soviet power and national-state construction in Adygea. 19171923. Maykop, 1980. Page 231.
14mekulov X. Decree. soch. Page 74.
15 TSGAOR of the USSR. T. 1235. Op. 39. 56. L. 90.
16 GAAAO. F. R-1. Op. 1. 5. L. 1.
17 TSGAOR of the USSR. T. 1235. Op. 101. 273. L. 5.
18 GAAAO. F. R-3758. Op. 2. D, 55. L. 12.


19 In the same place. L. 10.
20 Mekulov of X. Decree. soch. Page 80.
21 GAAAO. F. R-1485. Op. 1. 247. L. 421.
22 In the same place. L. 458.
23 Russian center of storage and studying documents of a modern history. T. 17. Op. 16. 1014. L. 119.
24 GAAAO. F. R-1. Op. 1. 96. L. 1.
25 In the same place. 265. L. 355.
26 Mekulov of X. Decree. soch. Page 87.
27 In the same place. Page 88.
Thorsen Johanna
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