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Agrarian policy of the Mountain government in 1917-1919



o. M. Mamayev

AGRARIAN POLICY of the MOUNTAIN GOVERNMENT In 1917-1919

Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Dagestan state university. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor A.G. Dalgatov

In article it is told about agrarian policy in the Union of the integrated mountaineers of the North Caucasus and Dagestan, and then in the Mountain Republic in severe years of Civil war and opposition in the North Caucasus. Much attention is paid to matter solutions in the multinational region.

The article is devoted to the agricultural policy in the Union of incorporated mountaineers of the Northern Caucasus and Dagestan and then in the Mountain Republic during the severe years of the civil war and confrontation in the Northern Caucasus. Special attention is paid to the problem of this problem&s solution in the multinational region.

Events in February, 1917 in Russia promoted creation of sovereign state education in the North Caucasus. The first attempt of creation to Suva -

renny state education the representatives of the mountain intellectuals who gathered in March, 1917 in Vladikavkaz made. To the forthcoming congress since March on

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May, 1917 was prepared a number of documents. All these documents were discussed at the I congress of the mountain people of the Caucasus which took place on May 1-10, 1917. On it the Interim Central Committee of the Union of the integrated mountaineers of the North Caucasus and Dagestan, since November, 1917 - the Mountain government was created. The union served as legislative and executive body in the territory of the Dagestan, Kuban and Tersky regions, the Stavropol and Black Sea provinces, the Zac-talsky district and Abkhazii1. Unrecognized national and territorial autonomous education paid special attention to the solution of an agrarian question. The final decision of an agrarian question, according to the Union, was competence of the Constituent assembly. And before its convocation the property right of the people of the North Caucasus to the earth, forests and waters occupied by them was proclaimed. For providing landless and land-poor mountaineers with the earth it was supposed to transfer them free state lands of Country land bank within accommodation of mountaineers of Northern Kavkaza2. In the report of agrarian section at the 1st congress of the mountain people of the Caucasus on May 6, 1917 it was emphasized: "The congress finds necessary: that the lands, forests and waters which are taken away by treasury from mountaineers and other nationalities which are a part of the Union of the integrated mountaineers were immediately returned to these people and, at last, that all free state lands of Country land bank within the territory of the mountain population and adjacent treated her immediately for providing with the earth the landless and land-poor mountaineers and other nationalities who entered into Alliance of the integrated mountaineers" 3.

Heads of the Union of mountaineers of the Caucasus understood those difficulties which they should face at the solution of an agrarian question, in particular the shortage of the earth for mountaineers. In 1917 the shower plot at peasants of Chechnya made 1.2 desyatinets, Kabarda and

Ingushetia - 0.3 tithes, Ossetia - 0.4 desyatiny4. The considerable territory of the Union of mountaineers of the Caucasus was not suitable for agriculture and represented the rocky area. Heads of the Union of mountaineers of the Caucasus intended to solve the developed land hunger at the expense of lands of the Terr - sky area which area was 6.6 million tithes. The shower plot of tersky Cossacks made from 8 to 23 tithes zemli5. But, despite this, the tersky Cossacks did not intend to give the earth to mountaineers, and on this basis between them there were frequent conflicts.

However on the eve of civil war, in the conditions of a social and political, international distemper to solve an agrarian problem in so short time it was impossible. It, in our opinion, became one of the main reasons of falling of prestige of new autonomy, withdrawal from it to a certain part of mountaineers.

In April, 1918 the Union of the integrated mountaineers of the North Caucasus and Dagestan addressed to a number of the states of Europe with a request for recognition of the government of the Mountain Republic. On May 11, 1918 at the Batumi international conference it was declared creation of the Mountain Republic both its recognition by Ottoman Turkey and Germaniyey6.

The government of the Mountain Republic stated that it intends to resolve "first of all" radically an agrarian question, based on the principle "the earth is transferred to workers" 7. It is necessary to pay tribute to the government of the new republic which accurately realized extreme relevance of the solution of the land question. This question was particularly acute so in the North Caucasus already from the second half of the 19th century that without its successful decision it was impossible to speak seriously about any other transformations, revolutionary changes, the better life. At the heart of the movement of the peasantry in the North Caucasus at the beginning of the 20th century, except for the Cossacks,

Agrarian policy of the mountain government in 1917-1919

"still there was an agrarian question which is closely interconnected with national policy and the international relations" 8.

From November, 1918 to April, 1919 the government carried out accounting of state and privately owned lands, defined what number of suitable lands was available for each rural society, number of suitable lands under various cultures, were carried out boundary works. The government began to provide state lands to needy mountaineers in temporary use to permission of the land question at the Constituent assembly.

For clarification of a question of how under Sharia can be and the agrarian question has to be resolved, on January 20, 1919 in mountain parliament took place with - broadcasting of the minister of agriculture A. Butayev with the members of parliament who are experts on Sharia. After long and thorough discussion of a question the following became clear: under Sharia all lands which are taken away from the people have to be returned to the people. All experts on Sharia who are present at a meeting agreed with this basic position. According to them, it is necessary to define first of all the nature of possession, to find out whether this earth is taken away from the people, whether it is violated at emergence of this possession the interest of the people. And if possession has those signs which do it by property national, then such earth cannot be in private possession. Having found out this main question, discussed an order and ways of transfer of the earth to the people. About it the meeting did not accept concrete instructions. On waters the invited alims spoke in the sense that water under Sharia cannot be a subject of private possession. This question was resolved by Sharia, and the owner of the bought land is obliged to concede under Sharia so much earth how many it is necessary for use of water and water bogatstvami9.

Turned with the resolution of Council of ministers the gardens, vineyards and other possession left by owners into maintaining the ministry. By March, 1919 not less than 500 tithes which are of enormous value went into the disposal of the ministry gardens and vineyards. That these valuable possession were not gone for edge, they were under control of the Ministry of agriculture. As for manors of agricultural character, it is easy to operate them, and they gave up the person in need in arendu10. The amount of the rent fluctuated ranging from 20 up to 30% of a harvest of this territory depending on location, difficulty or ease of processing. Demanded pledges at the rate from 500 to 1000 rub from tithe from tenants. In case of performance by the tenant of the undertaken obligations the brought pledges were credited to the rent at final raschete11.

In April, 1919 the parliament of the Mountain Republic started discussion of an agrarian question again. In a basis of the solution of an agrarian question most of deputies put forward the idea of socialization of the earth, but when business reached development of the agrarian legislation, deputies of parliament and members of the government postponed its decision, considering that the law on socialization of the earth cannot practically be carried out.

Deputies of parliament came to a conclusion about need to prepare the population for carrying out agrarian reform and painless permission of this question. In April, 1919 the parliament of the Mountain Republic suggested the government to draft in the shortest possible time the bill of transfer of lands to hands of workers on the basis of socialization without violation of Sharia and to create the parliamentary commission for learning - a stiya in development governmental zakonoproekta12. Were elected to the parliamentary agrarian commission: from socialists - Akhmedhan Mutushev and Sayfutdin Kuvarsha-

fishing, from shariatist - Yusup-Qadi Gasanov, to Shikh Qadi Adzhiyev and Magomed Amin Ar-guaranskiy13.

On April 27, 1919 the minister of agriculture and the state imushchestvo A. Butayev acted in Allied Council of the Mountain Republic for an agrarian question. He specified that there is a lot of earth within the Mountain Republic, but the considerable part of this territory was not under control of the Mountain Republic. It was impossible to resolve an agrarian question only in a narrow framework of Dagestan. According to the minister A. Butayev, in the territory of Dagestan there were 1.7 million tithes of the earth from the population - eat in 800 thousand people, i.e. 2 tithes on soul. But it is right only theoretically. Naked rocks and inaccessible mountains structure - lyal the overwhelming number of the mentioned area of the earth. And if to take a little suitable part of this earth, then, perhaps, the tithe is not necessary on soul and two tenth. According to A. Butayev, "in the narrow scale of one Dagestan the agrarian question of the Mountain Republic cannot be resolved" 14. This circumstance was considered by the government and caused that the question of the earth was not brought by the government. Speaking about the done work, A. Butayev said: "State lands

it are presented to needy mountaineers to use, until special permission of the land question. There is that modest serious work which was done by the Ministry of Agriculture still. To make and carry out the Law on socialization of the earth through legislative institution is one. But to realize this law is absolutely other. I would assume to introduce this law on your approval when I would be able to carry out the next day this law" 15.

As a result, from 1917 to 1919 the Central Committee of the Union of mountaineers of the Caucasus, the tersko-Dagestan government, and then and the mountain government could not start productive agrarian transformations, it was promoted in no small measure by the situation heated to a limit in the North Caucasus where in a furious political fight several influential forces at the same time faced: Bolsheviks, Union of mountaineers of the Caucasus, Cossack regiment of L.F. Bicherakhov, Volunteer army of the general A.I. Denikin. By one of the most important requirements of country masses - the bill on the earth - it was not realized in practice. All this led to narrowing of a social base of the mountain government, deterioration in its situation, and further and to its falling.

1 Hand-written fund of institute of History, archeology and ethnography of the Dagestan scientific center RAS. T. 2. It. 1. 57. L. 16-18.
2 IIAE DNC RAS hand-written fund. T. 2. Op. 1. 57. L. 8.
3 In the same place. L.8.
4 Union of the integrated mountaineers of the North Caucasus and Dagestan (1917-1918). Mountain republic (1918-1920): Documents and materials. Makhachkala, 1994. Page 393.
5 In the same place. Page 394.
6 A. Takho-Godi. Revolution and a counterrevolution in Dagestan. Makhachkala, 1927. Page 61-62.
7 Central State archive of the Republic of Dagestan. T. 261-r. Op. 1. 10. L. 2.
8 V.D. Dzidzoyev. An economic and social and political condition of North Ossetia in the head of the 20th age (1900-1917) Vladikavkaz, 2002. Page 75.
9 Dagestan. 1919. No. 32. Page 4.
10 Central State archive of the Republic of Dagestan. T. 621. Op. 1. 63. L. 89.
11 In the same place. L. 34.
12 IIAE DNC RAS F hand-written fund. 2. Op. 1. 58. L. 14.
13 Bulletin of the Mountain Republic.1919. No. 5. Page 5.
14 In the same place. No. 6. Page 3.
15 In the same place. No. 6. Page 4.
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