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Complex of the Biysk Hierarchal house and Katekhizatorsky school



bibliografichesky list

1. Polukhin, T. Barnaul crystal. - Altai truth. - 1975. - April 13.
2. Barnaul: Encyclopedia. - Barnaul, 2000.
3. Savelyev, N.Ya. Altai masters of crystal business: Essay of history of the Barnaul glass plant / N.Ya. Savelyev. - Barnaul: Altai book publishing house, 1958.
4. Bezborodov, M.A. Essays on the history of the Russian glassblowing. / M.A. Bezborodov. - M.: Promstroyizdat, 1952.
5. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 1. - Op. 1. - 474. - L. 36.
6. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 1. - Op. 1. - 474. - L. 131.
7. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 50. - Op. 18. - 4423.

Article came to edition 20.02.09

UDC 751.1+293

Yu.A. Kreydun, applicant of AGU, Barnaul

COMPLEX of the BIYSK HIERARCHAL HOUSE AND KATEKHIZATORSKY SCHOOL

In article the complex of buildings of the residence of the chief of the Altai spiritual mission in Biysk is described. As a result of a research the history of construction and also functional purpose of buildings is revealed. The value of the residence as main educational center in Altai at the end of XIX - the head of the 20th centuries is emphasized

Educational activity among the population of the Altai Mountain district, especially among the nomadic people of Mountain Altai was one of the most important problems of the Altai spiritual mission (further ADM) founded in 1830 from the very beginning of its existence. However because of remoteness and poverty of the region Missiya from the very beginning of the existence had personnel problems. Creation not only schools of the diploma, but also the solution of a question of training was necessary. The possibility of the organization of training of teachers and priests by own forces appeared only with establishment of the Biysk hierarchal department and creation of the residence of the chief of the Altai spiritual mission in the territory of which the Katekhizatorsky school was formed. Definition of the Holy Synod of December 1, 1879 in Biysk founded a vikariatstvo of the Tomsk diocese. The archimandrite Vladimir (Petrov) became the first bishop Biysk. Hiro-

the Tonian Period took place on March 16, 1880. As wrote in the provincial newspaper: "Residents of Biysk employed for the new bishop into the city account the decent apartment, and on construction of the hierarchal house with church made some donation a part of the public sums, a part - from own diligence of some persons, and under the estate allocated the place quite sufficient and the best in the city" [1, page 220].

The first two-storeyed semi-stone hierarchal house was built by 1883 (fig. 1).

Then in Biysk the Katekhizatorsky school with a three-year course was formed. The school was placed on the first floor of the semi-stone hierarchal house. Here Ulalinsko-go's guests graduates of the central school were translated. Katekhizatorsky it began to be called, probably, only in 1885. Then the first manager of school - the graduate of the Kazan spiritual academy celibate priest Mefodiy (Gerasimov) was appointed.

What further history of creation of an architectural complex of the Biysk Hierarchal house and Katekhizatorsky school? In 1884, thanks to donations of the merchant A.Ya. Sakharov, the room for elementary missionary school in Biysk was "arranged". Missionary education became two-level: one-great elementary school and actually School. After a while Jacob Alekseyevich Bakhayev built the new building of elementary school.

On May 22, 1886 the fire destroyed the Hierarchal house. Rooms, archive, library, educational and bedrooms burned down. Makari Preosvyashchenny had to live within a month in the village of Lugovskom near Biysk, the apartment was not found for it yet. But classes in Katekhizatorsky school did not stop and took place probably in the building of elementary school. In the same 1886

Fig. 1. First hierarchal house. G. Gurkin's sketch.

by means of philanthropists (one of them - the Biysk merchant Alexey Vakulovich Sokolov) construction of the new Hierarchal house with more extensive rooms for Katekhizatorsky school was begun. In two years, in 1888, the new building was built (fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Stone arkhirereysky house and house Kazanskaya Church. Photo of the head of the 20th century

It was necessary only to plaster facades. On the first floor the school was located. There lived also employees. On the second floor "brotherhood" of the Hierarchal house and office accommodated. In the mezzanine the house church of the prelate Dimitry of Rostov was arranged. But this church "was much closer former" [2, page 23]. Construction of separate hierarchal house Church of Our Lady of Kazan is the same year begun. This spacious and high stone temple was built in 1891 and on November 8 the same year is consecrated. From within the temple was painted by oil paint, and the bell tower is built later [3].

The growing number of pupils forced to begin in 1893 large construction again.

Put the new stone academic building in the spring. In a year put up walls of one floor. At the initiative of the merchant A.V. Sokolov the decision to change the project and to build the two-storeyed building was made. Together with transfer of the considerable sum of money for construction continuation he stated a wish to arrange craft classes at school. They were constructed later, but execution of the plan was not fated to see A.V. Sokolova, he died on October 25, 1894

Because of extreme constraint in October, 1894 in rooms of the first, the floor of the new case in rough made, classes began. It was not interfered even by dampness from damp plaster. On the first floor of the Hierarchal house, pupils of elementary school and some teachers remained to live. In the new building there were five classrooms, four bedrooms, school of the diploma, the apartment of the manager and tutor, kitchen and a bakery. At that time in the hostel of school 120 people were registered already. Solemn consecration of the new academic building of Katikhizatorsky school took place on September 14, 1895. The church service was headed by the chief Missii Mefodiy Preosvyashchenny, the bishop Biysk. After a holy-water prayer and perfusion of all rooms

in the big uchilishchny hall the general chorus of pupils from 300 people sang a prayer "to the Tsar Nebesny". Solemn speeches were delivered, spiritual chants were performed. According to the chief Missiya, "The new, now consecrated school building, has to make the whole era in its stories" [4, page 52]. In several months in the big uchilishchny hall the house church in honor of the apostle John the Evangelist was arranged. It was located in the mezzanine of the second floor. The bishop Mefodiy consecrated on January 9, 1896 church. First as an altar partition served the unpretentious iconostasis made for hundred rubles offered just Ioann Kron-shadtskim [4, page 76]. The famous Kronstadt archpriest sacrificed to school and Missiya annually.

In 1899 new building was begun. Closely to a northern wall of the existing building of school it was decided to make a two-storeyed extension. The final form of the building on the project had to take the T-shaped form (fig. 3).

Construction continued several years. In archive of Altai Krai "The book for record of arrival and an expense of sums of money on construction of the new case" remained [5].

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3. Building of Katekhizatorsky school. Photo of the head of the 20th century

Records are dated the period from February 13, 1899 to September 30, 1900. Perhaps, the main works were performed at this time. The first expenses were: prepayment to contractors Tyumentsev, Fedor Kovalyov, Mitrofan Kovalyov, Arkhip Borzenkov and also notarial contributions, plans (technician Ernst Avgustovich Zeyfert), purchase of carts, horses. During 1899, most likely, base works were carried out. Delivery of a brick was begun since July 29, 1899, but then still with small parties. Since April 6, 1900. Construction works after the winter period were resumed. On April 17, 1900 finished the project of an extension to the case. From now on contracts for delivery of tens and hundreds of thousands of pieces of bricks began to be signed. On July 20, 1900 made a bookmark with a brick of 12 windows. Building was conducted so actively that there were not enough collected donations. As a result after the end of construction the debt in 33 thousand rubles collected. This sum was close to the size of the annual budget of all ADM. Missiya could not repay it by own efforts. The problem of financing was solved in 1902 at

assistance of Makari Preosvyashchenny, bishop Tomsk and Barnaul. The debt was repaid by the decree of the Holy Synod at the expense of the capitals bequeathed in favor of ADM by the merchant Osipov [6, page 18-20]. After receiving such news all faculty members and pupils served a thanksgiving in the uchilishchny temple.

In 1905 to the building of katekhizatorsky school water [7, was laid on by l.85ob.], and in 1906 the small economsky house [8, l is built. 74 about.].

A telephone in school was installed in 1916 what 163 rub 45 kopeks [9, l were spent for. 71 about.].

So within more than twenty years the complex of the Biysk Hierarchal house and Missionary Katekhizatorsky school was created. It included the following capital constructions: house of the chief of ADM, house stone Church of Our Lady of Kazan, big building of School, elementary parish school (Kazan school), stone outbuildings (wood warehouse, farmyard, craft classes, economsky house and also stone bath). The first three buildings were connected by underground passages. A part of the specified constructions was applied on the map of the city of Biysk 1914 [10]. In 1916 in all buildings of Katekhizatorsky school there were 73 warm rooms which were heated by 67 furnaces and 8 "centers".

West of the academic building several constructions remained. On memoirs of old residents, the stable and a bath were located here. The stone bath was constructed after 1905. 1845 rub 63 kopeks were spent for its construction

The pre-revolutionary constructions in this territory which were not belonging to the Hierarchal house could not be. The land plot of a complex which made a rectangle of 130 m x 110 m [11] was marked 1901 on the map of Biysk. The red line of the site passed approximately along a facade of the house of the bishop. Kazanskaya Church and elementary school were taken out abroad this site. Two gardens belonged to a complex of the Hierarchal house: northern about 380 m x 340 m in size, southern - 390 m x 200 m. A southwest part of the second garden was adjoined by fire depot and a female shelter.

There is obscure a functional purpose of the one-storey house which is near the house of the bishop. Locals call it "the candle plant", however in documents is not mentioned existence of such plant. Moreover, in the pre-revolutionary photo over east part of the building the small dome with a cross is visible that it speaks about possible existence of an altar. It is possible that it was the part of the first semi-stone hierarchal house repaired after the fire of 1886 in which there was a house church. All above-stated constructions of the Hierarchal house and Katekhizatorsky school remained up to now.

Near the building of school there was an uchilishchny garden. There was a hierarchal grove with a pond (fig. 4) slightly further.

Small and older pond was located near Kazanskaya Church. The school possessed two orchards - "only in Biysk on extensiveness and beauty". There was also land plot in 160 tithes (more than 170 hectares).

The complex of the Biysk Hierarchal house and Katekhizatorsky school became the center of spiritual education of all region. In 1911 three quarters of employees of ADM were graduates of the Biysk Missionary Katekhizatorsky school. Thanks to activity of ADM the Altai flock increased. On the place called the archimandrite for training of missionaries

Makari (Glukharev) in the 1830th years the metropolitan Filaret (Drozdov). And in the work "Thoughts of education of foreigners..." the founder of ADM stated the idea of creation of missionary institute [12, page 163-290].

Trends of fading of spiritual education began to be found long before 1917. In 1911 the bishop Innokenti (Sokolov) wrote that "liberating years (1905-1907 - a comment of Yu.K. mean) struck a blow to business of Christian charity, affected welfare of the Altai Missiya existing, mainly, on the dobrokhotny donations coming to Orthodox Missionary Society" [13, page 80]. In particular, in 1912 and 1913 from the estimate of 29689 rubles of Missiya only 17 thousand rubles were provided.

Increase of tension amplified in the years of World War I. "Under a heavy burden of war the Altai Missiya worried 1915", - the report of ADM for 1915 so began. The manager of School then was forced to write about an emergency. There was an impression that all "forgot" about School and nobody was engaged in its needs. The number of "free" guests was reduced to a minimum. Even Missiya's employees had to pay for training of the children.

The government of Bolsheviks which came to the power acting through the Biysk district revkom makes on May 27, 1920 the decision to transfer the former Hierarchal house to the jurisdiction of local hospital, and in the former monasteries to arrange agricultural communes. Since 1930 the complex of the former Hierarchal house was occupied by military unit. In the house of the bishop - the headquarters, in school - garrison Officers' Club, at elementary school - high school. In the house of the bishop - the headquarters, in school - garrison Officers' Club, at elementary school - high school. In 2001 the military unit is relocated. But from all constructions of Church only the Kazan temple (in 1993) which is consecrated in honor of St. Dimitry of Rostov now is returned.

The question of return of other buildings of a complex to Church remains open. It would be meanwhile most expedient to return to these buildings initial purpose and thus to restore orthodox spiritual education center. It would promote maintaining integrity of a complex as monument history, unique for region, and architecture.

Bibliography

1. Tomsk diocesan sheets, 1881. - No. 15.
2. The report on the Altai and Kyrgyz missions for 1888 Tomsk, 1889.
3. CHAF of joint stock company. F.164. Op.1. 90; in the same place 164. Op. 2. 71.
4. The report on the Altai spiritual mission for 1895 Tomsk, 1896.
5. CHAF of joint stock company. T. 186. Op. 1. 6.
6. The report on activity of the Altai spiritual mission for 1902 B. of m, b.
7. CHAF of joint stock company. T. 186. Op.1. 24.
8. CHAF of joint stock company. F.186. Op.1. 26.
9. CHAF of joint stock company. F.186. Op.1. 45.
10. CHAF of joint stock company. T. 50. Op.13. 73.
11. CHAF of joint stock company. T. 50. Op. 13. 74.
12. Archimandrite Makari. Thoughts to the most successful distribution of Christian belief//the Light of Christ educates all. Novosibirsk, 2000.
13. The Altai Spiritual Missiya's report for 1913

Article came to edition 12.04.09

UDC 7.034 (45-57)

T.V. Prokhorova, Ven. Novosibirsk state architectural and art academy, Novosibirsk

RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISM DRILL In HU1ShSh of CenturiesI ITS INTERRELATION WITH ORTHODOX ART to VOSTOCHVY SIBERIA

In XVN-XVSh of centuries in Eastern Siberia the bright picture of religious syncretism, interpenetration of three religions is observed. The Siberian icon bears in itself the lines not peculiar to orthodox art: cloudy backgrounds, Mongoloid lines and the image of a smile in drawings of faces. The originality of the Siberian life, appearance and character of Siberians, their religious outlook in many respects affected in works of the Siberian orthodox art, east lines answering to tastes of the authors who grew up on the Siberian earth got into it.

Process of development of Siberia by Russians proceeded with amazing speed. By 1620 the territory from the Urals to Yenisei was developed, in 1638 the Russian groups under the leadership of Ivan Yuryev Moskvitin came to the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, and in 1648-1649 Dezhnev and Habarov's groups reached the Pacific Ocean and passed across Amur. At the end the HU1-beginning of the 18th century Russians were approved also on Kamchatka.

In the territory of the region there were first Russian settlements. Emergence of the settlement: fortresses, a jail or the city, was followed by obligatory construction of the temple or foundation of the monastery. The new religion began to be approved in Siberia, in places forcing out Shamanism and the Buddhism. This time was noted by a mass baptism of indigenous people in orthodox belief. At the metropolitan Filofey Leshchinsk forty thousand pagans were converted to Christianity while they all "are called in Christianity not by need, not fear, not other any way, but precisely Evangelical preaching" [1]. However it is known also that originally the baptism the Buryat was carried out violently over the men and women taken prisoner [2, page 137], later, to it was promoted by growth of number of monasteries in Siberia. Monasteries needed workers, and novokreshchenny Buryats were fixed on monastery lands. To a bosom of church there was the poorest part of indigenous people to receive some gift or temporarily to get rid of taxes. It was unprofitable to treasury as the quantity of yasakoplatel-shchik decreased. Therefore at the beginning of the century the Sacred Synod gives inst-

ruktion: "Any not to use violent measures to involvement of gentiles to a baptism, but to dispose to that mild and constant belief". Often the baptism had purely formal character, many were christened several times, but did not leave former, traditional customs and ceremonies.

A little before that time when in Siberia the first Russian monks appeared, through intermediary activity of the Tibetan and Mongolian missionaries in Buryatia the Lamaism was approved. In 1741 the empress Elizabeth Petrovna signed the Decree on official recognition of the Buddhism as religion the Buryat. But, "Being considered officially... Buddhists, Buryats... where it is obvious and where secretly... remained adherents of shaman practice" [3, page 4].

As a bright illustration of religious syncretism in Buryatia, the cult of the shaman character Bukha-noy-ona which became at first "the adherent of Lamaism", and then turned into Orthodoxy could serve: "In Tunka where there is sacred Rock Bukha-noyona... lamas... constructed Buddhist kumirnyu", and orthodox church "in fight for flock. constructed in 1861 Saint Parfeniya's chapel" [2, page 141]. K.M. Gerasimova writes about the same character: "All worship him: shamans, lamas and Christians - Russians and novokreshchenny Buryats" [4, page 118].

It is interesting to note that penetration of religions, east and orthodox, was mutual. Christian Saints did not replace completely east gods, and just joined them. It was especially popular among Buryat Nikola

Gudrun Sabine
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