The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Amphoras of Miletus



UDK 903.024; 941381.02-04

AMPHORAS of MILETUS

Institute of archeology

A.P. Abramov

The amphoras of Miletus allocated with P. Dupont appeared in the 2nd floor. 7th century BC. They show a continuous number of development till 4th century BC and served as a prototype for a ceramic container of the centers of Northern Ionia or miletsky colonies. In a quantitative sense it is a little of them as the main export product, obviously, olive oil was.

Amphoras of Miletus were for the first time allocated to Item Dyuponom1. Its classifications were confirmed in the neutron and activation analysis of mass ceramic material and painted ceramics. About same the similarity of the pro-thinned-out details of miletsky painted ceramics and amphoras testifies. He developed the first typology of amphoras of Miletus with the 2nd a floor. VII prior to the beginning of the 4th century BC 2 before a part of miletsky amphoras belonged to ceramic production of the island of Samos (that should not be surprising in view of geographical proximity of two centers). It is necessary to agree with S.Yu. Monakhov that not all group of amphoras on a slozhnoprofiliro-bathing ring pallet treats miletsky products (protofasossky, according to I.B. Zeest). S.Yu. Monakhov tried to add classification of Item Dyupona3.

P. Dupont considers distinctive feature of a miletsky ceramic container the thin nimbus extended down. Among other signs which are marked out to them it should be noted the double-barreled handles which are found sometimes and also existence of the pointed roller on a junction of the top part of the building with a throat. Clay of a miletsky ceramic container dark pink, well otmuchenny, with mica spangles, sometimes with small peskom4.

A-1 type of miletsky amphoras is called by P. Dupont "amphoras with an ovoidny trunk of the last quarter of VII there are the 1st quarter of the 6th century BC" 5, A1 type according to S.Yu. Monakhovu6. This type is presented by the vessels having the throat extending in the top part supplied extended down (30-35 mm) with the flattened nimbus with the greatest expansion in the lower part. On a throat sometimes there is a ledge which is located fastenings of handles which connect to a throat much below than a nimbus, about the middle of a throat are slightly higher. The throat sharply separates from the top part of a trunk, the place of their connection is sometimes fixed by a fillet. The trunk has the rounded shape extended down with the greatest expansion located is slightly higher than a middle part. The leg has an appearance of the ring pallet extending from top to bottom with accurate profiling, with the side passing across the place of the maximum diameter of a leg (apprx. 70 mm). Height of vessels 500 - 550 mm7.

1 Dupont P. Amphores commerciales archaïques de la Grece de L&East//La Pavola del pussata rivista

oli stud antichi Taseicola. CCIV-CCVII. 1982. Fig. 1d, fig. 6-7, R. 203-206; Dupont P. Classification et determination de provenance des ceramiques Grecques orientales archaiques d&Istros//Dacia. XXVII. No. 1-2. Fig. 19, R. 34.

2 Dupont P. Archaic East Greek trade amphoras//East Greek Pottery. London-New York, 1998. Fig. 23.7-23.9, R. 170-177.
3 S.Yu. Monakhov. The Greek amphoras in Black Sea Coast. Typology of amphoras of the leading export centers of goods in a ceramic container. Catalog determinant. The m is Saratov, 2003. Page 37.
4 I.B. Brashinsky. New data on Olviya's trade with Samos / / KSIA. 1967. Issue 109. Page 2223; V.A. Ilyinskaya, B.N. Mozolevsky, Terenozhkin A.I. Barrows of the 6th century BC at villages of Matusov//Scythia and Caucasus. Kiev, 1980. Page 53; Maksimenko of B.A. Savromata and Sarmatians on the Lower Don. Rostov-on-Don, 1983. Page 81-82.
5 R.'s Dupont of Archaic East Greek..., fig. 23.7a, fig.23.8 a-b. River 174.
6 Monks S.Yu. Uk. soch. Tab. 17.1. Page 30-31.
7 R.'s Dupont of Archaic East Greek... River 174.
12 SCIENTIFIC SHEETS | r No. 9(64) 2009

B-1 type of amphoras of Miletus relating to the 2nd — the 3rd quarter of the 6th century BC 8, is presented by three complexes: burials 8, a barrow 7 at the village Novoaleksandrovka9; barrow of Repyakhovataya mogila10; one more vessel is found in a barrow 15 at the village Lyubotin11. S.Yu. Monakhov defines it as V-1 type I of Page 12

Amphoras of this type have the roundish case with the greatest expansion in the central part. The throat is narrowed from top to bottom or cylindrical. The nimbus is strongly extended down, under it on a throat several ledges. The top fastening of handles is located in a middle part of a throat (this sign brings together miletsky amphoras with attic). The leg has an appearance of a ring pallet with a side on the place of the maximum diameter (90-100 mm). Dredging on a sole has the trapezoid form in a section. Handles in section oval.

Metric parameters of amphoras of the considered type the following: height is 570590 mm, the maximum diameter of the case of vessels of 367-420 mm. Rated volume — apprx. 33 l.

These amphoras are absent in complexes the 2nd floor. 6th century BC, they are dated the first half stoletiya13.

The amphora of V-1 type from underwater finds near Tigani has the volume of 34.6 l that a floor can demonstrate existence in Miletus to the 2nd. VI \the beginnings of the 5th centuries BC of the high standard exceeding 30 l14. This type morphologically differs from B-1 type in lack of edges on a throat. One more amphora of this type is found in a complex with the Chian amphora of B-1 type of the third quarter of the 6th century BC in a barrow 1 at the village Tetyushino15. The close vessel is found at excavation of the temple of Amfaliya on Egine16.

Metric parameters of amphoras of this type: height is 540 — 589 mm, the maximum diameter of the case of two amphoras of 390 mm.

On the Chian amphora from a barrow at the village of Tetyushino they treat the 3rd chetv. 6th century

V-2 type of miletsky amphoras (the GO type according to S.Yu. Monakhov) is presented by several vessels dated P. Dupont the 2nd floor. 6th century BC 17. They have the throat which is narrowed from top to bottom separated from the top part of the building by the pointed roller or a fillet. The massive nimbus extended down, height — 28 mm. Sometimes the fillet is available and on a throat is slightly higher than the top fastening of handles, sometimes, as on a berezansky copy, under a nimbus there is a ledge. The trunk has the rounded or conical form and comes to the end with a leg with a side on the place of the largest diameter. Dredging on a sole trapezoid. Diameter of a leg apprx. 70 mm. Characteristic sign is the flattened sole. One of amphoras of the considered type comes from a complex of a barrow 9 at the village Kutsevolovka18 where it was found with two eolian amphoras with a usechennokonusovidny bottom of the 3rd chetv. 6th century BC. Clay its light brown, dense, without noticeable impurity. The surface of an amphora is covered with dense light engobe. The similar vessel comes from well No. 5

8 Ibid., fig. 23.7 b-c, p.174, 216, reference 201.
9 Korenyako WA., S.I. Lukyashko. 1982. New materials of early Scythian time for a left bank of Nizhny Novgorod of Don//SA. 1982. No. 3. Fig. 8. Page 157.
10 Ilyinskaya WA., B.N. Mozolevsky, Terenozhkin A.I. Uk. soch. Fig. 27.1, fig. 28. Page 53.
11 Bandurovsky O.V. Antichn_ to an amphora z kurgan_v sk_fsky to L_voberezhno's per_od ї L_sostepovo ї Ukra§ni//Arkheolog_ya. 2001. No. 1. Fig. 1.3. Page 68-69.
12 S.Yu. Monakhov. The Greek amphoras in Black Sea Coast. Complexes of a ceramic container VII — 11 centuries BC Saratov, 1999. Page 599.
13 S.Yu. Monakhov. The Greek amphoras in Black Sea Coast. Typology... Page 32.
14 Grace V.R. Samian Amphoras//Hesperia. Vol. XL. No. 1. 1971. Pl. 15.4. River 93-94; R.'s Dupont of Archaic East Greek... River 217, not. 224.
15 Bandurovsky O.V. Uk. soch. Fig. 1,4,7. Page 69-70; the author of the publication mistakenly considers the second vessel klazomensky.
16 Johnston A.W. Aegina, Aphaia-Tempel XIII. The Storage Amphoras//Arhaologischer Anzeiger. 1990. 1. P. 47, fig.7. No. 90.
17 R.'s Dupont of Archaic East Greek. Fig. 23.7 d-f, p. 175, fig. 23.8 CDs. P. 174.
18 N.M. Boky, V.S. Olkhovsky. An early Scythian barrow on the Dnieper Right bank//RA. 1994. No. 2. Fig. 3.1. Page 155.

A.P. Abramov. Amphoras of Miletus

13

Berezani19. Clay its red and brick, soft, with small spangles of mica. It has a cylindrical shape of a throat and small diameter of a leg. The throat of a vessel of the considered type comes from Q 12:3 complex of Athenian Agory20. It is made of light-red clay without mica, with gray temper in the center of a crock.

One more amphora of the considered type is found in 2004 in Patrey in a complex about the 17th amforami21. Dating of this complex is defined by the Chian amphora of B-2A option. Clay of which the vessel, light brown, fine-grained, without noticeable impurity is made. It is similar to amphora clay from Kutsevolovka, but, unlike it, has no dense light yellow engobe. The amphora has the direct, squeezed from handles throat that distinguishes it from an amphora from Kutsevolovka at whom the throat is narrowed from top to bottom. The valikoobrazny nimbus extended down. The lower forming line of a contour of a nimbus is flattened. Amphora nimbus height from Kutsevolovka 26 mm, and at an amphora from Patrey — 21 mm. The amphora throat from Patrey separates from the top part of the building poorly expressed pointed roller, and at an amphora from Kutsevolovka the roller is expressed better and has roundish outlines in a section. A trunk of both amphoras of rounded shape with the greatest expansion in the top part. Legs have an appearance of a slozhnoprofilirovanny ring pallet which external forming lines of a contour are flattened. Diameters of legs of 72 mm, an amphora leg from Patrey are much higher (35 and 20 mm).

The signs distinguishing vessels from Kutsevolovka (B-2A option) and Patrey (V-2B option) are chronological and allow to distinguish vessels of the 3rd chetv. The 6th century BC (Kutsevolovka) from end amphoras the 6th century BC (Patrey).

Metric parameters of three amphoras (from Kutsevolovka and from Patrey) are very close to Berezani: height — 555-566 mm, diameter of the case is 360-366 mm. Settlement indicators of the volume of 24.5-25.7 l. The amphora with Berezani differs from amphoras from Patrey and Kutse-volovki in high placement of the place of the maximum diameter.

V-3 type of miletsky amphoras is presented by three vessels: from a patreysky complex of 2004 22, from burial 384/20 necropolises of Kep23 and from burial of the 129th necropolis of Berezani24. The amphora from Patrey is dated the last quarter of the 6th century BC, and the amphora with Berezani is found together with the fragmented Chian bowl 570-530 BC 25.

The amphora from Patrey is made of coarse-grained light brown clay with numerous large spangles of mica. It has the direct, squeezed from handles throat, with the nimbus of a valikoobrazny form which is a little extended down with the greatest expansion in a middle part (height of 19 mm). Handles of an oval form in section fasten directly under a nimbus. The throat separates from the top part of the building the small pointed roller. Cone-shaped case, roundish outlines. The leg has an appearance of a slozhnoprofilirovanny ring pallet with a diameter of 58 mm and separates from the lower part of the case interception. The external forming lines of a contour of a leg concave. Dredging on a sole in section approaches trapezoid with roundish outlines.

Height of vessels is 515 — 529 mm, the maximum diameter of the case is 308-332 mm. Amphora volume from Cap of 20 l.

19 S.Yu. Monakhov. The Greek amphoras in Black Sea Coast. Complexes... Page 599. Tab. 4.1.
20 Roberts S.R. The Stoa Gutter Well. A Late Archaic Deposit in the Athenian Agora//Hesperia. 1986. Vol. 55. No. 1. P. 72, fig. 44. No. 443.
21 A.P. Abramov. The complex of amphoras of the last quarter of the 6th century BC from Patrey//Antiquities Is barefoot - it is time. 2006. T. 9. Fig. 6, amphora 4. Page 13-14.
22 Abramov A.P. Uk. soch. Fig. 6, amphora No. 6. Page 15-16.
23 G.A. Lomtadze. Amphoras with a leg in the form of a slozhnoprofilirovanny ring pallet in a meeting of the State Historical Museum//Bosporsky researches. Issue VIII. Simferopol — Kerch, 2005. Page 318-338. No. 6.
24 Dupont P. Archaic Greek Amphoras from Berezan in the Hermitage Collection//Borisfen - Berezan. Archaeological collection of the Hermitage. SPb. 2005. No. 49. Page 54.
25 Yu.I. Ilyina. The Chian ceramics from excavation on the island Berezan / / Borisfen — Berezan. T. 1. SPb., 2005. Kat. No. 93. Page 94.
14

SCIENTIFIC SHEETS

No. 9(64) 2009

On morphological features it is possible to allocate middle B-3A option — the 3rd chetv. 6th century BC, presented by an amphora with Berezani. This option differs in the flattened nimbus extended down. Vessels from Patrey and Cap represent later V-3B option.

Finishing consideration of miletsky amphoras of the 7-6th centuries BC, it should be noted that they had rather steady tradition of development of the morphological features which are marked out with P. Dupont. Among them — the nimbus extended down with several relief ledges passing under it. About the middle of the 6th century BC these ledges disappear, and a nimbus or keeps extended down ochertaniya26, or becomes valikoobraznym27. Handles of amphoras are more often oval (sometimes double-barreled). Legs to the middle of the 6th century BC have an appearance of the ring pallet extending from top to bottom, and from the middle of the 6th century BC take a form of a slozhnoprofiliro-bathing ring pallet. The roller dividing a throat and the top part of the building of a vessel remained also after the middle of the 6th century BC

Amphoras of Miletus, as well as the Athenian amphoras, originally had the high standard, but about the middle of the 6th century BC vessels with a volume of 25 and 20 l appear.

Since the beginning of the 5th century BC vessels with similar morphological features disappear. Amphoras of the 5th century BC behind some exceptions noted below have the legs which are carrying on traditions of development of a ceramic container of Samos, but not Miletus. The characteristic ledge on a throat is also sign of the Samos ceramic container. On this basis it is represented correct to consider the majority of the amphoras carried by P. Dupont (and after it and S.Yu. Monakhov) to miletsky production, Samos. S.Yu. Monakhov's statement about change of tradition in production of miletsky amphoras since 5th century BC 28 is submitted fair

Possibly, the main product which was taken out in a ceramic container of Miletus was olive maslo29.

Disappearance of a miletsky ceramic container can be explained with the accident connected with the Ionic revolt 494 BC (Herod. VI, i8), and the beginning of restoration of the city only after 479 BC 30

26 Berezan, stake. No. 5; Berezan, burial 129; Athens Q 12:3.
27 Kutsevolovka; Kepa; Patrey, complex 32, amphoras No. 3, 6.
28 S.Yu. Monakhov. The Greek amphoras in Black Sea Coast. Typology. Page 34.
29 R.'s Dupont of Archaic East Greek. P. 175.
30 M.M. Kobylina Miletus. M.,1965. Page 157.

A.P. Abramov. Amphoras

A. P. Abramov

Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Fig. 1. Amphoras of Miletus

MILESIAN AMPHORAS

Milesian amphoras, marked out by P. Dupont, appeared in the second half of 7 B.C. They demonstrate continuous line of development until 4 B.C. They were the sample of ceramic tare for the North Ionia centers or Milesian colonies. The number of them is quite small, as the main export product was olive oil.

James Webb
Other scientific works: