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Category: History

Problems of teaching Post-Soviet history of Russia



n. V. Yeliseyev

PROBLEMS of TEACHING POST-SOVIET HISTORY of RUSSIA

Within several last years the new research subject - the history of Post-Soviet Russia declared itself. Political scientists, sociologists, philosophers are engaged in it. Historians also began to master this subject. Recently there were several interesting works. For example, book by the famous historian V. Sogrin "Political history of modern Russia. 1985 - 2001: From Gorbachev to Putin", ideologically set monographic research of S. Kara-Murza "The Soviet civilization: From a great victory up to now" and others. The obvious shift towards interest in this period and was outlined in educational literature what the facts of recognition by the power of need of writing of new textbooks till the 20th century, and in particular on the Post-Soviet history of Russia, an initiative of the Ministry of Education of the organization of a competition on writing of textbooks testify to.

It is known that the textbook - time product. It reflects, on the one hand, a condition of science in any given area of knowledge, with another - a condition of society: the situation in the country is less stable, the aspiration of the power is stronger than it to control including in education of younger generation, and especially in the sphere of humanitarian knowledge, history.

In spite of the fact that today Post-Soviet history is not considered by most of experts as not dismembered politological knowledge any more, continues to remain not up to the end stipulated a question of borders in a subject of these two scientific disciplines.

If to proceed from well-known understanding of history as most synthetic science (we will remember the known statement of E. Le Rua Ladyuri: "As for us, historians, we widely use the riches which are saved up by the fields of knowledge having quantity characteristics namely: demography, economy...") which consistently "is in contact" with others social and the humanities, it is necessary to recognize that today the circle of these other sciences is extremely big. The vast amount of scientific disciplines - in the nomenclature of their Highest Certifying Commission is registered about one thousand - especially sharply puts before the teacher of history a problem of selection of information for creation of a complete image absolutely still of the near past. The largest representatives of a historiography believed in "common market" of social sciences (Brodel), but concerning a possibility of synthesis even in earlier time the historians had no special euphoria. What to tell now? And nevertheless higher education institutions and schools, being "the practical platform" of historical science, put history of the 90th on "an educational stream" today.

It is represented that a situation for realization even of the most modest tasks - to light, without falling into cheap politics, the periods of "reorganization" of M.S. Gorbachev, B.N. Yeltsin's reforms and the first years of government of V.V. Putin - rather difficult.

Textbooks in which clearly and ontologically unambiguously (not in sense it is only right) events of the last 10 - 15 years are treated is written and published very little. Therefore the pupil or the student can "lean" generally on lectures or other information versions of the teacher of history. There are no concepts of historical development of Post-Soviet history. Therefore, teaching history of this period stays in "liberty" in which it would be desirable to see only freedom and not ideological bias, but not lack of the consistent scientific basis.

There is huge literature on various plots of history of the 90th representing the Babel tower of political maxims. But there is no real opportunity "to embrace" and inform the pupil and the student of achievement of a scientific thought. There is "field" of documentary editions where system data on problems of Post-Soviet history just should be selected. There are no anthologies and other methodical materials. There are multimedia versions of a course of national history created for the only purpose - to satisfy the market of demand, without being responsible for quality. There are no ideas on creation of multimedia tutorials and teaching history of Russia the 90th which need is realized for some reason only concerning other periods of history XX of Russia century

We will concern the maintenance of history of Russia the 90th

In policy and other social sciences this period of the Russian history received the name "Post-Soviet", in the context of the European space it appears as "postcommunist", in an ideological lexicon - "post-totalitarian", in objectivistic theories - "noncommunistic", etc. The similar polyphony is good for confirmation of a thesis on freedom of theoretical constructions in science, but is absolutely unacceptable in teaching where it is required to explain why this period is called so, but not differently. Therefore, there is a problem of terminology and phenomenology of history of Russia of the 90th

In developments of researchers of different scientific disciplines tough schemes of interpretation of Gorbachev "reorganization" and the Yeltsin period as "revolutions of social and economic type" appeared. We again in captivity of search of "driving forces", "social bases". And if we avoid the term "class fight", then only for fear to be accused of commitment to Marxism. Therefore "revolution" is succeeded by other word, more modern - "conflict".

But in studying processes of the 90th we are not able to see other processes which, perhaps, could be useful to the younger generation and are acquired as more acceptable. For example, search by society and its separate groups social and

political compromises. This party of historical process still, as well as in Soviet period, does not interest us, and formation of psychology of tolerance, perhaps, and is that noble problem of history which will cease to be solved at last on a formula "To what it teaches us? - to Anything!"

One more problem of teaching history of the 90th consists, in our opinion, in extreme variety of processes of this period, in their difficult trajectory and powerful dynamics. From here - practical impossibility "to find room" for them within one course "history". On the substance of it it is necessary "to break" into "substories": economic development and reforms, parliamentarism, multi-party system, foreign policy, public consciousness, etc. In a domestic historiography in relation to the 20th century in general these problems are solved. There "were" semantic, rather synthesized "blocks" which even at various political estimates are studied and taught as certain algorithms (for example, the New Economic Policy, military communism,

"thaw") that cannot be told about the last period.

Also put here not only that there passed "not enough time" and it did not develop yet and our knowledge was not systematized. Concerning the second half 8 0 - the 90th we deal with the new quality of historical time filled with so numerous "information particles" and their fast movement what "to fix" them in public consciousness and in a scientific thought as certain phenomenological units will hardly work well. The remark of the English researcher P. Burke that "we live in an age of indistinct lines and open intellectual borders" stated in relation to history of all the 20th century, is as well as possible applicable to the beginning of HH_ of century

Obviously, full reconsideration of all paradigm of the scientific analysis of social processes and education which will allow to understand and reproduce essentially differently the past is required, and, therefore, and "to form" the person in this past.

In recent years there was a set of the scientific theories allowing to begin, in our opinion, work on formation of the new theory of education and teaching including stories of the Post-Soviet period. Philosophical developments of sintegrativny evolution belong to their number, for example. Proceeding from the idea that the present represents the difficult, multiple parameter phenomenon, the so-called integrative approach which is the cornerstone of the theory of sintegrativny evolution allows to create model of evolutionary process. By means of this model, prerequisites for fundamental reconsideration of linear history can be created over time.

Sintegrativny judgment by society of the existence and development is for the present in a formation stage, and would be premature to do a little final allocation of any given meanings. Identification of point of evolution demands evolution of the approach to identification of sense.

Besides, not only determination of the principles of development of new strategy of teaching history, but also the solution of the whole complex of scientific and practical tasks among which a specific place is held by the problem connected with formation of new type of thinking, new culture and the new person is required.

That is why fast development of fundamental fundamentals of social science including history on which achievements results of development of the general culture of society, his political independence, freedom of choice, ability of dialogue and tolerant social behavior depend, eventually, is necessary.

It follows from this that today it is necessary to think of training of the specialists owning integration knowledge (humanitarian and technical), trained on the basis of new culture - nonaggressive, turned into the future. Such experts can be trained on materials of Post-Soviet history of Russia. First, because there was no system of explanations and interpretations of this period yet, so, certain freedom of "experiment" is provided. Secondly, because is not present the imposed state and the power of the general ideological paradigm. Thirdly, there is valid freedom of a world outlook of the researcher that allows everyone who is engaged in present history, to make an own choice.

Realities of Post-Soviet history, in our opinion, allow to make interesting observation: economic, demographic, ecological and political factors cease to play the dominating role in filling of historical process. "Thin" sociocultural factors - spiritual needs, motivators of values, images of the future, belief, ideological dogmas as equals begin to perform with them. For studying this sphere, obviously, the new and forgotten "old" methodological concepts, for example, the concept of a noosphere offered by the academician V.I. Vernadsky, the doctrine of the Roman club "Growth Limits", American-centric model of the future Caen) and others are necessary.

Today we deal with the fact of not demand of historical knowledge both from society, and from the power. Reasons of such situation much. There passed "boom" in public consciousness on history of the Soviet past, it generated in a wide circle devaluation of historical science and historical knowledge, lack of interest in history including postsovesky time. History as knowledge and at politicians is not demanded. It as though was replaced by new public disciplines - political science, sociology.

But among the younger generation of such disappointment with history so evidently it is not observed. On the contrary, in recent years the number of the students who are interested in Post-Soviet history of Russia steadily grows. Sets of two courses on specialization "The history of Post-Soviet Russia" discovered in

Historical and archival institute of RGGU, passed at a high competition, at department of national history of the latest time the number of the theses defended on this perspective from year to year increases. All this demonstrates that history as a scientific and subject matter not only does not lose the value, but also finds "second wind", and its demand at the younger generation is caused not only communication with political science, conflictology fashionable nowadays and others, but also own self-sufficiency.

Development of history of Post-Soviet time was closely connected with a source study. If the question of historical sources was relevant for the ancient and totalitarian periods of history because them was insufficiently and it was necessary to design the past on a small information basis, then in relation to the modern period there is other problem: redundancy of information which creates illusion of completeness of a picture.

Actually, multilevel, multi-scale and politically engaged or even fictitious information cannot be used "directly" in serious scientific researches without fear of interpretation of processes and events in distorted or in general a look, far from reality.

Therefore also the problem of its source study is among problems of teaching history of Post-Soviet time.

Acquires relevance and a question of staffing of teaching history of modern Russia and postcommunist world history. Most of teachers are oriented on a perspective of the 20th century of the pre-perestroika, communistic period. To prolong courses and "to finish" them XX and the beginnings of the 21st centuries it will hardly be possible by mechanical "increment" of information. Formation of new scientific knowledge and overcoming a vacuum of the conceptual ideas requires a certain scientific environment in which there could be a systematic judgment of new social, cultural, political and all other processes, Wednesday in which approbation of textbooks, grants and other methodical materials with simultaneous use of new educational technologies, computers will become possible.

Conditionally telling

>, the staging of activity in such environment can be presented as follows.

1. The theoretical stage connected with definition of the purpose and object of study of history of the end of the 20th century in the conditions of the beginning of the 21st century
2. The methodical stage consisting in the choice of methods, means of selection of information, its processing and the analysis.
3. The procedural stage caused by need of the organization of practical activities for providing the two first stages and on implementation of results in educational process.

All these actions are caused by conscious intention of scientific and teaching community to undertake seriously this work and also support and understanding of this task from the leading structures.

Christopher Sharp
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