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Old Belief in Liflyandiya during Nicholas I's era. Establishment of the Riga vikariatstvo

igumen Mikhail (Krastelev)


At the beginning of the 19th century in Baltic kraye1 the Old Belief became widespread. Rendering counteraction to Old Belief in the Governorate of Livonia was one of the main reasons because of which the decision on establishment in Riga of hierarchal department was made. In 1836 the Riga vikariatstvo of the Pskov diocese which then grew in independent orthodox Church of Latvia was founded. Riga Irinarkh (Popov) who subsequently became the archbishop Ryazan was appointed the first bishop.

Old Believers for the first time appeared in the territory of the Baltics in 1659 to 2 It objective processes, in particular prosecution of Old Believers in the territory of Russia at the end of the 17th century from where they ran promoted or were sent. On the lands of the Baltics which were at this time under the domination of Swedes out of reach of the Russian government and then on the outskirts of the Russian Empire the Old Believers felt safe.

The territory of Livonia as a result of the Polish-Swedish war to the middle of the 17th century was absolutely devastated and ruined. From 1657 to 1661 in Kurland epidemic of plague what was not already a little stoletiy3 raged. The population was sharply reduced here, many pashenny lands were abandoned and turned into heathlands. In such conditions the local landowners were interested in inflow of runaway peasants from the Russian provinces, providing them the earth for rent and other privileges.

Conservatives lodged in Liflyandiya, in the duchy Kurland and in the territory of modern Latgale which after the Livonian war departed since 1581 to Poland. About resettlement of fugitives in the territory belonging to Poland "to the Polish Power otje-ha at summer 7207", it is reported in "Life" of the founder of a fedoseevshchina Feodosiy of Vasilyeva4 who in 1694 was directed by Novgorodians abroad for prevention of connection of the conservatives living there with "nikoniansky church" 5. Feodosiy executed the task assigned to it successfully and "in general got in that region strong influence" 6.

From where the name of conservatives of Liflyandiya went, the official of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Yu.F. Samarin reports; he writes that Feodosiy Vasilyev "entrained bodice-lyandsky dissenters who were nicknamed his name" 7.

Soon the number of conservatives in Liflyandiya even more increases as a result of flight them from northwest regions of Russia. This resettlement gains big scope in the first half of the 18th century, especially as a result of Peter I's reforms.

In the territory of Liflyandiya the immigrants were engaged mainly in agriculture, but some of them were proved in the cities. For example, the large number of conservatives lodged in Yakobshtadt (EkarY8) which acquired the rights of the city in 1670. In the first quarter of the 18th century strengthening of inflow of conservatives to Riga is observed.

After Liflyandiya's joining to Russia the administration on places actually remained the same therefore position of conservatives at first almost did not change, and they still were out of reach of government officials from St. Petersburg and St. The synod also continued to live according to rules of the belief.

In the letter of the archimandrite Markel Radyshevsky in St. The synod in August, 1723 it is reported that many Riga dissenters not to take communion in "a sacred forty day fast, poukhodil" and are nearby in Kurland but only not in time to take cover "it was written down a shower more than five hundred" 8. About growth in Kurland of number of the Russian merchants dissenters and "any fluent" 9 it is reported to them in the report from Elgava (E1-gava), followed in July, 1724

The Old Believers who moved on Liflyandiya's territory gradually got to full serfdom from local landowners. At the same time, from the middle of the 18th century, runaway peasants more often lodge not in the remote farms, and settle in "commerce and industry villages, and also on the outskirts and in suburbs of the cities" 10 where production developed.

Soon the city Old Belief communities began to be the organizations which could provide to runaway peasants a shelter and the shelter. At this time in city communities quickly there is a process of property differentiation: on the one hand it is the adherents of "ancient piety" ruined, killed with need 11, and with another - their prosperous brothers in faith: merchants, house owners, owners of the enterprises.

In Riga already from the middle of the 18th century there is one of the largest in the Russian Empire fedoseevsky obshchin12. In 1760, in Elizabeth Petrovna's reign, in the building of the merchant of the first guild S. Dyakonov it was based Old Belief hram13 and at it almshouse, "Fedor Nikiforovich Samansky's blessing" 14.

Fig. 1. Riga Grebenshchikovsky Old Belief community, 18th century, modern look. Photo.

Molenny was located in the small wooden building. In 1812 the constructions were destroyed by fire, new brick buildings of "The Riga Charitable hospital and Church of the Nativity and Prechistyya his Mother Uspeniya" 15 are soon built.

Positions of the Riga community especially became stronger after a release in 1762 of Catherine II's manifesto calling the running Old Believers will return to Russia. Some privileges were provided to them: for six years they were exempted from any taxes and works, had the right to register in the state peasants or even merchants. Other decrees cancelled many former restrictions, such as double tax, the office was destroyed special "raskolnichya".

Inflow of conservatives increases in Rigu16, at the end of the 18th century in the city there was the second temple, and in 1809 - the third. "The Riga Old Belief society had three molenny at this time. The main chapel was located in Grebenshchikovsky almshouse, new near Lutheran church of Christ Redeemer on Spasskaya Street of the Moscow forshtadt, the third was near the Pokrovsk cemetery" 17. In the second half of the 18th century the considerable centers of resettlement of Old Believers were Rezekne and especially Daugavpils. This fact strongly disturbed the empress, recognition of it contains in the senatorial report of 1775 in which it is offered to construct for the purpose of counteraction to split at the expense of treasury orthodox churches in Rezekne and Dinaburge18.

The power in the Old Belief communities appeared in hands of merchants and large house owners that found the reflection in so-called "Rules" of the Riga Old Believers accepted in 1813 and approved as the governor general on February 28, 1828 which "provided to the Riga staroverets big freedom in affairs vnutrennyago managements" 19.

The twentieth years of the 19th century are the period of special blossoming of the Riga Old Belief community which had except hospital, of almshouse, a shelter for orphans, already the also school at which in 1829 110 children studied. N.S. Leskov wrote about it: "Fortress and prosperity of the Riga Old Believers' community which had the hospitals, the plants, granges and schools when they and to mention were not in Moscow any more surprised all" 20.

N. Leskov in the book "About Dissenters of the City of Riga, Mainly in the Relation to Schools" points to freedom of action of the Riga Old Believers in education. The Old Belief school existed in Riga at Grebenshchikovsky community with a permission of the civil authorities, it was in it along with hospital, big molenny, cells of mentors and singing.

Control of school was exercised by department of the Riga Order of Public Prizreniya, and directly it submitted to supervision of the local director of schools. The shklovsky petty bourgeois Yemelyanov training children to reading, the letter and arithmetics was a teacher at school.

From representation of the Riga civil governor E.F. von Felkersam to the governor general baron M.I. Palen of August 15, 1830 for No. 72 it is visible that "the petty bourgeois Dorofei Dmitrievich Yemelyanov has the certificate from the provincial director of schools, it is given out on September 28, 1828 for No. 649 on the right of teaching at initial school" 21.

Leskov especially notes that the government "did not pay any attention from the date of its basis to this school", and the greatest interest, from the point of view of Old Believers, it represented not as pedagogical establishment, and as a shelter in which "selected from streets" poor children.

The famous Old Believers historian I. Zavoloko emphasizes that "Using protection of local government, the Riga Old Believers opened the second school" 22. He quotes E. Cheshikhin: "To the extreme surprise, learned that in the center of Riga there is purely Old Belief school with the teacher - the Old Believer" 23.

The boys trained at school were taken under the guardianship by members of the Old Belief community, they were attached in benches to dealers, or in pupils to handicraftsmen, and gifted sent to chorus for prayful singing. Working, thus, the community joined further own ranks, at the same time used all available ways: "family relations, wealth and different cunnings of the mentors and tutors, - hitherto manage to seduce much, - especially young, homeless poor people and all credulous gawks from Russians annually in the spring on planes in a set arriving in Riga, a naipacha from passportless" 24.

If in 1816 in Riga there were 2112 Old Believers, then in 1826 - 5424, and in 1830 lived already 7904 staroobryadtsa25 here. Such rapid growth of number of conservatives speaks, the fact that the oppression of Lutheran landowners constantly led to ruin of peasants and flight them to the city where they looked for work and the shelter.

So in the report of the governor general Palen in 1830 it is reported about "incredible multiplication of dissenters in Riga", and that they cover fluent, get them false passports, etc. 26

As follows from the official report of the Riga chief of police Vakulsky of December 20, 1835, in Riga lived among Old Believers 150 krestyan27. Possibly, it were those who by this time could not issue transition to other estate.

Local authorities which basis was formed by the German nobility testing hatred to all Russian and consequently, and to the Orthodox Christian, with connivance from -

rushed to distribution and multiplication of Old Belief on Baltic lands. The archimandrite Pavel writes about the reason of increase in number of the Riga Old Believers: "thanks to a lack of unselfishness and respect for the law of police officers and on hatred of the German authorities to Orthodox Christians" 28.

According to documents, "passportless" Old Believers, and "not only non-residents, but also from other province" 29 lived in Riga, Ekabpils, Daugavpils, Elgava and in other cities of the Governorate of Livonia. Growth of number of conservatives was promoted also by frequent cases "evasion from Orthodoxy in split" what tell dela30 offices of the ostzeysky governor general about: the number of conservatives in Riga "constantly increases new accessions" 31.

Transition to split was facilitated by the fact that in the Governorate of Livonia the orthodox church was weak and could not resist rather vigorously to the Old Belief using sympathy of the local Lutheran authorities seeing acting through Orthodoxy of the opponent.

But mainly passed into Old Belief because many runaway peasants and the ruined citizens needed support from a certain organization which the Old Belief community was, at the same time prosperous heads it in turn received cheap labor.

About the number of Old Believers, their chapels and other sectarians in Liflyandiya for 1836 it is possible to judge by the sheet "About Old Believers and dissenters of different soglasiya and sects across the Governorate of Livonia for 1836" 32. According to this Sheet in Riga are registered at molenny in the Grebenshchikovsky "poor institution" 253 persons, in New molenny 13 people, in molenny 14 people live in the house of the merchant Panin on the St. Petersburg forshtadt. Skoptsov in Riga - 33 persons.

In Riga of "dissenters of different soglasiya of bespopovets" 33 are registered: men of 3370 people, women of 4390 people, landowner peasants of 220 people.

Such increase in number of conservatives, their actions for "seduction of Orthodox Christians in split" with the connivance of local authorities, very much disturbed the government therefore rendering counteraction to Old Belief in the Governorate of Livonia, was one of the main reasons because of which the decision on establishment in Riga of hierarchal department was made.

At the beginning of 1836 it became known that several Old Believers merchants from Riga Old Belief molenny showed verbal willingness to join edinoverchesky Church. Knowing concern of the sovereign in a situation in Liflyandiya in an issue of "split", the St. Synod accepted this initiative of local Old Believers with approval.

This desire was brought to the sovereign who stated in this regard to the Synod the following thought: "it would not be useful to arrange in Riga the new diocese, as in one of the most considerable cities of the Empire; it is worth to remember that eventually many noble surnames through marriages become Russians and profess our belief; thus in Riga the confluence of Russians is very big and absence of the highest ecclesiastic, maybe, promotes split strengthening. If a thought I wash the Synod will accept, to choose the person clever reliable and approximate by qualities of heart that with a conversation to attract zabluzhdenny" 34.

At the same time, the emperor charged St. To state to the synod the offer: "that it is more useful to orthodox Church in Liflyandiya and Kurland: whether opening of independent hierarchal department or establishment of a vikariatstvo of the Pskov diocese?" 35

17 June, 1836 the Synod chief prosecutor, the count N.A. Protasov declared to the Holy Synod that the sovereign the emperor gave on June 13, 1836 the consent to the offer of the Holy Synod on establishment in Riga of a vikariatstvo.

In the decree of the Holy Synod No. 8021 of June 29, 1836 to the bishop to Pskov Nafa-nailu36, it was reported about establishment of the Riga vikariatstvo this decree, is in case No. 265 of archive Riga spiritual consistorii37.

The St. Synod submitted for consideration of the sovereign of worthy applicants for "occupation of this new established hierarchal department" 38.

Among candidates were: the first - the vicar of the Tver diocese, the bishop Iri-narkh Staritsky, the second - second-class Kiyevo's prior - the Brotherly monastery, the archimandrite Innokenti, the rector of the Kiev spiritual academy who had degree of the first-class archimandrite, the third - the prior of the first-class Pafnutyevo-Borovsky monastery, the archimandrite Vitaly, the rector of the St. Petersburg spiritual academy.

On September 14, 1836 in Moscow, the emperor Nicholas I, considered the report of the Holy Synod and with own hand wrote the instructions: "To be to the first, and in other to be on this. Nicholas". So the Riga vikariatstvo of the Pskov diocese, further, which became independent orthodox Church of Latvia. [39] was founded

The bishop Irinarkh (Popov) was the Riga vicar till October, 1841, since December, 1863 he is an archbishop Ryazan, and August, 1867 it is fired on rest. Died on September 25, 1877 at the age of 87 years, he is buried in the Ryazan Trinity Monastery.

1 "Ordinary mean three provinces by a name of Baltic edge - Kurland, Liflyandsky and Estlyandsky, the areas of ancient Livonia making once. No natural borders separated Baltic edge from radical Russian lands, Polotsk, Pskov, Novgorod; it is not that other as continuation of that huge plain which makes the Russian state area" (Che-shikhin, E.V. The collection of materials and articles on the history of the Baltic region: in 4 t. Threshing barn: Pechatano in A.I. Lipinsky's printing house, on Zyunderskaya Street in Popov's house, 1877. T. 1. Page VII).
2 Bicentennial chronograph Lithuanian, that is chronicler sedate, drevlepravos-lavny Christianity. Page 99. (Numbering of pages according to the photocopy of the manuscript which is stored in department of manuscripts of RAS Library in St. Petersburg.)
3 History of the Latvian SSR: manual: in 2 t. Riga, 1952. T. 1. Page 277.
4 The life of Feodosiy Vasilyev, the founder of fedoseevsky consent written by his son, Evstraty in the 7250th year: materials for history of bezpopovshchinsky soglasiya in Moscow, fedoseevets of the Preobrazhenskiy cemetery and Pomor moninsky consent: collected by Nikolay Popov//Readings in imperial society of history and antiquities Russian. M, 1869. Prince 2. Page 78.
5 CRIA. T. 1473. Op. 1. 29. L. 650.
6 In the same place. 29. L. 650.
7 Lithuanian chronograph. Page 132.
8 Complete collection of resolutions and orders on department of orthodox confession of the Russian empire. SPb., 1876. T. 4. Page 204.
9 Bantyshev-Kamensky, N.N. Review of external relations of Russia. M, 1897. Page 20.
10 Ryndzyumsky, P.G. The Old Belief organization in the conditions of development of industrial capitalism//Questions of history of religion and atheism. M.: [b. and.], 1950. Issue 1. Page 190.
11 Liprandi, I.P. Short review of the Russian splits, heresies and sects. SPb.: [b. and.], 1870. Page 65.
12 Nile, And. Family life in the Russian split: a historical essay of the dissenting doctrine about marriage. SPb.: Printed in printing house of land destinies, Liteyny Avenue, 39, 1869. Issue 2. Page 125, 126.
13 LGIA F. 1. Op. 10. 136. L. 8.
14 In the same place. 136. L. 8.
15 Zavoloko, I.N. Istoriya of Christ's Church. Threshing barn: Edition of Central Office of Drevlepravoslavny Pomor Church of Latvia, 1961. Page 156.
16 Brambe, R.K. Naseleniye of the city of Riga at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century. Riga, 1975. Page 3-32.
17 Cheshikhin, E.V. Collection of materials... C. 551.
18 RGADA. T. 18. Op. 1. 290. L. 1-4.
19 Zavoloko, I.N. Istoriya of Christ's Church. Page 156.
20 Leskov, N.S. Irodova work//Historical bulletin. SPb.: [b. and.], 1882. T. 8. Page 188.
21 Groves, N.S.O dissenters of the city of Riga, mainly in the relation to schools. Threshing barn: [b. and.], 1863. Page 19.
22 Zavoloko, I.N. Istoriya of Christ's Church. Page 156.
23 In the same place. Page 157.
24 Pavel (archimandrite). About Orthodoxy between Latvians and Estami in Baltic provinces//the Vyatka diocesan sheets. Vyatka: [b. and.], 1864. Page 755.
25 LGIA. T. 1. Op. 10. 136. L. 7. Statistical data on dissenters.
26 LGIA. T. 3. Op. 1. 1029. L. 5. The relation of the governor general M.I. Palen in the Ministry of Internal Affairs for 1830 about multiplication of number of dissenters.
27 LGIA. T. 3. Op. 1. 1478. L. 91. The official report of the chief of police Vakulsky to the civil governor Felkerzam about dissenters in Riga.
28 Pavel (archimandrite). About Orthodoxy. Page 755.
29 LGIA. T. 1. Op. 10. 1312. L. 3. The relation of the governor general M.I. Palen in the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
30 LGIA. T. 1. Op. 10. 111, 427, 45. Cases of office of the Riga military governor general of dissenters.
31 E.V. Cheshikhin. Collection of materials. C. 545.
32 LGIA. T. 291. Op. 8. 350. L. 2-5. The sheet about Old Believers and dissenters of different soglasiya and sects across the Governorate of Livonia for 1836
33 In the same place. 350. L. 2-5.
34 Riga Diocesan Sheets. 1898. No. 1. Page 26.
35 Cheshikhin, E.V. Notes of the priest Andrey Petrovich Polyakov: the collection of materials and articles on the history of the Baltic region: in 4 t. Threshing barn: Pechatano in A.I. Lipinsky's printing house, on Zyunderskaya Street in Popov's house, 1880. T. 3. Page 546.
36 Nafanail (Pavlovsky) is an archbishop Pskov and Liflyandsky. In 1817 graduated from the St. Petersburg spiritual academy with the master's degree. Since May 7, 1819 - the inspector of the St. Petersburg spiritual academy. Since July 26, 1821 - the rector of the Yaroslavl theological seminary and the archimandrite of the Rostov Bogoyavlensky Avraamiev Monastery. Since 1827 - the rector of the St. Petersburg theological seminary. On September 8, 1830 hirotonisan in the bishop Poltava and Pereyaslavsky. Since May 12, 1834 - the bishop Pskov and Liflyandsky. On June 15, 1836 it is hailed the archbishop. Died on July 28, 1849, he is buried in Trinity Cathedral in Pskov. Nafanail Preosvyashchenny is the best arch-flamen of Russian Orthodox Church of the time, on a response of the Metropolitan of Moscow Filaret (Drozdov). But his life was too short. Intrigues of enemies of Orthodoxy in Liflyandiya then belonging to the Pskov diocese, distempers and embezzlement of public funds in the most local spiritual management, griefs from pseudo-brotherhood strongly influenced weakening of corporal forces of preosvyashchenny Nafanail and reduction of the life, but did not weaken its high sincere qualities. See: Filaret (Gumilevsky). Review of the Russian spiritual literature: in the 2nd the prince / archbishop Filaret. SPb., 1884. the 3rd prod., prince 2. C. 466.
37 LGIA. T. 10. Op. 10. 265. L. 6. Decree St. Synod to the bishop Pskov Nafanail

about establishment of a vikariatstvo in Riga No. 265.

38 Riga Diocesan Sheets. 1898. No. 1. Page 31.
39 In the same place. Page 32.
Shawn Chandler
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