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Police of the Moscow province at the beginning of the 20th century: conditions of service and financial position



DOKLADY And MESSAGES

A.Yu. Dunayeva

POLICE of the MOSCOW PROVINCE at the beginning of the 20th century:

CONDITIONS of SERVICE AND FINANCIAL POSITION

Revolution of 1905-1907 showed sharpness not only agrarian and working questions, but also problems of material security, training and service of those on whom, actually, and the majestic building of the Russian Empire kept. First of all - territorial chiefs, officials of provincial boards and police officers. Reports of the Moscow governor V.F. Dzhunkovsky, materials of senatorial audit of the Moscow gradonachalstvo give the chance to imagine visually, how poorly supreme authority cared for the local representatives. Especially disastrous, considering their various duties which are often connected with risk for life there was a provision of ranks of local police.

The ego became obvious in days of the December armed revolt which the Moscow police met actually unarmed. On December 12 the governor general F.V. Dubasov disposed to arm immediately policemen of the Moscow police with guns from an artillery warehouse and patronami1. The new city's mayor A.A. Reynbot who entered a position at the beginning of 1906 wrote in the report of senatorial audit: "At the next acquaintance it turned out that the police not only are not trained, but it is almost unarmed. So, the single shot guns Berdana, and that given out only in December on order of the general aide-de-camp Dubasov were armed; on 4 Ltd companies of policemen there were 1,332 revolvers of an old system of Smith and Besson most of which out of order, and checkers, not suitable for anything, on 2 rubles 20 kopeks piece. District supervisors, except for several, stocked up with the confiscated weapon, had no revolvers. Such arms were that minute when the police were shot on streets from revolvers of the latest systems when the police went every night to searches and arrests, obviously knowing that it often will encounter bitter armed resistance" 2.

Reynbot cited as an example the policeman: having been on change in plain clothes a dress, that changed clothes on the street in a uniform overcoat of the workmate, took his weapon and rose on a post. "Checking external posts, - the city's mayor wrote further, - I found in the Sretenka arestny house of the point-policeman in plain clothes a dress with a pistonny gun in hands to which there were no fire supplies" 3.

Police officers, according to Reynbot, not only were not accustomed to any active actions, but even to simple execution of orders: "The lower ranks believed in the administration a little, and I was not quiet that a critical minute they will follow me. Meanwhile the mood of the city was extremely disturbing, the population did not trust in the power and did not consider it rather strong to provide an order in the city and to protect the interests of his inhabitants" 4.

For arms of policemen of Reynbot ordered to give to police officers money in the form of prize of the residual sums of staff and to buy on them 900 revolvers of a system of the Revolver and cartridges to them. Having assigned district supervisors the cost of revolvers in the form of prize, ordered them to buy 375 revolvers of a system of Smith and Vesson, the policeman according to his petition before the top military commander of a Berdan rifle were replaced with 3-linear rifles.

Immediate improvement was demanded not only by arms, but also working conditions of police officers. During the being expected disorders or disorders in the city, according to Reynbot, policemen gathered in the site where spent night and more dressed, rolling on a floor and not having even an opportunity not only to receive hot food in the site, but even to get drunk to tea behind which they ran in the next taverns. "I ordered to get samovars and tea services in all sites, and to give to the chief of a reserve 600 rubles advance payments on supply in such cases of policemen with tea and sugar. All these expenses are made from the residual sums in the form of prize to police officers and the chief of a reserve", - the city's mayor so justified the expenses. "In the winter in big frosts policemen, standing on sweat, wrapped up to themselves the bashlykama head... In view of a manor of the large residual sums, I decided to indulge the lowest ranks and ordered to buy astrakhan collars on all cash list of policemen, having entered cost them in the form of prize" 5.

Describing conditions of service of police officers and their assistants, Reynbot noted that as big help for them serve gifts from inhabitants. He subdivided them into "gifts with the transaction with conscience and into gifts with the transaction with vanity". "Punishing cruelly the first, willy-nilly it was necessary to be reconciled with the second, deeply taken roots in Moscow, control over which is absolutely impossible", - recognized gradonachalnik6. He took drastic measures: "A number... by me it was fired for incorrectness in the monetary relation. But, unfortunately, the salaries established by states are so scanty... that cannot satisfy to the most urgent needs of life intelligent, at least even not numerous, family", - summed up Reynbot7.

If the Moscow city's mayor in the report to senator N.P. Hary-well who was carrying out audit first of all emphasized wretchedness of position of police officers, justifying "inappropriate" expenditure of public money, then the governor Dzhunkovsky in the reports to Nicholas II emphasized dedication and energy of police in fight against enemies of autocracy. But also Dzhunkovsky did not begin to hide from the emperor that extreme nedostatoch-

the nost of the contents received by police officers forces them to look for other sources of income.

For 1906 he specified in the report that police officers are forced to spend personal funds for office. And further wrote: "Absence of spare cash turns them to illegal requisitions, for example for a registration of passports. Dropping the honor, they drop at the same time the advantage and authority of the government power. There is only one way to improve situation: to publish for police the new states coordinated with the high cost of life which increased everywhere and the amount of office work" 8.

Dzhunkovsky always encouraged ranks of police, personally paid the last honors to policemen, the dead on duty, visited families of the killed. It entered its practice since 1902 when he was the vice-chairman of the Moscow guardianship about national sobriety. "The unfortunate policeman, the old man of 72 years standing on a post near People's house of guardianship fell dead, - he remembered, - I ordered to lock people's house before the end of a funeral and everything the employee to be at a funeral. I arrived to a funeral and laid on a coffin a wreath from guardianship", - wrote on9.

Dzhunkovsky made the suggestions for improvement of material security of ranks of police. "I developed for police of the Moscow province projects new, coordinated with the changed conditions of living, states which presented to the Minister of Internal Affairs. Petitions for increase in numerical structure and for increase in salaries of maintenance of its ranks are put in the basis of projects", - he wrote the emperor in the report for 1907 10 However their implementation was delayed development of the general reform of police institutions in the empire.

Ju Nkovsky, as well as Reynbot, tried to encourage police officers at the expense of prize fund. The order of the governor on staff of January 8, 1909 said: "9 passed December near the Nara station from Matveev's tavern the horse harnessed in the sleigh belonging to the peasant Nikolay Oskin was stolen. The police watchman of the village Naro-Fominsk Zinovyev received data on an event, on other horse of Oskin immediately rushed for horse thieves, overtook them in three versts from Nara and detained. For the resourcefulness shown by the watchman Zinovyev, speed and courage of actions I thank him officially and I appoint an award of 10 rubles, will be given out which on my office". On May 19, 1909, announcing "thanks" for a molodechestvo to the policeman of Voskresensky team Egorov who cut a checker the mad dog who appeared in the city, the governor suggested the office to give that in an award 3 rubles. In the same day to the same policeman for detention of the criminal who stole a cow in Pegova's manor "thanks" with delivery to it in reimbursement of expenses on search of 10 rub 11 was announced

However in the same 1909 the sum intended for delivery of awards and grants the most needing and caused a stir on service politsace-

Kim to ranks, was cut by half. Dzhunkovsky insisted that it is necessary to release in the order of the chief of the province the sum sufficient for delivery of awards and grants at least the most needing and most worthy of ranks of police. He highlighted that "increase... will give it the chance to treat more strictly illegal rewards from which the police have no opportunity to refuse". So far he needed only to hope that "the forthcoming reform of police seeking to eliminate the specified defects would be fair rewarding of police for her unshakable fidelity to the Throne, selfless patriotism and blood shed by many in its ranks in fight against public enemies" 12.

In 1910 once again reporting to the emperor that "wretchedness of provision of some ranks of police accepts absolutely intolerant sizes", Dzhunkovsky cited as an example the police supervisor of one of the largest factories in Russia - the Bogorodsk and Glukhovsky manufactory which received, according to the acting state, the apartment from factory and 650 rub a year. Meanwhile it was forced to spend for the maintenance of one office annually not less than 1,300 rub. Large waste of the sums entrusted to him on service was found in the titular counselor Danilovsky holding this position within 10 years. To avoid dishonor of arrest and court, the police officer shot himself. The governor wrote further: "Not to drive the deputy him into so corner, I was included into the agreement with factory on payment in favor of office of the Police officer Nadziratel on 10 kopeks for a registration of each passport though that collecting and is not provided by the law" 13. Opposite to this paragraph Nicholas II wrote: "Such situation does not raise prestige of the power" 14.

However position of police of the Moscow province from it did not change. "As before, its all ranks selflessly and with excellent diligence perform difficult duties of service, expecting the best time when material conditions of their life change and the unreasonable work falling nowadays to their lot will be facilitated", - Dzhunkovsky wrote in the report for 1911. "I nevertheless have an opportunity by economy in the corresponding credit to dig up resources for delivery to the most needing ranks of its grants. In much worst situation there are senior ranks of district police... consciousness that the expenses connected with moving from one county to another can be excessive, force me to refuse similar movements that very harmfully is reflected in a condition of police matter in the province" 15.

Not prestigiousness of police service, disrespect, disdain, and even hostility of local community led to the fact that many ranks of police hesitated to wear a police uniform and sought to make it similar to officer. "There cannot be, apparently, a doubt that the police rank seeking to imitate officer regimentals finds it discontent not only prisvo-

its unlimited service a form, but also the nature of this service and situation it in society and the state, - Dzhunkovsky in the order of October 20, 1909 noted. "The inaccuracy of a similar view is obvious. The part assigned by laws of police is responsible, serious and honourable, and a police rank, is conscientious also with energy fulfilling the duties, summons always the general respect. It is necessary, of course, at the same time that ranks of police were behaved in all cases independently and with advantage. The neglect a police uniform and desire to imitate officer regimentals can be explained only with lack of personal advantage" 16.

On the report for 1912 opposite to Dzhunkovsky's remark that "all ranks of police... fulfilled duties of the service, expecting the best time... when reform improves the material conditions of their life adjoining nowadays on extreme poverty", Nicholas II wrote: "I hope, soon" 17.

Dzhunkovsky had to leave the post at the beginning of 1913. Throughout all its governorship, from 1905 to 1912, in the provision of police ranks nothing changed. Addressing all senior and junior ranks of district police in the last order of January 27, 1913, he wrote: "Names of many persons which valorously fell on the post brightly testify to by what we are obliged all to ranks of district police. With gratitude recognizes also the population that the district police always selflessly fulfilled the foremost duty - to render the quick and effective help to the people overtaken by any misfortune. The one who saw actions of the Moscow Provincial police at the critical moments (a flood, the fires) will not throw it a heavy reproach for separate offenses especially as of them persons, but not the establishment which is carrying out the tasks which are valorously set to it by the law" 18 were guilty.

Of course, Ju of nkovskiya indulged in wishful thinking: business was in establishment, but not in people who continued, to carry out the official duties often contrary to sensible and natural desire to live and work in conditions, worthy their weights of "monarchic service". The provision of police ranks of the Moscow province differed in nothing from position of their colleagues in other provinces of the empire.

It is necessary to agree with the American researcher R. Robbins who claims that the police had to be responsible for everything, without receiving instead of nothing. According to it, at the beginning of the 20th century the amount of payment determined as early as the 60th of the 19th century was absolutely incomparable to a living wage, being at most 1,500 rub a year. Conditions in which it was necessary to work were also deplorable. All this conducted to the fact that on service people who were not capable of anything another arrived. At the beginning of the 1900th only 3% of all police chiefs had the higher education and 21% - an average. The situation with stanovy police officers and village constables was even more deplorable: some of them were hardly able to read. Most of police officers were the former soldiers who did not receive

advances and fired from army. The person who could not order even small military division often had to be responsible for safety, and even life of thousands of people. Big turnover of staff, corruption, incompetence - were that the main lines of local police. Even the most resolute governor in whose hands there were police, undoubtedly, had to understand hopelessness of a situation with corruption and abuse of power in politsii19.

In such situation also strikes of police officers were inevitable. In 1905 the policemen of Ekaterinos-lava driven to despair called a strike. Also the lower ranks of the Odessa police striked, trying to draw attention everything to the same problems: to the overfatigue caused by too intensive service and the shortage of a salary. The emperor's deputy in the Caucasus reported in Department of police on detection in Tiflis of printing appeals on behalf of "The union of policemen" with professional and economic requirements and threat of a strike in case of their non-execution. In Kiev the staff of the municipal government made the requirement to exempt them from the tasks carried to a field of activity political politsii20.

In capital police in the same time the movement for creation of labor union began. Besides economic requirements the lower ranks considered it necessary "to enter polite treatment of the administration of district and police supervisors, policemen and inspectors and to cancel hitherto the existing offensive, impudent, rough, loud address which is followed by different threats" 21.

However no Nicholas II's marks on reports transferred to the relevant departments work of the Commission on reform of police in the empire, the State Duma solved this serious state and social problem. A.A. Hvostov holding a post of the Minister of Internal Affairs from July 7 to September 16, 1916 on interrogation in Extraordinary commission of inquiry after the February revolution showed that was going to carry out the law on new states of police besides the Duma under the 87th article of Basic laws. "The states police lay in the Duma many years, - the former minister told, - they got stuck there, and I found the Ministry of Internal Affairs in such situation that the police almost did not exist... ranks of police directly ran away... If I am not mistaken, in Petrograd nearly 60% of policemen were in absence. Proceeding from it, I came to conclusion that all police can run up since salaries are really insignificant and that it is necessary to enter, in a type of an emergency measure, new states of police" 22. However Hvostov did not manage to carry out the new bill through the State Duma. The last Minister of Internal Affairs A.D. Protopopov managed to carry out it through Council of ministers. On October 30, 1916 Nicholas II approved the provision "About Strengthening of Police in 50 Provinces of the Empire and about Improvement of Official and Financial Position of Police Ranks". The strike of police officers in Moskve23 became a decisive factor at adoption of this decision.

Prophetical in the light of further events: "Daring... to take so long time the Most gracious your Imperial Majesty attention, I scoop hope for the Highest your indulgence, the Sovereign, only in that reason that all state and public everyday life is full of these trifles which not elimination is always the reason of large complications in the future" 24.

1 CIAM. T. 17. Op. 104. 42. L. 2.
2 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 826. 107. L. 26.
3 In the same place. L. 25ob.
4 In the same place. L. 26.
5 In the same place. L. 27.
6 In the same place. L. 28.
7 In the same place. L. 27.
8 In the same place. L. 11ob.
9 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 826. 45. L. 237.
10 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 826. D. 107. L. 22ob.
11 CIAM. T. 17. Op. 96. D. 753. L. 1ob., 18-18ob.
12 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 826. D. 107. L. 61ob.
13 In the same place. L. 87.
14 In the same place. L. 126.
15 In the same place. L. 118.
16 CIAM. T. 17. Op. 96. 753. L. 39ob.
17 In the same place. L. 145.
18 CIAM. T. 17. Op. 101. 283. L. 3.
19 Robbins R. The Tsar’s Viceroys: Russian Provincial Governors in the Last Years of the Empire. Ithaca (N.Y.). 1987. P. 184-186.
20 Reent Yu.A. Police system of the Russian Empire of the beginning of the 20th century, 1900 1917: Yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. M, 2002. Page 319.
21 In the same place.
22 Falling of the royal mode: Verbatim records of interrogations and the evidences given in 1917 in the Extraordinary commission of Provisional government. T. 5. M, 1925. Page 463.
23 Z.I. Peregudova. Political investigation of Russia (1880-1917). M, 2000. Page 366.
24 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 826. 107. L. 94.
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Baldi Marcella Giovanna
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