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SAZONOV'S svetlana


This article is devoted to a problem of colonization by natives of Little Russian provinces of the territories occupied by the Caucasian linear Cossack army at the end of XVIII - the first half of XIXv.

This article is dedicated to the problem of colonization of the territories occupied by the Caucasus Cossack’s line troops by Ukrainian residents at the end of XVIII and at the beginning of the first half of XIX century.

resettlement of Ukrainians on the territory of the Caucasian linear Cossack army, colonization of the North Caucasus; Ukrainian migration to the territory of the Caucasus Cossack’s line troops, colonization of the Northern Caucasus.

Gradual expansion of borders of the Russian Empire in XVTII — the 19th centuries and inclusion in its structure of the territory of the North Caucasus were followed by carrying out at the initiative of the state of the active military and civil colonization which caused movement here of numerous natives of the central and southern regions of Russia and Ukraine. The happening changes and also the arising problems put the Russian government before need of development of the strong legal framework of resettlement policy that found the embodiment in various acts and decrees and also at orders of army administration of the Caucasian linear Cossack army.

In modern Russia since the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century powerful migration flows are also observed, however the vector of their movement is directed in the opposite direction, and migrants are not protected in legal relations. In this regard relevant is an appeal to past legislative experience for the purpose of creating favorable conditions and development of basic provisions of migration policy in the state.

At the end of the 18th century the settling of the empty lands of the northwest Region of Kuban by the Black Sea Cossack army began. Along with it there was a development of the northeast territory of the Caucasus, so-called Caucasian area which part six counties were: Ekaterinogradsky, Kizlyar, Mozdok, Aleksandrovsky, Of St. George and Stavropol. The city of Ekaterinograd became the regional center.

A long time in the region the small population density remained and the unevenness of its distribution was observed. For the solution of the developed problem and strengthening of protection of borders the government and army administration, since the end of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century, traditionally resorted to a proven means — colonization.

In a domestic historiography the history of the resettlement movement on the outskirts of the Russian Empire quite in detail is considered. In particular, development of the territory occupied by Linear Cossack army is in details studied in I.V. Bentkovsky's works, to I. Dib, V.P. Gromov, L.B. Zasedateleva, A.V. Fadeyev, S.A. Chek-menyova, P.A Shatsky, N.N. Velikaya, Yu.Yu. Klychnikov, M.F. Ku Krasnodar Krai rakeevy, I.H. Tkhamokova, etc.

Svetlana Evgenyevna SAZONOVA is the graduate student of AGPU, the teacher of history MOE SOSH No. 15 of Armavir

However many authors, in our opinion, gave not enough attention to studying the legal framework of resettlement policy of the state and also identification of ethnic structure of migrants. In this regard in this article we set the purpose, being guided by legal acts and archive materials (some of them are for the first time introduced for scientific use), to open a role of the state in the course of colonization of the territories occupied by the Caucasian linear Cossack army, natives of Little Russian provinces at the end of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century

During the considered period migration were carried out in two main forms: governmental and national. V.P. Gromov characterizes government colonization as the resettlement which is carried out by order of or at consent and material support of the government, Caucasian administration and approval of the authorities of those provinces from where were carried out migratsii1. Its success as many domestic researchers consider, in many respects consisted in "the exclusive conditions which were attracting the outstanding persons who got used, on the one hand, to uneasy life..., and with another, the settlements which are not especially valuing settled life and having mobility in transferring" 2. Cossacks — donets and Zaporozhetses, the descendants of register Cossacks who kept aggressive spirit of ancestors and also the state peasants willingly moving at different times on rich Caucasian lands, and insignificant number of the serfs directed by the owners to the lands presented by the government belonged to such category of people, of course.

Besides, it is necessary to emphasize that at the organization of resettlement of the power showed consideration for class and ethnic origin of colonists. The fact that the main flow of immigrants from Little Russian provinces went to Cher-nomoriya demonstrates to it, and on the territory of the Caucasian linear Cossack army only a small part of Ukrainians got. On I have -

1 V.P. Gromov. A ratio of national and government colonization of Ciscaucasia in the last quarter of XVIII — the first half of the 19th age//News of the North Caucasian scientific center of the Higher school. Social sciences, 1983, No. 3, p. 34.
2 Maximov of E.D. Terskoye Cossack army. Istorikostatistichesky essay. — Vladikavkaz, 1890, building 50.

we shchitsya to statistical materials of nearly 90% of all colonists arriving at this time in the Caucasian province immigrants made of the central agricultural regions of Russia: Kursk, Voronezh, Tambov, Oryol provinces, etc. And only about 10% — from Kharkiv, Poltava, Chernihiv and Kiev.

However it is necessary to pay attention that not always natives of so-called great Russian provinces have to be considered only as representatives of the Russian ethnos. For example, in the Voronezh and Kursk provinces there was a considerable number of the Ukrainian settlements which were located the continuous ethnic massif or dispersno in the southern counties bordering on the Kharkiv province. According to the V audit (1795), 37.7% of Ukrainians, and in Kursk — 2b, 7%3 lived in the Voronezh province. And as from here at the end of the 18th century there was the main flow of colonists on the North Caucasus, the total number of Ukrainians on new residences, obviously, was much higher.

Process of resettlement of Ukrainians on the territory of the Caucasian area was carried out in several stages, each of which had the legal framework.

The first stage (80 — 90 of the 18th century — 1812) was characterized by intensive military colonization of the northeast territory of the North Caucasus, resettlement of the Don, Khopyor, Volga and former ekaterinoslavsky Cossacks. Together with them under the decree of the Senate of December 18, 1784 it was allowed to accept not only the state and economic peasants, but also odnodvorets from Poltava, Kharkiv, Chernihiv, Voronezh, Kursk, Tambov, etc. guberniy4. On arrival most of them lodged in the Cossack villages, coming to sluzhily estate, or were engaged "in work on free hiring, rent and processing of the earth, trade, various crafts and other subsidiary works" 5.

In 1806 the administration of the Caucasian province founded in the city of Stavropol special office for reception and vodvore-

3 S.I. Brook, V.M. Kabuzan. The number and resettlement of the Ukrainian ethnos in XVIII — the beginning of the 20th century//the Soviet ethnography, 1981, No. 5, p. 29.
4PSZ-1. T. XXII. No. 16401.
5 Omelchenko of I.L. Terskoye Cossacks. — Vladikavkaz: Ir, 1991, p. 116.

a niya coming here pereselentsev1. But, despite the taken measures, local authorities had no full data neither on quantity which arrived nor on the size of the land area occupied by them. The lack of information and inept actions of office led to overpopulation of certain villages and uneven distribution of the population on the line that, certainly, reduced its defense capability and created social tension in certain villages. In this regard the Ruling senate issued on June 17, 1812 the special resolution which was temporarily forbidding to send colonists and to accept them in the Caucasian area.

The second stage (on March 22, 1824 — 1833) begins after serious preparatory work. Audit of land fund was carried out and places for resettlement of future colonists are defined. The foundation for the second stage was laid by Alexander I's decree of March 22, 1824 according to which resettlement of the state peasants from the Russian and Ukrainian provinces was resumed. Unlike the first stage, special rules "About Resettlement of State Peasants and Investment with Their Earth" 2 were developed. Now only land-poor peasants whose shower plot was less than 5 tithes of the earth (including and the wood which can be turned into clearing went to the Caucasian province).

Due to the aggravation of a situation in the North Caucasus in the second quarter of the 19th century and attraction of bigger number of migrants the government a number of new decrees considerably simplified the procedure of resettlement from Little Russian provinces on the territory occupied by the Caucasian linear Cossack army. So, on the basis of Position of the Ruling senate of May 19, 1831 and on September 30, 1832 Cossacks were allowed to move from the Poltava and Chernihiv provinces, to one-palaces and state poselyana with their families for receipt in the Cossack estate "without granting on this of certificates, discharge from wordly societies. by poster passports alone" 3. According to the order of Committee of Ministers of January 31, 1833 at Economic office Caucasian -

1 11SZ-1. T. XXIX. No. 22367.
2 PSZ-1. T. XXXIX. No. 29848.
3 PSZ-2. T. VI. No. 4579; PSZ-2. T. VII. No. 5630.

of zyonny chamber for control and the organization of reception and settlement of immigrants appointed two officials of special instructions with a salary to everyone on 1,000 rub in god4.

Thanks to the taken measures, linear shelves received notable replenishment. To the period from 1820 to 1825 to the Caucasian area there arrived 10,762 people, from 1826 to 1830 - 40,867, and from 1831 to 1833 - 54,136; only 105,765 state peasants. From their number 30,249 people were natives of the Kursk province, 13,971 — from Suburban Ukraine, 13 971 — from Voronezh, 3,640 — from Oryol provinces, etc. 5

It should be noted that the new settlers arriving to the Caucasus at different times from the internal provinces of Russia and Ukraine were poor and had no "even on couple of oxen or horses". Besides during transition most of them "absolutely lost own means. the diseases which comprehended them, a murrain and other adversities" 6. The authorities were forced to give provisions from stanitsa spare shops. But these allowances could not compensate all losses.

Nevertheless, despite accurately established rules, quite often sending from former residences was carried out without any preliminary coordination with the provincial authorities. Officials recognized lack of due supervision and care about immigrants along the line and on places. Such spontaneity and disorganization in questions of transfer of colonists to the Caucasian province distinguished resettlement policy in this region, and sometimes and prevented to stop in due time attempts of penetration into the list of linear Cossacks of fluent elements.

According to the general Velyaminov, in 1832 the number fluent in army exceeded 10 thousand people 7 It should be noted that many of them, having reached "treasured" places, were strongly disappointed with the difficulties of life, a quasi-military situation, constant searches arranged by the authorities. So, for capture of everyone fluent, tramps or

4 PSZ-2. T. VIII. No. 5951.
5 A.V. Fadeyev. Essays of economic development of steppe Ciscaucasia during the prereform period. — M.: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1957, p. 52 — 53.
6 RGVIA, t. 13454, op. 5, 782, Part 4, l. 227 (about).
7 Shamray Century. The historical information about non-residents in the Kuban region according to the documents taken from affairs of the Kuban army Archive//the Kuban collection, t. VII, 1901, p. 87 — 88.

passportless the award of 10 rub bank notes from the sum of the penalty paid by "pristanoderzhatel" 1 relied the lower ranks of active armed forces of the corps of gendarmes and Cossack troops according to the order of the government. In case the last was not able to pay a penalty, it was allowed to subject it to imprisonment on three mesyatsa2. The army administration had to return the caught runaway peasants to former owners. However in practice local authorities instead often gave out to landowners rekrutsky kvitantsii3.

On March 22, 1828 there was a decree of the State Council according to which 35 years are not more senior than tramps it was allowed to send to the Caucasian line in workers to Cossacks. After three years if they behaved "approvingly", then they were allowed to be ranked as the Cossack estate. According to E.D. Felitsin, such people there were 317 people men's pola4. This measure was recognized the authorities "as useful both for Cossacks, and to the greater termination of vagrancy" 5.

But several years later, reception of tramps in the Caucasian linear Cossack army was stopped by the decree of February 14, 1833, and all detainees without documents capable to military service, was ordered to give immediately in recruits or to send in military and working and prisoner roty6. Same year, according to command of the emperor Nicholas I, in the North Caucasus three such companies were created: in Gelendzhik, Stavropol and at Caucasian Mineral Vodakh7.

In general, despite the drastic measures undertaken by the government, a flow of fugitives in the Caucasian Cossack army and concealment by their Cossacks proceeded further.

1833 — 1834 for the Caucasian edge were very heavy. The universal drought and crop failures actually presented peasants with a fait accompli of long hunger. In 1834 the government, making concessions, offered all in distress to from -
1 PSZ-2. T. VIII. No. 6021; No. 6437.
2 In the same place, No. 6486.
3PSZ-1. T. XXIV. No. 17623.
4 E.D. Felitsin. Materials for history of the Kuban army. — Ekaterinodar, 1897, p. 72.
5PSZ-1. T. XXII. No. 16715; T. XXIII, No. 16743; T. XXVI, No. 19979.
6 PSZ-2. T. VIII. No. 5978.
7 In the same place, No. 5972.

a meneniye of a situation to return to former places of the residence to the Kursk, Voronezh, Oryol, Suburban-Ukrainian, Tula, Tambov and Poltava provinces. 6,340 families as a part of 20,949 men and 17,338 women used this permission.

After the end of disasters on the Caucasian line the third stage of resettlements (1833 — the 40th of the 19th century) which reached the apogee in 1836 was developed. It was characterized by transfer of cordon lines to the area of the Beloy, Laba, Urupa, Zelenchuka, Sunzha Rivers, etc. and also the beginning of development of the territory Zakubanya, with attraction of a large number of immigrants from Little Russian provinces here.

But, despite the undertaken measures, the population on the Caucasian line the long time remained small, mortality considerably exceeded birth rate. In this regard the government starts the organization of the fourth stage of resettlements (1847 — 1849).

In January, 1847 Nicholas I approved the proposal of the Minister of War on mass resettlement of Cossacks and peasants from the Kharkiv, Chernihiv, Voronezh provinces to the Caucasian line. It should be noted that in the same time the replenishment of the Black Sea Cossack army was planned, but it was postponed for a year as admitted that "The Caucasian linear army incomparably more needs narodo-multiplication" 8.

As a result during the considered period arrived to the Caucasian line 18,321 people, or more than 6,000 semeystv9. Part of them went to already equipped villages on the Old line, the others in 1 — the 6th crews of linear army and also on poorly populated territories of Mountain, Vladikavkaz, Gre-bensky and Kizlyar regiments. On places, according to the order of the government, privileges from external service and a lifting grant were provided to them. So, for example, to officer families about 285 rub 71 kopeks, to families of Cossacks on 81 rub 42 kopeks were given,

8 Chekmenev S.A. Social and economic development of Stavropol Territory and Kuban at the end of the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century — Pyatigorsk, 1967, building 28.
9 RGVIA, t. 13454, op. 5, 782, Part 1, l. 2.

to the lower ranks of active armed forces on 122 rub 14 kopeks 1

But process of colonization of the territory was not completed. On the contrary, it continued, and besides not less high rates, having opened the fifth stage of settling of the territory of the Caucasian linear Cossack army in 1851 — 1858. At this time there arrived 5,796 male souls, and mostly — natives with Ukrainy2.

Thus, owing to the resettlement policy pursued by the authorities which is carried out in several stages, the population of the Caucasian linear Cossack army steadily increased. For example, for the second quarter of the 19th century it increased from 48,518 to 257,469 people, that is bo-

1 CGA RSO-Alania, t. 13, op. 1, 167, l. 10, 67.
2 V.M. Kabuzan. The population of the North Caucasus in the XIX—XX centuries. Ethnostatistical research. — SPb,
1996, p. 79.

leu than five times, and quantity of the Cossack regiments from 1837 to 1844 — with 9 to 173.

Besides, it is necessary to emphasize that the authorities very much showed consideration for class and ethnic origin of immigrants, considering the fact that adaptation processes among the migrants from Ukraine lodging on the Caucasian line took place much more difficult, than at the same migrants in Chernomoriya as here they got to other ethnic environment where the prevailing place was taken by the Russian component differing from them in consciousness, a way of life, traditional and household culture. All these factors left an essential mark on process of ethnocultural integration of the people of the Caucasus and on the policy of the state which is carried out in this region in the considered time.

3 Chekmenyov S.A. Decree. soch., p. 54.
William Smith
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