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KALMINA liliya


In article the policy of autocracy in relation to not radical ethnic groups in Transbaikalia which differed from all-imperial in bigger softness as exiled - the main source of their formation - were considered by regional administration not so much as criminals, how many as the kolonizatsionny element necessary for development of the region is considered.

The article studies the policy towards ethnic groups of Transbaikal region which was characterized with greater soft-heartedness than one, common to the whole Empire because exiles were the main source of their development being treated by the local administration mainly not as criminals but the colonization element vitally important for regional development.

ethnic policy, diaspora, regional features, colonization, confessional identity; ethnic policy, diaspora, regional peculiarities, colonization, confessional identity.

The ethnic policy was always one of priority activities of the multinational state. Though the stubborn international conflicts are not inevitable and are not predetermined by the nature of ethnicity and the fact of coexistence of various nationalities within one gosudarstva1, the ethnic heterogeneity, nevertheless, bears in itself some conflictogenic potential. Therefore issues of formation of ethnopolitical strategy of the state remain topical, being modified according to the whole complex of circumstances.

As an autocracy policy priority for the non-russian people served internal and external security: the ethnic heterogeneity objectively posed a threat of integrity of the empire. For several centuries of its designing of the politician concerning "the national outskirts" varied depending on degree of loyalty of the last. The movement of the non-russian people so dangerous to stability and unity of the empire, as well as revolutionary, was subject to immediate suppression. When ensuring socio-political stability with non-russian elite in the regions they were accepted in quality partnerov2. In the last decades 19th century the polyalternativeness of ethnic policy was replaced by great-power approach to the rights not orthodox naseleniya3. But, though the Russian policy in relation to the different people also found the accruing tendency to repressions and the strengthened unification, idea of consecutive russification for the purpose of transformation of the Russian Empire into the uniform integral national state would be too simplified. The ethnic policy was not one-dimensional neither in time, nor in space and was differentiated at different stages and different territories. The autocracy understood impossibility of submission

1 V.A. Tishkov. Ethnology and policy. — M, 2005, page 52 — 53.
2 A. Kappeler Russia is the multinational empire. — M, 2000, page 183.
3 Islam in the Russian Empire (acts, descriptions, statistics / structure. D.Yu. Arapov. - M, 2001, page 24.


Vladimirovna —

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the outskirts of the empire to action of all-imperial legal norms in full objeme1.

Siberia among suburban regions held a specific place as edge of the exile and penal servitude with the corresponding legislative and territorial device and at the same time the region of active colonization, an object of a potential investment of considerable funds. The government pinned special hopes on Transbaikalia in view of its important geopolitical role for an exit in the Central Asian space, however difficult climatic conditions, the backwardness of infrastructure and an adverse demographic situation complicated colonization of this region which social and economic development considerably lagged behind other Siberian territories. It in many respects caused regional features of ethnic policy, including in relation to not radical ethnic groups which though in general and followed in line with imperial policy, differed in considerable independence.

In spite of the fact that the reference was the main component of the ethnic communities which appeared in the region as diaspora, the policy in relation to them was softer, than in "mother countries" — territories of their compact accommodation and places of "outcome" to Siberia. First, unlike the central power for which the retaliatory value of the reference was the most important the regional power considered exiled, first of all, as the kolonizatsionny element necessary for economic development regiona2. Secondly, not radical ethnic groups — Poles, Tatars, Jews — were small and, owing to the remoteness from the bulk of brothers in faith and long-term life in "dispersion", had no political impact and did not constitute danger to the empire.

Independence of regional ethnic policy is especially noticeable in the attitude towards Poles. After the revolts 1831 and

1 I.L. Dameshek. The Russian outskirts in the imperial strategy of the power (the beginning of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries). — Irkutsk, 2005, page 155 — 156.
2 A.V. Remnev. Autocracy and Siberia at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century: problems of regional government//National history, 1994,

No. 2, page 67.

1863 — 64 in the opinion of the empire they became disturbers of public tranquility who can be bridled only cruel repressions and therefore for, at least, four decades they prevailed among state criminals in number and defined shape of political exile. However in the explored region the Poles were almost privileged "estate" which was freely engaged in intellectual work though it and for them was forbidden by Rules on the device of life of the Poles banished to Siberia. While official St. Petersburg which was desperately afraid of their activity "in the antigovernment purposes" forbade them to be engaged in education of children, teaching, the maintenance of pharmacies, printing houses, photos, to have medical practice, to serve in government agencies, etc., the regional administration willingly satisfied applications of exiled of Polish physicians on permission to arrive on regular civil service on medical department, being guided by healthy pragmatism. Among exiled of Poles was many experienced doctors, teachers and other experts whose acute shortage suffered region3.

of the Politician in relation to the Muslim people in the region in general copied imperial option: assistance to economic and spiritual development at the state control of extent of distribution of Islam. At a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries, with strengthening of a trend of modernization of life of Muslims by reforming of a system of religious education and introduction into the Muslim culture of the European cultural values (Jadidism) and also politicization of the movement of the dzhadid demanding broad self-government of Muslims in questions of religion and education and independent jurisdiction in some areas of the right, the autocracy considerably toughened control of the system of Islamic education. Aspiration of Muslim educators to uluchshe-

3 Mulina S.A. Polish physicians are in the West Siberian exile//History and the culture of Poles in Siberia: the collection of materials of the interregional academic and research conference "History and Culture of Poles of Siberia" of 2005 — 2006 is Krasnoyarsk, 2006, page 37 — 38; B.S. Shostakovich. Poles in Siberia: digression to history//Poles in Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude, 1996, page 56.

a niya of cultural, legal and economic life of Muslims it was regarded as political activity, and the societies pursuing the similar aims were exposed goneniyam1, and the empire considered Pan-Islamism distribution one of the most serious for itself dangers even in territories with insignificant percent musulman2. We have all bases to assume that the Muslim communities of Transbaikalia remained outside influence of the ideas of Pan-Islamism. For its distribution to areas there was no base: sufficient education level of local Muslims (any of them did not get an education above initial), an extensive network of national schools which, as a rule, become conductors of the national ideas and are if not the only thing, then, at least, the main institute of impact on public consciousness. But it is necessary to recognize that remoteness from confessional "continent", the small number and dispersion of resettlement of Muslims in the area (on a census of 1897 they made only 0.48% it naseleniya3) could dull vigilance of police bodies which did not show office eagerness in search and eradication of sedition. At least, the Irkutsk provincial gendarme management could not find "any secret society in the province", having reported in department of police that "the actual activity after implementation of the mentioned enterprise is still absolutely imperceptible, and business it remains only in the field of the assumptions so far" 4 though the ideas of Pan-Islamism rather deeply got into mentality of the Irkutsk Muslims and played a significant role lives of the Tatar community of Irkutsk" 5.

Regional policy on the relation

1 To us I.V. Ethnic minorities of Siberia and the Far East on a historic breakthrough (1917 — 1922). — Tomsk, 2009, page 78.
2 State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF), t. 102, DPOO, op. 241. 1911, 74, Part 27, l. 1.
3 The first General population census of the Russian Empire. T. KHHGU Transbaikal region. — SPb., 1904, page 23, 62 — 63.
4 GARF, t. 102. DPOO, op. 241. 1911, 74, Part 27, l. 1.
5 G.I. Bobkova. History of the Tatar communities

The Irkutsk province of the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century:

avtoref. yew.... to. and. N — Irkutsk, 2006, page 20.

to Jews in general followed in a waterway of all-imperial policy of discrimination and a segregation — perhaps, at first sight, even in more rigid option. Restriction in movement on the region with borders of the volost or county that did not practice on the attitude towards any other ethnic group, allowed to introduce for scientific use term "Siberian line of the Jewish settled life" 6. This unique phenomenon when "living space" of each representative of the Jewish ethnos was strictly limited to a framework of a certain territory which he had no right to leave without special permission. Obviously, the pale of settlement as a habitual form of control of the Jewish activity was generated by inertia of the state anti-Semitism which conductors were officials of various rank who arrived from the center. However the legislation on the Siberian pale of settlement gave in to realities of the Siberian life: Jews with ease bypassed it, rather freely moving on the region and living out of places of their actual addition. The existing legislation we see the reasons of neglect of the regional power in the following. First, the uncertainty in statutes allowing their most various interpretation and that bringing performing discipline on places almost to naught. Secondly, physical inability of local administration at a huge set of cases such to control their exact execution. And at last — undoubted benefit which Jews brought to edge the economic activity that was recognized at the level the general guber-natorov7. For Jews, more other ethnic groups adapted for process of capitalization of economy which was endured by Siberia in the colonized region the unprecedented scope for economic activity opened. It allowed them, despite double legal lameness (as exiled and as actually Jews), in a short space of time to become

6 L.V. Kalmina. The Jewish communities of Eastern Siberia (the middle of H_H of century — February, 1917). — Ulan-Ude, 2003, page 49-60.
7 State Archive of the Irkutsk Region (SAIR), t. 25, op. 9, to. 917, 26, l. 259, 384-385; Irkutsk governor general. The Vsepoddanneyshy report for 1900-1901 — Irkutsk, 1901, page 70.

very noticeable in economy of edge and to reach a leading position in its many industries. But the role of Jews in economy of Transbaikalia looks a phenomenon even against the background of their impressive merits in development of Siberia in general: here they were not simply noticeable — they made business elite of area. The percent of Jews in merchant guilds of the Transbaikal cities reached 70 though their share in urban population did not exceed 15%, and among merchants of the first guild the Jews made absolute majority. In 1908 in Chita from 46 firms the Jews owned 20, in Nerchinsk from 21 — 12, in the village Sretenka of 30 — 22. From five companies having the shipping companies three belonged evreyam1. In the regional center Chita it possessed all meat trade, a half of trade in fat goods, iron and other metals, the most part of trade in jewelry, paint and varnish products, perfumery, tanning goods, the wood. The local government in every possible way encouraged business activity of Jews they as the developed carriers of the capitalist relations taught the region with delay entering a new economic system, to capitalism therefore rather often closed eyes to violation of the legislation by them.

The lack of the violent address to orthodox belief was regional Siberian feature — transition to it was stimulated only with various privileges. For example, the Polish confederates in 1773 — 1774 the researchers connect mass adoption of Orthodoxy with acceptance in 1773. The decree about "a neposy-laniye to Siberia on the settlement of the Polish confederates which apprehended orthodox Greek-Russian belief and about their leaving in a free state". Though in the decree it was talked of the confederates which are not sent to Siberia, in Siberia yet, apparently, this order was apprehended as a possibility of return on rodinu2. Tatars to christianization were induced by partial release from

1 All Irkutsk with department of the Transbaikal region for 1908. — Irkutsk, 1908, otd. V. Transbaikal region, stb. 19 — 22.
2 A.A. Krikh. Lordly confederates on the settlement in Tara (last third of HUGGG of century)//History and the culture of Poles in Siberia: the collection of materials of the interregional academic and research conference "History and Culture of Poles of Siberia" of 2005 — 2006 is Krasnoyarsk, 2006, page 25.

payments of taxes and military service and as settlers they received new privileges. Jews changed religion more often than others — for obtaining the right of free movement or education bypassing the percentage quota established for them. The fact that christianization exempted the Jew from legal discrimination, can be considered as the reliable indicator of the relation of the authorities to Judaism. However the refusal of it did not bring desired equality as in this case the emphasis was placed on ethnic origin of the Jew.

Opening of spiritual institutions of different religions in Siberia in general and in Transbaikalia in particular, with rare exception, did not meet obstacles. Defining at permission to opening was in number strengthened diaspora found thirst for spiritual life. In particular, the Nerchinsk Rome - with to - Catholic parish was discovered after the reference of participants of a revolt of 1831, a synagogue in Verkhneudinsk and in the Petrovsky Plant of the Verkhneudinsky district here — in 1882 when local Jewish diasporas were already numerous and financially samodostatochnymi3. And here the first mosque which appeared in the regional center of the Transbaikal region Chita only in 1901 long time remained is uniform-stvennoy4 while in the Irkutsk province at a boundary of HGH — XX of centuries they were already 235. However the reason of so late beginning of full-fledged confessional life of the Transbaikal Muslims should not be looked for in nuances of ethnic policy in Transbaikalia or fears of Muslim proselytism in the area. On the contrary, though in one of the Muslim communities of the region two hundred independent male householders put under the law for opening of the mosque were not registered it did not become an obstacle in departure of spiritual needs of local Muslims. In the Mohammedan arrivals subordinated to the Orenburg spiritual meeting, any number of believers was allowed

3 N. Grebenshchikov, O. Polyanskaya. Poles are Cossacks of Siberia//Poles in Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude, 2005, issue V, page 37; L.V. Kalmina, L.V. Kuras. The Jewish community in the Western Transbaikalia (the 60th years of the 19th century — February, 1917). — Ulan-Ude, 1999, page 107.
4 The Siberian commerce and industry calendar for 1910 — Tomsk, 1910, otd. V, page 226.
5 G.I. Bobkova. Decree. soch., page 18.

for opening of the mosque — at "lack of temptation to belief for the Christians and novokreshchenny Tatars living together with Mohammedans" 1. The reason of late opening of mosques in the region was only in small number, the low social status and education level of the Transbaikal Muslims that long did not allow them to make the reasonable petition. In the first decade of the 20th century, with the advent of steady Tatar and Polish diasporas in the district city of Verkhneudinsk, permission to opening of a Catholic church and the Tatar mosque was received by them without zatrudneniy2.

In spite of the fact that even after cancellation in 1900 of the mass reference the Irkutsk Governorate-General remained "the only place of the reference to the settlement from all areas of the European and Asian Russia" 3 and, therefore, the reference remained a considerable source of replenishment of diasporas in the region, the ethnic policy was pursued in softer option here, than in the western parts of the empire. First, because diasporas were considered by the Siberian administration, first of all, as the kolonizatsionny element designed to contribute to development of economy

1 SZRI. Prod. 1900. T. XII, Part 1. The charter Builds., Chapter 5, Article 155; PSZRI. SOBR. the third. - SPb., 1888, t. 6, otd. 1, page 532-533.
2 National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB), t. 10, op. 1. 1877, l. 2; 2346, l. 2.
3 The Vsepoddanneyshy report of the Irkutsk governor general for 1910-1911 - B. of m, b., page 36.

and the cultures of edge, and Transbaikalia as the most backward economically, but the perspective region needed fast capitalization. Secondly, owing to remoteness of not radical ethnic groups from the bulk of brothers in faith and their disperse resettlement, any separatist tendencies posing threat to security of the empire were absent. At last, the spiritual institutions which were the keeper of confessional identity appeared in the region rather late and had no significant effect on his political life. As the region of great opportunities and future solid investments, Transbaikalia at the beginning of the 20th century began to attract free immigrants more and more, including from ethnic minorities which pinned on it hopes to earn money, to promote and avoid extremes in the ethnic policy of the state which their brothers in faith in the western provinces of the empire faced.

Today the interethnic situation in Transbaikalia remains one of the most stable in Russia that is explained by a geopolitical role of the region ("gate on the East"), features of formation of its population, decades arriving here from all regions of the country and the policy of promotion of migration inflow which was traditionally pursued by local administration for economic development of edge.

Irma Campbell
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