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Devotion to "Monarchic business" and belief in Divine Providence creative credo of Semyon Remezov

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M.N. Sofronova, doctoral candidate of AltGU, Tobolsk, E-mail:


Semyon Ulyanovich Remezov (1642 - apprx. 1722) - the Tobolsk sluzhily person, "the seigniorial son" lived during an era of transitional time when the medieval type of consciousness is succeeded by outlook of Modern times, Old Russian way is reformed by Petrovsky transformations. In S. Remezov's identity the era quintessence when universalism in knowledge and thinking becomes one of bright properties of this time was expressed.

XVII the century is special time of changes when the future which aroused grains of the European rationalism was put it is an initial push for reforming of the country to the Russian Empire. On this way there were big not buildings: distemper, imposture, split. Despite all unrest of a century which created a set of problems and events not of joyful property there was a gradual transition to the new consciousness directed to knowledge and development of reason. For Siberia was time of formation of the Russian statehood 17th century. Having attached the extensive territory, the Russian pioneers began its economic development. Gradually there was a process of consciousness of Russians in other geographical and cultural conditions which was complicated by change of the all-Russian policy which entailed transformation of outlook of the Russian person. The cultural change of a boundary of the XVII-XVIII centuries not only was provoked by Pyotr's reforms, but also reflected those innovative trends which ripened in minds of the Russian person, transforming traditions of historical psychology. For all the 17th century the charismatic persons, different in social foundations and class accessory, designated problems and requirements of the time. Pyotr staked on such people, on their energy, seeking to change the Russian life, customs and all state system. As Simeon Polotsky, Karion Istomin, Feofan Prokopovich treats such Russian educators of a boundary of the XVII-XVIII centuries Siberian S.U. Remezov. He enthusiastically welcomed Petrovsky transformations to the fields of education and saw an ideal of the monarch in Pyotr.

In S. Remezov's identity the era quintessence when universalism in knowledge and thinking becomes one of bright properties of this time was expressed. Semyon Ulyanovich Remezov devoted the life to establishment of the Siberian life, and a lot of things entered this establishment: to define "sides" of the Siberian earth, to find royal "profits" in these lands, to collect yasak from local community as monarchic citizens, to establish an order on boundary lands, reflecting attacks of kirgizets, to head construction business, building the Siberia's first stone buildings. All his life was in way. In documents trips around the Tobolsk County up Tobol and down Irtysh for opisny "earth affairs" and collecting a quitrent, a trip to Turinsk and Verkhoturye for collecting and transportation of grain stocks are celebrated, on "nakazny memory" to the Kungur County "to do the drawing to villages, villages and the rivers". For needs economic and administrative S. Remezov applied representation of the surrounding area on paper, having proved the skillful master of geographical "drawings". Everything that saw, studied or learned, S. Remezov sought to write down or represent. Thanks to this feature there were its literary and informative, chertezhnoizobrazitelny works [1, page 43]. They were made for prosperity of "sciences, crafts and arts in Siberia".

It S.U. Remezov is called today the cartographer and the geographer, the historian and the ethnographer, the architect and the artist. However, these professional qualities were shown through its direct activity as sluzhily person. Semyon Remezov began the labor practice in group of the father Ulyana Moiseevicha Remezov, in a duty

which exploring of new arable lands, hay mowings and cattle releases entered. In painting to sluzhily people for 1668 "the Ishim Cossack Senka Ulyanov" (Semyon the son Ulyana Remezova) appears single, the salary 4.25 rubles, 5.5 couple of a rye, the 2nd couple of oats and 1.75 poods of salt is necessary to it. He owns the diploma therefore he in poruchny record not only for himself laid a hand, but also "instead of the companions... on their command" [2, page 94]. Possession of the diploma gave to the young Ishim Cossack of advantage: he had a considerable salary and respect from sluzhily people.

In 1682 according to the order of the voivode A.A. Golitsyn Semyon Ulyanov to the son Remezov is told "to be in children seigniorial" instead of Pyotr Zabolotsky killed in fight [2, page 99]. In the 1680th of a duty of S.U. Remezov were connected generally with different search of profits for treasury, collecting bread and money from the draft population, collecting a yasak, transportation of bread. In 1682 it leaves for Tara to the Bir-gamatsky settlement "for a dopravka on krestyanekh bread and money" [2, page 99]. In 1683 it "posylan on Verkhotue on grain stocks. in a vernal crossroads with sluzhily people and on banks of Tura river and many nuzh accepted" [2, page 99]. It was necessary to carry out to S. Remezov instructions of a vyimshchik, that is the official authorized to carry out withdrawals and confiscation of the forbidden or covered product. In 1686-87 it was in "a parcel of Irtysh on irovy a reach for fish catching down". Then in 1687-88 participated in hard fight against violators of the ban on self-made distillation [2, page 101].

Trips across Tobol and Irtysh for carrying out the opisny "earth affairs" which are carried out by S. Remezov represented the description and measurement of the territory that then was an important practical component in its cartographic works. In the "folding" book of 1689 he is certified as the skilled draftsman who "many drawings according to diplomas to the city of Tobolsk, to settlements and the Siberian cities wrote in different godekh" [2, page 102]. On the basis of budget works in 1684 S. Remezov made the plan of Tobolsk. He also participated in drawing up the small-scale chart of Siberia 1687 executed according to 1683-85. All these plans, descriptions and drawings were included into it "the Horografichesky drawing book", work on which was finished in September, 1697 "the Horografichesky drawing book" became the first Russian geographical atlas of Siberia. Long time the manuscript of "the Horografichesky book" was considered as lost. However, after its facsimile edition in 1958, it became clear that it was taken out for side-altars of Russia in the years of civil war by the Russian emigrant L.S. Bagrov. Nowadays it is stored in Guf-tonovsky library of Harvard College (USA).

In 1690 S.U. Remezov accompanied by five Cossacks headed a trip to Moscow for delivery of the yasak collected in Siberia and documents from the Tobolsk voivode. For "the Siberian arrival", by the existing traditions and an order, to residents of Tobolsk it was given vent - a reward for safe arrival. To everyone about 4 arshins of cloth and furs - to Remezov sables for 3 rubles were given, to each Cossack for 2.5 rubles [2, page 107]. In the 1690th he not odinozhda took part in military campaigns. In documents it is said that he is sent under Ishim "for traitors the Cossack hordes, and in a pursuit

konm of disgraces" and also to the Yalutorovsk, Suyersky, Ustyatsky settlements, Tsarevo the ancient settlement "for an osteregatelstvo of settlements from arrival the Cossack hordes of enemy people". In the autobiography of S. Remezov it is told about "a parcel under Voskresenskoye to a mitropolya sat down on capture of languages the Cossack hordes" [2, page 108]. Upon return from "coastal" service in 1696 S. Remezov was waited by new duties which were connected with the instruction of the Siberian order of January 10, 1696 on drawing up on places of drawings of counties. In the decree diploma it was said that in Tobolsk "to find the kind and skillful master" which would make "Big all Siberia the drawing with definition of pouyezdny borders with the description of the Siberian and porubezhny people" [2, page 110]. For this purpose in October, 1696 S.U. Remezov left Tobolsk for reconnaissance and shooting in "jails and settlements across Iset, both across Nitsa, and across Pyshma, and across Tobol, and across Miass, and across Toure, and across Tavda to the rivers"; "up Tobol to the rivers went and described, and wrote submultiple steppes on interrogation". In order that work went quickly and harmoniously, the Tobolsk voivode A.F. Naryshkin sent to all jails and settlements of memory ordering to render assistance in this monarchic business. That "no stop in it was made", in each settlement to define inn for Semyon Remezov, where "to do the drawing to it", to give it "and candles and ink and for point of any natural boundaries of old residents, belomestny Cossacks and peasants". "And any natural boundaries and lakes and small rivers and any grounds to specify" [2, page 111]. Work on the drawing of all Siberia was continued, and in Tobolsk S.U. Remezov was waited by a new order of the voivode. At the heart of this order there was a diploma sent from Moscow about need to make the drawing the Cossack hordes. In the diploma it was said that about the Cossack horde it is necessary to interrogate the participant of an ambassadorial mission in Turkestan Fedor Skibin who by miracle avoided bondage. This decree of the Moscow government expressed special concern about the southern boundaries of the Russian state as attacks of stepnyak on the Russian outposts became more frequent, and the captivated defenders of fortresses appeared in the Central Asian markets of slaves. At the same time neither the Siberian order, nor the Tobolsk administration owned authentic data on "distant steppes" and roads to the Cossack horde. Therefore, having received the voivode's order in March, 1697, S.U. Remezov with "pospekhy" carries out it and in April, that is in a month, the Tobolsk sluzhily people take away to Moscow voyevodsky formal replies and "the drawing about Cossack to a horde". The drawing was executed on white coarse calico of 3х2 arshins in size, and its reduced copy was included into "the Horografichesky book". Same year S.U. Remezov executed two more large drawings of 3х2 arshins in size: "Drawing of the earth of all waterless stone steppe low-through passage" and "Part of Siberia. The careful image existence of the Tobolsk drawing of the rivers and lakes and selidb the Russian and yasashny natives in sides with adjacent grads and unpacific sorts the Cossack hordes". The last drawing surpassed other samples of the Russian cartography of the 17th century in quality and registration. In the capital the drawing was highly appreciated, it "was laudable more other protchy drawings in a polnost of skill" [2, page 115].

During the trip S.U. Remezov collected ethnographic data and historical legends. In parallel with "the Horografichesky book" him was the description about the Siberian people and sides of their lands" is written "(1697-1698) which was included into "The drawing book". Ethnographic and toponymic, folklore and geographical data are provided in "Description". In it is narrated about genealogy of the Siberian khans, about the name of the Kalmyk childbirth, about origin of the Siberian people which was followed by numerous legends.

Thus, cartographic and geographical activities of Semyon Ulyanovich Remezov were closely connected with studying the Siberian historical and ethnographic data. As a result of this work S.U. Remezov made the arch of historical news of Siberia which received the name of the Remezovsky chronicle or "History the Siberian" (1697-1710). It represents the front manuscript with a large number of miniatures. "History Siberian" is close to annalistic

to historical stories of the early period of the Russian annals. S. Remezov tries to state all data collected by him historically authentically, to lead everything to "a firm haven of history". In remezovsky annalistic statement except the historical narration there are also reflections about "the wise autocrat" who will keep around philosophers. "Filosofiye prevails the truth store in all affairs". The author of "History the Siberian" expresses the views and living positions. Not the absolute ruler, but the blagoukhishchrenny husband who will be "vedat various usage is necessary for Siberia and about chinekh establish different charters of assemblies and laws that mogl the best art of acceptance grads and are firm and the laudable charter. Sibirstvo... demands council and wisdom". Remezov says that the one who "to dobra builds the house that and everything will arrange to dobra". He comes up with the educational idea about knowledge and reason as the highest criteria of human activity. "The book doctrine" for Remezov gives to the person "soul light", and "unreason of a tm is" [3, page 99].

In 1697-1698 the Siberian cities received decrees in which it was recommended to build Gostiny Dvor and office buildings of a stone. First of all such reorganization concerned Tobolsk. The voivode M.Ya. Cherkassky received from Moscow the developed instructions about stone construction in "the capital city" of Siberia. In Tobolsk S.U. Remezov was appointed the head of all architectural construction works. He was an author of the project, plan and estimates, he is told "to be at any stone policeman of the building and any supplies to know" [2, page 125]. Stone construction was absolutely new matter not only in Tobolsk, but also in all Siberia. There was only the second decade since began to build stone buildings here. S.U. Remezov should design the city center of Tobolsk, that place where the administration knowing many vital Siberian issues therefore the shape of this city part had to be memorable representative was located.

In 1698 S. Remezov passed in Moscow "the doctrine. to business of the building". The next year was put on that being prepared for construction. In February, 1699 S. Remezov accompanied by the master, the streletsky Pentecostal and five Sagittariuses left to settlements of the Tobolsk and Verkhoturye Counties on search of lime for construction. S.U. Remezov's task included survey and the description of deposits of lime, the old plants and furnaces. In the summer of the same year S. Remezov was engaged in the organization of brick business. Under its guide and to its project at Panin's bottom of a hillock exiled people built brick sheds in which production of a brick for the Voyevodsky yard began. After construction of sheds by the exiled it was entrusted "to dig and knead clay much and in machines to do a brick" [2, page 127]. The norm was defined on the person - 300 pieces a day. But unprepared exiled hardly managed to do a half from this norm. Demand for low labor productivity was from Semyon Remezov what the last answered: ". exiled, will learn to do to a brick in prosperity from now on and why to do per day uchnut, about that it, Semyon to tell does not know, also as held down by it on chepyakh to a brick to do and clays cannot be dug and kneaded". However such answer did not satisfy representatives of the Siberian order therefore the following instructions were ordered it: ". to look firmly that to give money and bread any rank work and the workman to people who I work as the right ty giving will deserve, and to those which in which day of fixed business will not make or nechevo will not work or uchnut to work he is lazy, to give nothing or and to give, depending on its work on a rozshchet that looking at that, everyone endeavored the business, for a nedodacha in money and in bread, to bring into perfection" [2, page 127].

In essence, velev "to put to "the policeman to the stone building" S. Remezov, meant to assign to it all complex of construction tasks. And only having not hefty abilities of both organizational, and technical character, having uncommon knowledge and sharpness, S.U. Remezov could

to combine so various duties which belonged research and preparation of construction materials, supervision of contracts survey is proud, and business, absolutely new to it, - preparation of the project of future administrative center of Tobolsk, and then realization of this architectural plan in construction works. Development of the project of the organization of all area of the Voyevodsky yard was complicated by the fact that future buildings needed to be coordinated with already built buildings of the Sofia yard because in total they united in ensemble of the Tobolsk Kremlin. Besides, the form and plans of future certain buildings have to be found at first on paper, that is S.U. Remezov had to "about that with a measure make the drawing" [2, page 129] is the new requirement imposed to the Siberian architects - result of converting policy of Peter the Great where knowledge and rational thinking became important creative qualities. It was supposed to build the Tobolsk administrative center in traditional forms of a fortification. For S.U. Remezov the sample of the Kremlin was habitual. Therefore in the project the architect surrounds the Voyevodsky yard with a fortification. However, having absorbed the new architectural trends in Moscow connected with regularity, symmetry, openness of space, Semyon Ulyanovich places office buildings on yard perimeter as its center was conceived as the big public area surrounded with administrative buildings. The main place in this part of the Kremlin ensemble was allocated to Mandative chamber. Stone construction on the Voyevodsky yard was also begun with it on May 9, 1700. Thus, it was the first office building in Tobolsk which construction was completed in the fall of 1701

The building of Mandative chamber represented the two-storeyed building "at 22 sazhens long with a polusazhenye 2 vershoks with a semi-vershok, popereg 8 is put off with arshin 4 vershoks" that in transfer to modern metric measures makes 48.71 and 18.18 m [4, page 29]. From North side the building had "an external porch with gallery stone", that is in all length of North side, at the level of the second floor the gallery or an open verandah which was framed by a balustrade was located, and the canopy was supported by colons, the gallery was adjoined by a stone ramp (acclivity) located in the center of the building. Thus, the Mandative chamber "was removed by external architecture not poorly" [4, page 30]. The building of Mandative chamber in the original form did not remain, the top floor was sorted in the 80th of HUP1 of century, and rooms of the first floor were included into structure of the Vicegeral palace built on this place. The historian of architecture V.V. Kirillov, analyzing the remained remezovasky plan and the project of a facade, finds in the composite decision of this building manifestation of lines and Old Russian architecture, and the Petrovsky era which were expressed in forms of "naryshkinsky baroque" [5, page 119].

The Gostiny Dvor was the second construction on S.U. Remezov's project. In the initial versions of placement the architect included it in perimeter of city walls, but subsequently the Gostiny Dvor was taken out out of borders of the Tobolsk Kremlin. However the building represented the tiny quadrangular fortress on corners strengthened by towers. Trade and warehouse were located on the first floor, and on the second there were apartments for accommodation of visitors of merchants. From the yard both floors united the two-story arch gallery going on all perimeter of the building. Benches were turned into the courtyard that provided reliable protection of goods. Such principle of Gostiny Dvor, belonged to type of the closed mall that was characteristic feature of Old Russian architecture. The European Russia began to build Gostiny Dvor of another at this time, so-called "open type" when benches were located from outer side of the building. The Tobolsk Gostiny Dvor on appearance kept serf character, that, it should be noted, helped it to be entered in the obraznostilistichesky decision of Kremlin Square and promoted hierarchy of the constructions which are on it.

Not less interesting construction on S. Remezov's project became Renterey - it is the southern gate of the Kremlin turned to the lower city. When approaching to the Kremlin from piedmont South side this building was the first which the viewer met, rising in a mountain part. Therefore functionally the building Renterei was very important in a system not only the Kremlin, but the city in general. On the one hand, S. Remezov proceeded from historical predefiniteness, designing this building as on Pryamsky or as it was called then Sofiysky Vzvoz already there were wooden gate. On the other hand, it needed to put instead of them the new building, but to find for it such place that the complex of the Sofia yard organically connected to Voyevodsky's ensemble, representing the spiritual administrative center of Siberia. Besides, gate had to become the main, ceremonial entrance part from the lower piedmont posad in top. Therefore, the shape of these gate had to be architecturally expressive. Therefore the architect projects many-tier construction: on his idea over arches of gate the chamber for storage of the state treasury, and over it a turret with the tent end topped with a two-headed eagle had to be placed. Thus, not only the interrelation of architectural objects had to organize Renterey across, but also to be a vertical axis in the set symmetry of two hills. S. Remezov called the designed building "Dmitriyevsky gate", putting ideological and political sense in the name. As on the date of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki Yermak's victory over Kuchum had that in turn marked the fact of accession of Siberia to the Russian state. However the name chosen by S. Remezov in national consciousness did not take root, having been inferior superiority to other, officially unauthorized names. Gate were called Renterey as they stored in the rooms located over gate yasak in the form of "soft stuff" and other state taxes and rents collected from the Siberian population. Besides, this construction was called the Swedish chamber because for its construction work of the captured Swedes banished after the Poltava fight was used. However Renterey, on the whole combination of circumstances, it was not constructed in that look as it thought S. Remezov. It was succeeded to carry out only two of its lower a tier in one of which arches for gate were located, in another - state chambers. Such important figurative and expressive element as a tower with tent end was not embodied in architecture of Renterei. And this architectural and plastic detail had to collect by the vertiralny dominant and the symmetric and axial organization in uniform ensemble of the Kremlin of the building, costing two sides of the Troitsk cape. At the same time itself Renterey would gain triumphal character. The ideological plan of S. Remezov was realized in 80-90

XVIII century other architect, A. Guchev who also saw that art expressiveness of the Kremlin can be made active the vertical building which is on a joint of two hills, two parts: secular and spiritual administrative complex. On A. Guchev's project the cathedral bell tower which was near Renterei was built, but stood independently. At a view of the Kremlin from the lower posad, the vertical of the bell tower towered over Wren-tereey, visually uniting with the last in a uniform obraznoplastichesky object.

Least of all it is known of such remezovsky construction as Ascension Cathedral. Its construction was fell on the 1710th the Cathedral is put on the edge of the Troitsk cape, from South side of the Voyevodsky yard. Perhaps, landslides of soil broke its design. In 1717 in cathedral "from burden" proyemny communications burst "and between windows knocked out a column and so all building fell irassypatsya" [4, page 37].

At the last stage of construction walls and towers were put up that demonstrated loss military

defensive meaning of the Kremlin. The protection of the Voyevodsky yard was carried out by walls on new: constructions were included into the line of walls. Thus, the idea of the serf center completely became obsolete though visibility of the Kremlin still remained.

Possibly, S. Remezov headed stone construction only till 1706, then due to illness legs departed from affairs, explaining in the petition that he "obeznozhit". But it does not mean at all that its creative destiny came to the end. On the contrary, more time for art works was released.

So, not less considerable side of his creativity was the graphic art, it was shown already in geographical drawings and cards, in drawings of the front manuscript, but most fully embodied in its works of picturesque character. In documents only short data on it remained. In 1696 "wrote a portable chapel for on-stavleniya on the Irtysh River iordannago water consecrations", in 1697, over sluzheb, worked, sewed and wrote workshops horse and to pedestrian regiments sedm damask banners", in 1713 headed artel of the painters working on pictures in the governor's house. The exiled Swedish captain Philip Tabbert (Stralenberg) in the book reports about meetings with S.U. Remezov, calling him the artist. In the census book across Tobolsk for 1710 S. Remezov calls himself an ikonni-lump. However subscription works by this master are not known. But researchers believe in success of new opening. At the beginning of the 2000th V.N. Alekseev made a hypothesis of remezov-sky authorship of an icon "Sofia Premudrost of the Word God's", from an iconostasis of St. Sophia Cathedral in Tobolsk [6, page 105-126].

Surprising the fate of this sluzhily person from the far Siberian province who carried out as versatile duties that Siberia was realized by a part of the Russian state seems. Carrying out office instructions on "an uchineniye of drawings of counties, villages and villages", he leaves atlases of "all Siberian zemlitsa", having appeared at "the policeman of the stone building", he erected the stone ensemble of the Tobolsk Kremlin, only beyond the Urals [1, page 43]. In the course of performance of cartographic, architectural and various other monarchic service began also it

The bibliography

ethnographic and archaeological classes which found realization in its literary activity.

S.U. Remezov - the personality unique, many-sided, productive. But all its vital charge, an incentive of all its activity, in many respects was defined by deep patriotism, devotion to "monarchic business", belief in Divine Providence. All these qualities were put in it by the grandfather and the father at early age. Having sober practicality, S. Remezov was allocated with high degree of art talent. Brought this intuition, a graphic gift in various fields of the performed work. It was really an artist, the person organic, creatively approached life: being formed through books, it seized sciences as craft, and at the same time kept traditions and experience of fathers. It both innovator, and defender of habitual values of native "old times". "Its innovations grew at the most part from practical requirements of live business. the figure (S. Remezov) distinctly shows harmony of the cultural reform (Pyotr) proceeding not from only one impatient will of the autocrat, but from the imminent needs of the country" [7, page 39].

S.U. Remezov's works:

1. The Herografichesky drawing book is stored in Guftonovsky library of Harvard College (USA) for No. 59-2045;
2. The office drawing book is stored in Department of manuscripts of National Library of Russia (RNB SHOUTING, St. Petersburg), Hermitage meeting No. 237;
3. The drawing book of Siberia is stored 1701 in Department of manuscripts to the Russian state library (RGB SHOUTING, Moscow), Rumyantsevsky meeting No. 346;
4. The history Siberian is stored in Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BAN, St. Petersburg), Department of manuscripts, 16.16.5.
1. Dergacheva-Skop, E.I. Remezovskaya chronicle: history of opening, manuscript, edition / E.I. Dergacheva-Skop, V.N. Alekseev//Semyon Remezov and Russian culture of the second half of XVII-XVII! centuries. Tobolsk, 2005.
2. Goldenberg, L.A. Isocount of the earth Siberian. Life and Semyon Remezov's works. Magadan, 1990.
3. Essays of the Russian literature of Siberia. In 2 vol. Novosibirsk: "Science" Siberian office, 1982. - T. 1.
4. Kopylova, S.V. Stone construction in Siberia. End of 17 - 18 century. Novosibirsk: "Science" Siberian office, 1979.
5. Kirillov, V.V. Semyon Remezov's constructions in Tobolsk. (Mandative chamber and Dmitriyevsky gate of the Tobolsk Kremlin)//"Architectural inheritance". M, 1962. - Issue 14.
6. Alekseev, V.N. The new found S.U. Remezov's icon "God's Sofia Premudrost" from the Tobolsk Assumption St. Sophia Cathedral//Semyon Remezov and the Russian culture of the second half of XVII - XVII1 of centuries. Tobolsk, 2005.
7. Gerchuk, Yu.Ya. On the way from the Middle Ages to Modern times / Yu.Ya. Gerchuk, S.U. Remezov//Semyon Remezov and the Russian culture of the second half of XVII - XVII1 of centuries. - Tobolsk, 2005.

Article came to edition 23.06.09

UDC 371.044.4+281.9

I.Yu. Kozhevnikova, the graduate student of OmGU of F.M. Dostoyevsky, Omsk, E-mail:


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