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Category: History

Questions of interrelation of military and social and economic transformations in 1923-1925 (on material of the Kursk province)

i. E. Hlopova


Work is presented by department of history of state and law of the Kursk state technical university.

The research supervisor — the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.P. Pashin

Article is devoted to questions of interrelation of the changes in military, social and economic areas which were taking place in 1923 — 1925 at the local level (in the Kursk province). During this period the formation of armed forces was inseparably linked with recovery of the national economy that could not but be expressed in interference of one industry on another.

I. Khlopova


The article is dedicated to the interrelation of changes in military, social and economic spheres in 1923 — 1925 at the local level (in the Kursk province). It was the period when the army forming was indissolubly connected with reconstruction of national economy, which was expressed in the influence of the one branch on another one.

The main problems which the Soviet state at the beginning of the 20th of the 20th century faced were recovery of the national economy after war and need of maintaining defense capability of the country. But it was possible to achieve the wished success in these industries only by their reorganization. Thus, years of carrying out military reform were the most important stage of the period of recovery of the national economy [1, page 13].

I.B. Berkhin, the researcher of military reform of 1924 — 1925 in the USSR, considered that "reorganization of a military system of the USSR was carried out taking into account experience of World War I and also taking into account that the outcome of future big war will be turned not by those rather limited armies, and with participation in it of all population, the whole country and will demand tension of all productive forces of the state" [1, page 74 — 75]. The basic a mustache -

loviy carrying out military reform there was a need of reforming of armed forces, continuous from production. For representation of a full picture of the process of implementation of military reform in the Kursk province it is necessary to consider transformations in the military sector in total with social and economic changes.

In 1920 in the territory of the Kursk province worked: the 4th infantry spare regiment, the 35th landmark battalion, the Kursk guard regiment, the Kursk art warehouse and guard battalion at it, the 8th working battalion, the 119, 206 and 120 VOHR battalions (troops of internal protection), the headquarters of crew VOHR, quarantine point, garrison veterinary infirmary, a garrison educational smithy, garrison bakery, team recovering, transit and nutritious point at the commandant of the city, management of the commandant, a penal company, convoy team, prodmag, courses of a komsostav, gubvoyenkomat, 15 district military registration and enlistment offices, 12 retaliatory companies, the 13th penal company, Shchigrovsky guard battalion [2, l. 151]. The number of the military personnel in parts of the Kursk province was approximately

20 000 people.

For August 1, 1925 in connection with all-union reduction in the territory of the Kursk province began to work: 6 district military registration and enlistment offices, the 16th and 18th shooting regiments, the headquarters of the 10th rifle corps, a company of communication of the 10th rifle corps, convoy team, OGPU platoon, the Kursk artillery warehouse, the carriage on protection of an artillery warehouse, penal team of the 10th rifle corps, a heavy art division of the 10th rifle corps. Total number of forces was about 5000 people [2, l. 151].

Thus, in the Kursk province the number of the military personnel was reduced by 75% in comparison with 1920. All-union demobilization reduced the number of armed forces from 5.3 million to 600 thousand [1, page 40], i.e. for 88%. Various percent of reduction of the military personnel was somewhat connected with belonging of the Kursk province to the boundary region and certain podstrakhov-

ke military authorities in case of invasion of foreign armed forces.

Since 1923 the country passed to the personnel and militia principle of creation of army which essence was an introduction of territorial militia parts along with preservation of personnel (constant) structure of army. Military preparation on the militia beginnings consisted of preconscription training, military training of citizens of military age, short-term repetitive collecting (a main objective of carrying out collecting was check of fighting capacity of parts).

Collecting during the period from 1923 to 1925 took place in the Kursk province of 5 times — from October 15 to October 28, 1923, from October 26, 1923 to January 1, 1924, from May 25 to July 5, 1924, from January 10 to February 2, 1925, from February 13 to March 28, 1925 [2, l. 153].

Interesting the revealed contemporary records about implementation of the curriculum are provided in the above-stated collecting. So, in the first collecting the plan was implemented for 75%, in the second — for 86%, in the third — for 96.7%, in the fourth — for 100%, in the fifth — for 53% [2, l. 153]. Low indicators of the last territorial collecting were more connected with simultaneous carrying out in February, 1925 an addition to draft sites and holding actions for preconscription training [2, l. 130]. So, many citizens exempted by the selection commissions from preconscription training by diseases and on other circumstances considered that they executed duties before voyenvedy, and evading from preconscription training were not for an addition for fear to be brought to preconscription training and it is possible to judicial responsibility for evasion from an appearance on preconscription training. Low interest of an appearance on draft sites in the Kursk province was also connected with territorial climatic conditions. During this period the spring flood began therefore not all called could reach military commissars in time. Besides, the end of March was time of preparation for field works therefore a part of recruits between collecting and agricultural works stopped the choice on the last.

The revealed archive materials kept data only on an appeal in 1925 of citizens of 1903 of the birth in the territory of the Kursk province.

All 31,643 persons were entered in the draft list. Considering that for January 1, 1925 the population of the province made 3,018,050 people, from them male population — 1,456,581 person (or 48% of total number), was entered in the above-stated draft lists by about 1% of the total number of the population [2, l. 139].

The urban population made for January 1, 1925 149,016 people (or 5% of all population), rural — 2,869,034 people (or 95% of total number) [2, l. 37].

To recruiting stations according to contemporary records there had to arrive 31,397 people, but there arrived 98% of the stated number. Besides, there arrived also persons which are not entered in draft lists (676 people). The persons who are wishing to be fixed in army and not having an opportunity to work in various industries, most likely, treated them.

Some persons were granted delays. So, due to illness — to 5862 recruits (nearly a quarter of total number entered in lists) struck in the rights — 4 recruits [2, l. 152].

By a social status of recruits: peasants of 1903 of the birth in 1925 in the Kursk province 6865 people (87.2% of total called), workers — 694 persons (8.9%) serving — 249 people (3.1%), other — 67 people (0.8%) [2, l were accepted. 152].

The possible percent of involvement of workers to appeals would be more if not the following circumstances. Unemployment became one of the main problems of the period of 1924 — 1925 in the Kursk province. As a large number of persons remained to the unemployed, was not registered at the exchanges, local bodies, losing with them touch, could not include them in draft lists.

With development of the New Economic Policy also the unemployment [2, l increased in the Kursk province steadily. 43]. If in 1921 323 persons, then by 1925 this figure priblizi-by the end of the year stayed on the registry

las to 6000 people [2, l. 43]. However the peak of unemployment was recorded in the Kursk province in a year of the beginning of reforming of armed forces — by the end of 1923 the number of the unemployed made 7398 people. The revealed contemporary records indicate that in 1924 the number of the unemployed only on the city of Kursk was 4029 people, and in 1925 this number rose up to 5742 people [2, l. 43].

Staff reduction and dismissal in connection with reorganization and liquidation of the enterprises and institutions, dismissal at own will, due to illness and to other reasons and demobilization were the concrete reasons of unemployment (during the period from January to June, 1925 48,275 people [2, l were demobilized. 47]). Let's not agree with the author of "Military reform" I.B. Berkhin considering that in 1925 in the country there was "a big enthusiasm for work" [1, l. 15].

Other problem which is undoubtedly influencing development and armed forces and the national economy in development of the province. Work on elimination of illiteracy till 1923 took place not systematically. The lack of firmly drawn up plan of works, noticeable small number of the being available old stock of abc-books, lack of money for supply of points of elimination of illiteracy with heating and lighting and other reasons [2, l were the reasons which were slowing down work. 54]. Then in the provincial center at a political education the position of the special worker on elimination of illiteracy — a prodgubgramcheka was entered. Along with it in the volost and district centers the commissions were created. The leadership in works on elimination of illiteracy in counties, volosts belonged to duties of the commissions. In 1924 — 1925 academic year, the special attention was directed to destruction of illiteracy among the preinduction population. As an explanation for this fact served provisions of the Resolution of VTsIK and SNK of the USSR No. 677 of September 21, 1923 according to which the persons who were born in 1902 — 1903 had to be trained in the diploma not later than May 1, 1924. Analyzing the list of recruits of the Kursk province of 1903 at an appeal in

1925 on literacy degree, we will note that having the higher education there were only two, with secondary education — 60 people (0.8%), with the elementary education — 4812 people (63.5%), and without educational qualification — 2697 recruits (35.6%) [2, l. 152].

For strengthening of work on elimination of illiteracy in rural areas circles semiliterate, circles on self-education were organized. Despite noted increase in level of supply by 1925 with manuals [2, l. 55], reading rooms minimum received according to the 1st central and 1st local newspaper. Magazines of reading room were almost not received [2, l. 59].

The military and statistical review of the Kursk province for 1925 indicated that "in a past 1924 — 1925 academic year work in the field of elimination of illiteracy yielded still big results, than in previous" [2, l. 55]. But at the level of volosts the results on elimination of illiteracy were absolutely opposite. So, authorized on elimination not -

literacy Tolmachev in report materials at a meeting of predvolispolkom of the Kursk County noted that in "the general complexity work on elimination of illiteracy in all volosts is below any criticism" [3, l. 92]. In 1924 at open 1223 points on elimination of illiteracy at the stated quantity in 28,648 people 16,844 persons (58%) ended a course. By 1925 in the Kursk province the number of points on elimination of illiteracy was reduced to 814 in which it was supposed 25,000 people will be trained, but ended a course of all

21 749 people (or 86%) [2, l. 58].

Thus, the analysis of interrelation of the military and social and economic changes which are taking place in the Kursk province in 1923 — 1925 leads to a conclusion that this interference did not result in impressive positive results in one of these areas. Failures in one inevitably made negative changes to another. In practice the idea of "a pursuit of two hares" did not bring the expected success.


1. I.B. Berkhin. Military reform in the USSR (1924 — 1925). M.: Voyenizdat, 1958. 460 pages
2. State archive of Kursk region. F. R-328. Op. 1. 1868. L. 154.
3. State archive of Kursk region. F. R-328. Op. 1. 146. L. 283.
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