The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Activity of naib of Shamil and Sefer-bey Zahn

f. M. Hadzhebiyekova


In the 40-50th of the 19th CENTURY

Work is presented by department of pre-revolutionary national history of the Kuban State University.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.N. Ratushnyak

In article the myuridizm role in political consolidation of the western Adyghe comes to light during their fight for independence. Activity of the first naib of Shamil - Haji-Muhammad and Suleyman-Efendi in Circassia is considered. The Proslezhivayetsyadeyatelnost of the third naib Muhammad-Amin and the Natukhai prince Sefer-bey Zahn on military-political consolidation of the Adyghe resistance. The reasons of their further political opposition are established. The main military-political transformations of naib of Shamil in the territory of Circassia are investigated.

The article reveals the role of muridism in political consolidation of the Western Adygeis during their struggle for independence. The activity of the first Shamil’s naibs Hadji-Muhammed and Suleyman-Efendi in Circasia is considered. The activity of the third naib Mohammed-Amin and prince of Natukhai Sefer-bei-Zan on military and political consolidation of the Adygei resistance is traced. The reasons for their further political opposition come to light. The basic military and political transformations of Shamil’s naibs in Circasia are investigated.

The process of accession of the Caucasus which began at the end of HUSh-H1H of centuries laid the foundation for long military-political opposition of Russia as with the people inhabiting this edge and with major world powers. This opposition developed further into one of the longest wars in the history of Russia - the Caucasian war (1817-1864).

In the territory of the Northeast Caucasus becomes widespread in the first half of the 19th century militant myuridizm1, having a theocratic basis. Victories of a militant myuridizm in Dagestan and Chechnya in the mid-forties of the 19th century caused its distribution and in the Northwest Caucasus. During the Caucasian war in the Northwest Caucasus actively developed the activity of Shamil's naiba. Association of the Adyghe people under a sign of a myuridizm and consolidation of forces for conducting fight against

was one of the most important problems of their activity

tsarism. The first envoy of the imam Shamil in the Northwest Caucasus was naib Haji-Muhammad. In May, 1842 Haji-Muhammad appeared at abadzekhov2 accompanied by group efendiyev from Dagestan and Chechnya. Haji-Muhammad, having arrived to abadzekha, "already found the way paved by someone for the mission" 3.

Naib vigorously undertook planting of the principles of a myuridizm. Passing with the suite from the aul to the aul, Haji-Muhammad called mountaineers for "holy war - a gazavat" 4.

He began to declare replacement of an adat with Sharia, the organization of constant groups from so-called mutazig or had-zhiretov5. Haji-Muhammad, leaning on group of bodyguards of the mutazig consisting of 200 people "started creation of a constant mountain militia" 6.

Myuridizm who received popularity in the mass of a lower the population thanks to the idea of equality of all musul -

Mang, was not apprehended by the Adyghe princes who "preferred to keep class privileges and to be settled in Big and Small Zelenchuk, Teber-da and Urup's valleys, having obeyed to the Russian authorities" 7.

Naib introduced the system of penalties from the mountain population for trade with Russians which it strictly forbade. This measure was in his eyes means to force the ordinary mass of mountaineers to make political reorientation towards Turkey. Soon it had to make sure of what one this measure he will not manage to achieve put the objective, he decided to force the population of a number of prikubansky auls to move to mountains to isolate them from Russian economic vliyaniya8.

Summer of 1842, leaning on the armed groups of mutazig, it forced out from Kuban a part of bzhedug and hatukayevtsev9. In October, 1843 Haji-Muhammad made attempt to subordinate himself the small Shapsugs living on the southern slope of the Caucasian ridge and to swear in them, but suffered full neudachu10.

In 1843 the besleneevets ran to Haji-Muhammad and Hodz11 lodged down the river. But in 1844 after the death of the senior prince Aytek Konokov they returned and obeyed Russian pravitelstvu12. In March, 1844 Haji-Muhammad passed to bar-kayevtsam and entered the intercourse with the besleneev-ets living for the Laba River. In spite of the fact that a part of noblemen and foremen gave the obligation to implicitly carry out all its orders, almost all representatives of the lowest estate refused participation in a gazavata. "Nizshiya the estate cherkesskiya, not a privykshiya to restrictions of willfulness, to establishment of new taxes, and, above all to abolition of an adat, national common law, also did not give due support to Shamil's emissary" 13. In June, 1844 Haji-Muhammad made the last attempt of attack on prikubansky auls for the purpose of their submission. After comprehended it

failures of a naib began to leave even some mutazig. Looking for rescue, he was forced to go to mountains, to abadzekha again, but also here did not find a reliable support as after a number of military failures among abadzekh there were strong conflicts and grumble against the envoy Shamil.

Haji-Muhammad the activity pushed away from himself the Adyghe peasantry that also predetermined its fast defeat. It happened because he, leaning on the armed group of mutazig, entered spiritual court, began to tax the population, to collect various penalties, to encourage and cover abuses of the confidants. Peasants were disappointed in the preacher and accused him "of misappropriation of the power, arbitrariness and usurpering" 14.

Without having achieved performance of a goal, Haji-Muhammad in the summer of 1844 got sick and died. Death saved it from a penalty of the imam Shamil - heads of the myuridist-sky movement in the Caucasus.

After Haji-Muhammad's death to Adyghe there came the following emissary of Shamil - Suleyman-Efendi and his assistant Hagi-Bekir. Change of a naib set as the purpose strengthening of promotion of the ideas of a myuridizm among mountaineers and achievement of real results in the sense of creation of a constant mountain militia. Continuing to work in the former direction of driving in of a wedge of the ideas of militant Islamism between mountaineers and Russians, Suleyman-Efendi had to organize large military forces of mountaineers not only for the military operations on Western Caucasus, but also for their transfer to Chechnya and Dagestan to the aid of Shamilyu15. Having arrived in February, 1845 to abadzekha, Suley-man-Efendi began the activity with the fact that "... strictly forbade mountaineers to approach Russians, under the threat, that Shamil will come to punish disobedient persons" 16. Then naib started performance of an order of Shamil on creation of the horse case for actions in the Northeast Caucasus.

36 1

The action Suleyman-Efendi which managed to find support from many Adygei foremen resulted in more serious results, than activity of his predecessor, and strongly disturbed Russian komandovaniye17. However later the Russian command knew that soon after the broad mobilization of forces of the Adygei tribes which is carried out by Suleyman-Efendi among them the return movement began. The requirement to expose riders on assembly points was not fulfilled, and many auls even openly refused to accept and discuss an appeal Shamilya18.

Having failed, Suleyman-Efendi considered it necessary to visit at Shamil and to personally light to him a situation on Western Caucasus. In March, 1845 accompanied by the suite naib went to Chechnya. Suleyman-Efendi's arrival to Shamil and illumination of the political situation which was very adversely developing for business of a myuridizm by it in the Northwest Caucasus, as well as evasive activity of a number of influential ecclesiastics aroused great indignation from Shamil. Shamil threatened to punish severely the Adyghe tribes refusing to execute his will, but threats of the imam did not bring mountaineers out of a condition of passivity. The trade intercourses of Russians with mountaineers not only did not weaken, but, on the contrary, even developed.

In April, 1845 Suleyman-Efendi came back from Chechnya to the zakubansky region. However since 1845 Suleyman-Efendi's influence on the population controlled by them began to weaken. Some time Suleyman - Efendi tried to influence Adyghe by belief, terror and separate demagogical actions in relation to the Adygei peasantry. Suley-man-Efendi as well as his predecessor Haji-Muhammad, did not manage to show sufficient political flexibility in the conditions of the social fight proceeding at Adyghe. Tsar's authorities in June, 1846 actively studied various varian-

you to win over Su-leymana-Efendi that that opposed Shamilya19. Naibu Shamil it was offered, for belief in sincerity of its intentions, to oppose Shamil, having declared him the turncoat of laws of Magomet. Suleyman-Efendi agreed to it not at once, but in November, 1846 by order of the prince Vorontsov wrote the leaflet against Shamil, having accused him of violation of laws of the imamat, of recreancy from Sharia and other abuses. Despite all efforts, tsar's authorities did not manage to shake Shamil's authority.

Activity of the first two naib of Shamil in the Northwest Caucasus during this period, difficult for Adyghe, was connected with the great difficulties caused by features of the social and political structure of the Adyghe society. The main reasons for their failures were not only unwillingness to consider the interests of ordinary mass of the Adyghe people, but also violation of century customs of Adyghe as a result of distribution of Sharia. Activity of the first naib of Shamil in the Northwest Caucasus showed that Adyghe were not prone to religionism. And it meant that Circassians perceived only the political party of a myuridizm - need of association of the forces for fight against expansion of a tsarism. Haji-Muhammad and Suleyman-Efendi stayed on Western Caucasus only four years. And though none of them managed to carry out up to the end objectives, nevertheless they paved the way for the third naib of Shamil - Muhammad and - Amin.

The next attempt to unite the Adyghe tribes within the Muslim state was made by the third naib Shamil Muhammad-Amin. Muhammad-Amin arrived to the Northwest Caucasus at the end of 1848 accompanied by small group of close persons to it. His arrival was carried out with observance of all possible precautionary measures. Muhammad-Amin

arrived "a .za Kuban, hidden in the bullock cart imposed by different goods and unexpectedly appeared beyond Laba" 20. Originally naib tried to avoid fighting, seeing the main objective in that "to collect on the territory controlled by it for river. Béla there are as much as possible people" 21. At the end of January, 1849 Muhammad-Amin acted on big people's assembly and announced the purpose which was in connecting all people of zakubanskiya in one soyuz22.

During the whole 1849 it unshakably went to achievement of the purpose, overcoming at the same time resistance of noblemen and tfokot-leu. Muhammad-Amin started creation of a uniform state system with a number of the state and social and economic transformations under the flag of a myuridizm. By February, 1849 Muhammad-Amin felt so strongly that he demanded from abadzekh of obligatory exposure of mutazig, enacted the Muslim legislation and the constant system of taxes, carried out military and civil transformations in the territory of the Northwest Caucasus subject to it.

Till spring of 1849 the activity Muhammad-Amin was limited to the territory of abadzekh. Since April, 1849 naib began conquest of other Adygei tribes. Soon the purpose Muhammad-Amin became clear to a considerable part of mountaineers of the Northwest Caucasus - to subordinate them in the political relation of Turkey. Intentions of a naib to subordinate Adyghe of Turkey attracted the bulk of Adyghe a little.

The international situation which sharply aggravated by the beginning of the Crimean war led at the end of 1852 - the beginning of 1853 to hardening of positions of a naib in Circassia. Muhammad-Amin had to prepare in the Northwest Caucasus the general armed approach of mountaineers against Rossii23. "Since the beginning of 1853 large parties in - began to go into the disposal of a naib

unlimited equipment and gunpowder from Turkey. These receipts had to provide needs of troops Muhammad-Emin" 24.

Without having received the real help from the allies, the Turkish government was forced to develop military operations in the Caucasus. The natukhayevsky prince Sefer-bey Zahn who was in Adrianople received from the government Ports the directive to develop the activity in the Caucasus. It was entrusted to the prince the Turkish government in contact with Muhammad-Amin to organize the wide movement of mountaineers of Western Caucasus. The general control for activity both of them was imposed on Moustapha-pashu25.

Summer of 1853 Muhammad-Amin makes a campaign to Karachay for the purpose of further advance through Kabarda and Ossetia for connection with Shamil's forces. The way in Karachay Muhammad-Amin was blocked by the general N.I. Evdokimov. The conceived plan of invasion of allied troops to Western Caucasus was not carried completely out thanks to the fact that mountaineers of Western Caucasus in the bulk did not support a naib assembled of forces to the aid of Shamil. As a result of the developed circumstances naib in response to the persistent requirement of Shamil to move immediately through Karachay to Pyatigorsk it was forced to answer that he cannot make it, will not receive in an army reinforcement from Turtsii26 yet.

Spring of 1854 by a sultan firman Muhammad-Amin it was reported that "the nachalstvovaniye over all mountaineers from Terek to Anapa is entrusted to Seferbi-Pasha Za-nokov (from Shapsugs), and it is offered to mountaineers not to spare a stomach in fight for belief" 27.

The developed situation led to open opposition between naiby Shamil Muhammad-Amin and the natukhayevs-ky prince Sefer-bey Zahn. Sefer-bey began to reproach a naib that "he deceived the Turkish sultan that it gave out

itself in letters for the full owner of Circassians, and meanwhile leaves that he or does not want to give the help to Turks, or cannot because nothing means" 28.

Summer of 1855 at the call of Muhammad-Amin the western Adyghe strengthened combat operations in the Labinsk line. The main objective was in destroying the Belorechensk strengthening built in 1851. The second campaign organized the same year Muhammad-Amin to Karachay terminated in failure again. On August 25, 1855 in Kadyko's natural boundary there was a battle between troops under command of the general Kozlowski and a militia Muhammad-Amina29. As a result of this battle Muhammad-Amin was broken and ".s the party on August 27th came back from Karachaya" 30.

In November, 1855 the Adyghe performed several combat operations under leadership Muhammad-Amina31.

Attack in the night of December 29, 1855 of Sefer-bey's groups on Ekaterinodar was the last important event of the Caucasian war in the Northwest Caucasus. Having rushed into the city, they occupied the Quarters of Kuban, adjacent to river, but soon were beaten out with big poteryami32 from there. Rejected from Ekaterinodara Sefer-bey in the first of January, 1855 tried to make one more attempt to rush into Chernomoriya through Cordon liniyu33.

At the time of the conclusion of the Parisian world of Sefer-bey was in Anapa with a small amount of Circassians and family. Even before signing by warring powers of the world in Paris Sefer-bey Zahn addressed the Russian command with the message. In this message the prince reproached Russia "with intention to work with the armed hand" contrary to the prisoner Russia and Turkey peremiriyu34.

Sefer-bey Zahn in the message demanded not to take any military operations, guaranteeing in turn not to repair Russian pritesneniy35. By this time Sefer-bey could not but know that war is lost by Russia as before Sefer-

bey the embassy led by the son Karabatyr for the purpose of his representation to the Turkish government was sent to Constantinople.

Meanwhile royal command concentrated for occupation of Anapa where Circassians led by Sefer-bey Za - the number, 5 Black Sea linear and 1 Cossack pedestrian battalion, 1 Don and 1 Black Sea horse regiments, 12 lungs and 8 mountain tools stayed.

Having learned about approach of royal troops,

14 June, 1856 Adyghe left fortress, having subjected it to preliminary destruction. Having moved to the river Shebzh, Sefer-bey began to swear in actively Circassians of citizenship Turkish sultanu36.

At the end of 1856 the Russian command in the Northwest Caucasus began military operations against Sefer-bey who was during this period in Novorossiysk. On November 3 the group of the Russian troops as a part of two battalions of infantry, hundreds of Cossacks, a semi-squadron of mountaineers and 4 field tools under the team of the lieutenant colonel M.A. Tsakni left to Novorossiysk. Sefer-bey did not accept battle and ran in Neberdzhayskoye ushchelye37. Having located in the Nebedzhaysky gorge and having used withdrawal of the Russian troops from Novorossiysk, Sefer-bey continued to concern mountaineers. He assured them that in the shortest time for the Caucasus large forces of allies will be sent and that it will be created special mountain gosudarstvo38.

Shortly before it from Turkey by the English Kangaroo ship Muhammad-Amin39 came back. Naib brought from Constantinople paper in which it was specified that the sultan refuses the Caucasian mountaineers, but advises them to recognize the power of England which can always assist them against Russians.

In January, 1859 Sefer-bey Za-noko dies. War in the Northeast Caucasus declined. In 1859 the last stronghold of Shamil - the aul of Gunib fell. After razgro-

ma Shamil's movements were sent to the Northwest Caucasus big forces: 172 battalions of regular infantry and 13 battalions and 7 hundred irregular troops; cavalries of 20 squadrons the dragoon, 52 regiments, 5 squadrons and 13 hundred irregular, at 242 field orudiya40. "With falling of East Caucasus the prince Baryatinsky sends all front battalions of army to the Kuban region; and from concentration of such huge mass of cut weapon on Western Caucasus its fast conquest" 41 was also made.

Shamil's falling had the oppressing moral and psychological effect in Circassia. Muhammad-Amin who realized uselessness of further resistance and received the letter in which the imam suggested a naib most to make from Shamil

choice: to follow its example or to continue resistance, makes the decision to be given. On November 20, 1859 at a meeting with the general Mr. Filipson the abadzekhsky foremen took the oath on citizenship of Russia on conditions that "belief, the national rights and their earth remained inviolable that neither taxes, nor an obligation of military service" 42 were imposed on them. At the beginning of 1860 in Abadzekhiya the delegation at the head of which Muhammad-Amin left in Sankt-Petter - burg was created. There abadzekh took oath of allegiance to II43 imperatorualeksandr. After personal reception of a naib by the emperor in St. Petersburg it was granted lifelong pension of 3 thousand rubles and Muhammad-Amin was released on residence to Turkey.

1 Myuridizm - the religious trend which gained development in the North Caucasus during the Caucasian war.
2 Abadzekhi - the Adyghe (Circassian) tribe living in the 19th century on the Northwest slope of the Caucasian ridge in the valley of river. Béla and Laba River.
3 Sokolov of D. Haji-Magomet - Shamil's (historical information) associate//the Kuban collection. Ekaterinodar, 1904. T. XI. Page 53.
4 Gazavat - one of jihad forms (fight for belief) which is also called jihad of a sword i.e. armed struggle with incorrect.
5 Adats are pre-Islamic mountain legal customs on which public and private life of mountaineers was regulated.

Sharia - Muslim legal proceedings.

Mutazig (murtazik, mutazik, hadzhireta) - the mountain militarized militia created on a constant basis.

6 State Archive of Krasnodar Krai (SAKK). T. 261. Op. I. 621. L. 2.
7 Kipkeeva 3. B. People of Northwest and Central Caucasus Mountains: migration and resettlement (the 60th of the 18th century - 60 of the 19th century) M., 2006. Page 251.
8 Pokrovsk M.V. Essays of social and economic history of the Adygei tribes at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century. T. III: Myuridizm on Western Caucasus. Krasnodar, 1955. Page 11. (Manuscript.)
9 GAKK. T. 302. Op. I. 434. L. 12.
10 GAKK. T. 260. Op. I. 295. L. 270.
11 K.F. steel. An ethnographic essay of the Circassian people//the Russian authors of the 19th century about the people of Central and Northwest Caucasus Mountains. Nalchik, 2001. T. I. Page 206.
12 In the same place.
13shcherbina F.A. Istoriya of the Kuban Cossack army. Ekaterinodar, 1913. T. II. Page 450.
14 Acts of the Caucasian Arkheografichesky Commission (ACAC). Tiflis, 1884. T. IX. Part 2.

Page 39.

15 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 19.
16 GAKK. T. 261. 722. L. 21.
17 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 21.
18 GAKK. T. 261. Op. I. 722. L. 22.
19 A.D. Panesh. Haji-Muhammad and Suleyman-Efendiya's activity in the Northwest Caucasus (1842-1846)//Circassia in the 19th century: Materials of the 1st Koshekhablsky forum "History — Property of the People". Maykop, 1991. Page 104.
20 Steel of K.F.O emergence Muhammad-Amin in Circassia//the Caucasian Collection. Tiflis, 1900. T. XXI. Page 171.
21 Kipkeeea 3. B. Decree. soch. Page 261.
22 GAKK. T. 249. Op. I. 898. L. 526.
23 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 88.
24 In the same place. Page 133.
25 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 187-188.
26 In the same place. Page 192.
27 Russian State Military and Historical Archive (RSMHA). T. 32. Op. 7. 246. L. 3.
28 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 262.
29 D.G. Anuchin. An essay of the mountain people of the Right wing of the Caucasian line//the Russian authors of the 19th century about the people of Central and Northwest Caucasus Mountains. Nalchik, 2001. T. II. Page 296.
30 GAKK. T. 261. Op. I. 1646. L. 35.
31 Panesh A.D. Myuridizm and fight of Adyghe of the Northwest Caucasus for independence (18291864). Maykop. 2006. Page 91.
32 Essays of history of Kuban from the most ancient times to 1920 / an edition Entrance V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar, 1996. Page 261-262.
33 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 261.
34 RGVIA. T. 38. Op. 7. 313. L. 116.
35 In the same place. L. 116.
36 A.T. Kerashev. Political activity of the prince Sefer-Bey Zanoko in the years of the Caucasian war//National liberation fight of the people of the North Caucasus and a problem of a muhajirun. Nalchik, 1994. Page 226.
37 Pokrovsk M.V. Decree. soch. Page 272-273.
38 In the same place. Page 273.
39 Shamil is a protege of Sultan Turkey and the English colonialists. Tbilisi, 1953. Page 462.
40 Panesh A.D. Myuridizm and fight of Adyghe of the Northwest Caucasus for independence (18291864). Page 104.
41 M.Ya. Olszewski the Caucasus from 1841 to 1866. SPb., 2003. Page 477.
42zisserman A.L. Feldmarshal knyaz A.I. Baryatinsky/Russky archive. M, 1889. Prince 6. Page 112. The source is taken from work: T.V. Polovinkina Circassia - my pain. A historical essay (the most ancient time - the beginning of the 20th century). Maykop, 2001. Page 146.
43 T.V. Polovinkin. Decree. soch. Page 146.
May Michael
Other scientific works: