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The EDITION of GEOGRAPHICAL WORKS IN SIBERIA AND IN the FAR EAST at the end of the XVIII 80th of the 19th century.



knigovedeny

UDC of 655+913 (571) BBK 76.17 (25) & #43;26.8

The EDITION GEOGRAPHICAL the WORK IN SIBERIA AND IN the FAR EAST at the end of XVIII - 80-X of the 19th V.

© V.A. Ehrlich, 2005

State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15

The review of the main works in the field of geography published in Siberia and in the Far East at the end of XVIII - the 80th of the 19th century is given. The scope of these works is presented. A number of data on the works which are results of researches in the region and published in Moscow and St. Petersburg is given.

Development of the Siberian and Far East region began after accession it to Russia. At the end of HU1-HU11 of centuries along with construction of the first cities and jails there was an initial studying the trans-Ural territories by sluzhily and industrial people. At this time a significant amount of geographical data on Northern Asia was saved up.

Was marked by further studying Siberia and the Far East 18th century. The special expeditions sent here directly by Academy of Sciences purposefully conducted complex researches in the field of natural sciences by land and by sea. The significant contribution to it was made also by sailors and industrial people.

In the first half of the 19th century the studying edge was carried out as the special expeditions directed here from the European Russia and forces of the local arising intellectuals and exiled.

Since the middle of the 19th century, in connection with creation of the East Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (ESDIRGS) in Irkutsk in 1851 the new stage in studying Northern Asia which differed from previous not only intensity and versatility of researches began, but also the fact that they now were constantly conducted by local scientific forces. At the same time the important place was taken also by activity of experts from St. Petersburg, Moscow and other cities of the European Russia.

In the history of development of science in Siberia and in the Far East till 1917 the period since the end of the 80th of the 19th century was the most intensive. However in real

work it will be a question of the edition of works on geography in the region in time preceding this stage, since the end of the 18th century to the 90th of the 19th century

Results of researches were as far as possible published in capital and regional editions. Even before emergence of printing houses in the region works of participants of the academic expeditions of the 18th century were published in St. Petersburg. Among the published works it is possible to note the following: "A story about the countries, at the Amur River lying when it stood under the Russian possession" (1757), "The description of voyages across Ledovity and by East sea, from the Russian side made" (1758), "News of the landkarta concerning to the Russian state with boundary lands as well about sea charts of those seas which with Rossiyey border" (1761) of G.F. Miller; "Travel on various provinces of the Russian state" (1773-1788. T. 1-3) P.S. Pallasa.

Among editions of the first Siberian printing house of Kornilyev is (1789-1804) and printing houses of edge of the first half of the 19th century of works on geography, unfortunately, was not. However the Yenisei civil governor A.P. Stepanov prepared work "The Yenisei province" in two parts (it is published in St. Petersburg in 1835) where there were data on geography and the nature/1/.

Since the end of the 50th of the 19th century the situation in publishing of edge changes. There are new printing houses where works of staff of various societies are actively printed, the local periodicals begin to function. According to V.N. Volkova, in the second half of the 19th century

in the region 437 editions on geological geographical sciences were published that made 7.4% of all book products of Siberia and the Far East. Generally these works came out in Irkutsk (185), Tomsk (65) and Omsk (68)/2/.

The first five books of "Notes" of SOIRGO prepared in Irkutsk because of weak local printing base were published in St. Petersburg. In them, along with various materials, there were works in which there were data on geography. So, works of N. Bashkevich, the archpriest Hitrovo and N. Selsky were published in the 1st book (1856). In N. Bashkevich's work "The description of the river of Irkut from Tunki before confluence with Angara"/3/characteristics of the Tunkinsky hollow, the Tunkinsky ridge and the Sayansk range, river Irkut and Ilchinsky keys were given. The map of the river was attached to work. Irkut. In Hitrovo's research "The description of the Zhigansky ulus"/4/is given the description of a geographical location, borders, a relief, the rivers, the Arctic Ocean, ices. The map of the Zhigansky ulus was also attached to work. In work H. Selsky "The description of the road from Yakutsk to Srednekolymsk"/5/the overview of the nature, climatic conditions of edge, the description of Verkhoyansk Mountains, etc. is given

In the 3rd book of "Notes" of SOIRGO N. Sverbeev and Chikhachev's works were placed. N. Sverbeev's composition "The description of swimming down the river to Cupid"/6/submitted to an expedition of the governor general of Eastern Siberia in 1854 the description of an expedition under the leadership of the lieutenant general N.M. Muravyev of the 3rd. Here statement of the route, the description of weather, coast of the Zeya Rivers, Selemdzha, Songhua, Ussuri, Amur, etc. is given; their inflows are listed; data on width of the Amur course, its depth, current speed are provided; there is a material about the edge nature. The travel of the lieutenant commander Chikhachev in the fall of 1855 is presented in Chikhachev's article "About a New Way from the Nikolaev Post that on the Amur River, in the Russian Jail, on the Northeast Coast near the Sea of Okhotsk"/7/. Here the rivers, temperature, climate are characterized. Are attached to work "The traveling magazine of Mr. Shenurin", the employee of an expedition, and the card of a travel.

In the 60th of the 19th century in "Notes" of SOIRGO the publication of works on geography proceeded. So, in 1864 in the 7th book of "Notes" and the separate edition (1865) came out P.A. Kropotkin's work "Two trips to Manchuria in 1864" (Irkutsk: Type. Headquarters of troops, 1865. - 120 pages). In 1867 its work of "Poyezdk in Okinsky guard"/8/was published in books 9-10 "Notes" of SOIRGO. It consisted of 12 chapters. Here results of tool shooting, the description of the Baikal mountains, rivers, mineral keys, measurements of temperatures, on - are given

boards of winds; characteristic of watersheds, mountain nature, etc.

In 1870 SOIRGO begins to issue Izvestia. Already in the first number of the first volume there was A.P. Orlov's article "Soobshcheniye the Full Member A.P. Orlov about the Excessive Floods Which Were in 1869 in the Transbaikal Region"/9 / where the detailed program of physiographic researches and hydrographic conditions of the Baikal region was presented; results of studying a source of the Angara River, calculations of marks of a raising of water are given. The author wrote about mobility of the bed of the Selenga River, the history of the Goose lake, change of level of the Baikal waters; about an earthquake of 1869. Analyzing these data,

A.P. Orlov considered that in the ancient time the Baikal hollow was deeper, and abatement of the water level happened due to break of the Angarsk course and local failures at the bottom of the Baikal basin. "Data on the Chukchi expedition"/10/represented the report of the chief of an expedition to the Yakut civil governor. In work data on an expedition are provided to the Anadyr jail, about routes, a condition of cards and results of researches.

In the second and third numbers of the same volume two articles and the message were devoted to questions of geography. In Dobrotvorsky's article "Southern Part of the Island of Sakhalin"/11/, being extraction from the military-medical report for 1868, the description of physiographic and weather conditions of edge is given: mountains, rivers, lakes, mineral waters, sea, soils, light, rain, snow, directions of winds, etc. "Etudes at the southwest tip of Baikal (physiographic notes)"/12/are provided in V. Dybovsky and V. Godlevsky's work results of the researches conducted near the village of Kultuk - topographical determination of heights, the description of a relief, data on average monthly temperatures, ice thickness, level of waters. As a result authors came to a conclusion that in the neighborhood of this village within the last two centuries the difference between height of the coast and level of the lake decreased. "The geographical, magnetic and hypsometric definitions made in 1868-1869 by Mr. Fritshe in 22 points lying in Mongolia and Northern China"/13/are given in G. Fritshe's message the results of researches generalized in tables on the single pasted sheet.

the 70th of the 19th century are celebrated by emergence of works of the prince N. Kostrov, K.K. Neumann, A.E. Norden-shilda, M. Opatsevich, P.A. Rovinsky. Works of book of N. Kostrov were devoted to the description of travel of P.S. Pallas, N.A. Bunge, V.V. Radlov across Altai. Article "Pallas's Travel on the Biysk District of the Tomsk Province in 1770" was

published in a number of rooms of "The Tomsk provincial sheets" for 1873-1874. A print from this newspaper for 1878-1879 was also its work the "Poyezdka for the Chuya River of Dr. Radlov in 1860" published in the Tomsk provincial printing house. There is an author, along with the general assessment of works

V.V. Radlova, gives the description of its trip and gives general information about the Chuya steppe. In other its work "Doctor Bunge's travel by east part of Altai in 1826" (Tomsk, 1876) which left probably to the 50 anniversary since the scientist's travel along with the review of routes of an expedition and data on economy and life of the population there were data on the nature and the description of the Chuya River.

K.K. Neumann's work "The historical review of actions of the Chukchi expedition" was published by parts in Izvestia of SOIRGO/14/. The first part of work was read at a general meeting of SOIRGO on February 24, 1871. Here, besides the description of a route of an expedition and data on other sciences, results of measurements of temperatures, observations of sea inflows and otliva are given. In Irkutsk, in N.N. Sinitsyn's printing house the report of the famous Scandinavian polar researcher A.E. Norden-shilda/15/was published. Also M. Opatsevich's work "Notes during swimming near coast of the Chukchi earth and in the Ledovity ocean in 1876" was devoted to northern expeditions (B. of m, 1877). Geographical researches in the Far East were reflected in work "Barabash. Songhua expedition of 1872" (B. of m, 1874).

In P.A. Rovinsky's work "Soobshcheniye Mr. Ro-vinsky about a trip to Tunka and to Oka to Okinsko-go of guard"/16/was given the description of the area of Tunki and the course of survey by her scientist. As a result of a research of monuments of the Stone Age the author came to a conclusion about similarity of climatic conditions in Siberia and Western Europe during the specified period. Data according to the description of the area are provided also in Friedrich von Gewald's work "Russians in Central Asia" translated from German/17/.

In the 80th of the 19th century a series of works on meteorology, climatology, hydrography appears; about travel and expeditions, natural study. These works concerned not only Siberia, but also the regions, neighboring to it. It should be noted that if works about travel had complex character where numerous data and on other sciences contained, then works in geographical sciences already more specifically, purposefully belonged to certain industries of knowledge.

P.I. Vershinin's work (Omsk, 1889) printed in printing house of the District headquarters was based on results of meteorological observations and was devoted to the description of climate of. True, treating then the Semirechensky region.

Results of researches of the meteorological station in Tobolsk were reflected by

in L.E. Lugovsky's works (1888; 1889). They were materials for drawing up meteorological and climatic reports in a quarter, year and were published as annexes in an informal part of "The Tobolsk provincial sheets". One of them was devoted specifically to results of observations over thunderstorms in Tobolsk in 1888. Similar results of annual observations of meteorological stations were published on the Irkutsk observatory (Irkutsk, 1888) and the Aleksandrovsky meteorological station to Sakhalin Island (Sakhalin Island, 1884). Results of meteorological researches were very relevant for development of economy in Siberia. Therefore emergence of work of M.A. Shestakov "About modern problems of meteorology in application to agriculture" was not accidental (Omsk, 1886).

In the Far East relevant continued to remain the problem of studying hydrography of the ocean. Emergence in 1889 in Vladivostok by results of the report in the Sea meeting of work of S.A. Vargin "Historical essay of our hydrographic acquaintance to waters and coasts of the Northern Pacific Ocean" was natural. Also Popov's work about salt lakes of the Minusinsk district was published (Krasnoyarsk, 1887).

A significant amount of works was devoted to results of travel, expeditions. They were published in a form of reports, traveling notes, preliminary reports on excursions, etc. and concerned various regions of Asia. Despite the complex nature of these works, here an important place it was allocated for geographical data.

Among the works devoted to Western Siberia it should be noted A. Bram's work "A travel across Siberia. A travel with doctor Finsh and professor Valdburg in Western Siberia and Northwest Turkestan", published in 1881 and being a print from the Priroda I Okhota magazine. Fragments from it under the name "The tundra (A travel to Western Siberia of O. Finsh and A. Bre-m)" were published in a number of rooms of "The Tobolsk provincial sheets" for 1881-1882. Messages about Barab were placed also in P. Stepanov's works "The Travelling Notes Seen during the Trip in the Summer of 1885 in Upper Courses of the Rivers of Tarta-sa and Tara" (B. of m, b.) and Dyakonova "Traveling notes about the Lake Sartlan" (Omsk, 1885), IRGO (ZSOIRGO) which was print from "Notes" of the West Siberian department (prince 7, issue 2).

Works of the famous researchers of the second half of the 19th century A.V. Adrianov, D.A. Klementsa were devoted to travel to Southern Siberia,

N.M. Yadrintseva. A.V. Adrianov's work "A travel to Altai and for Sayan Mountains, made in the summer

1883..." was the preliminary report and it was published in ZSOIRGO "Notes" (prince 8, the issue 2). At the same time a part of circulation was published by the separate book (Omsk, 1888). Among D.A. Klements's works one was devoted to preliminary data on an excursion to the Achinsk and Kansk districts (Izv. VSOIRGO. - 1889. - T. 2, No. 1), and the second, published by the separate book, was the preliminary report on researches in the basin of the Abakan River (B. of m, 1884). In N.M. Yad-rintsev's work results of researches in Mountain Altai, in particular in upper courses of the Katun River and on Lake Teletskoye were stated. It was printed in ZSOIRGO "Notes" (1882, prince 4). A number of works was devoted to researches in the Far East. It is S.S. Rosset's work about a trip to islands Seal and Sakhalin (Vladivostok, 1888); "Report on a business trip to the Commander Islands" of the lieutenant colonel of the General Staff N.A. Voloshinov (Khabarovsk, 1886). The latest work was published by the separate book in Khabarovsk and Irkutsk at the same time.

Among the publications devoted to other regions there were A.M. Nikolsky's works "A travel to Lake Balkhash and to the Semirechensky region" (Omsk, 1885) and the member of ZSOIRGO I. F. Bob-kova "The collection of articles printed in editions of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society and in the Tobolsk provincial sheets" (Omsk, 1885). The book by I.F. Bobkov represented the collection where three of its works entered: about topographical researches of the Lake Balkhash; about the Russian settlements in a northeast part of the Kyrgyz steppe; about Chuguchake.

Especially it should be noted N.L. Zeland's work "Kashgaria and Passes Tien Shan: traveling notes"/18/, ZSOIRGO which was print from the 9th book of "Notes". The author was sent to these areas for fight against cholera. Work consisted of nine chapters. In the 1st chapter "From True to Narym" the travel purposes are considered; the overview of Tien Shan and Semirechya is given; the travel is in detail described. In the 2nd chapter "From Narym to Kashgar" data on Plateau Karakoin nature were reported. "From Kashgar to Anau" the author provided data on the desert in the 4th chapter. In the 6th chapter "A general view to Kashgaria" the geographical location of Kashgaria, the description of a system of mountains, rivers, the nature, climate is given. Characteristic of Mountains Bedel, Urta-Kurgan is given in the 9th chapter "Return"; gorges Squash sou.

Two works of A. Vasenev were devoted to travel to Mongolia: "The diary seen on the way from Lan-zhou-du to San-an-fu and Han - Zhou - faugh and back. On July 28 - on Oct. 4, 1888" (B. of m, b.) and "From Khovd to Lanchzheufu" (Tomsk, 1889). The second work came out in a series of Works of the Tomsk provincial statistical committee (t. I, issue 1).

The preface to it was written by G.N. Potanin. Work is constructed in the form of the traveling diary. Some data on the region nature are provided in it.

Thus, literature on geography and about travel in Siberia and in the Far East began to be published regularly from the middle of the 19th century. This phenomenon was reflection of regular researches in the region by forces of local departments of IRGO. The release of similar editions constantly increased. At the same time appeared more and more works devoted to results in concrete areas of geographical knowledge.

List of references

1. Essays of history of book culture of Siberia and Far East. - Novosibirsk, 2000. - T. 1. - Page 73, 75.
2. Volkova, V.N. Siberian book publishing of the second half of the 19th century / V.N. Volkova. - Novosibirsk, 1995. - Page 218. - tab. 4.
3. Bashkevich, N. The description of the river of Irkut from Tunki before confluence with Angara / N. Bashkevich//Zap. Sib. otd. Imperat. Russian geogr. islands (further SOIRGO). - 1856. - Book I., otd. I. - Page 1-52.
4. Hitrovo, archpriest. Description of the Zhigansky ulus//In the same place. - Page 53-84.
5. Selsky, N. The description of the road from Yakutsk to Average kolymska/N. Selsky//In the same place. - Page 85-108.
6. Sverbeev, N. The description of swimming down the river to Cupid expeditions of the governor general of Eastern Siberia in 1854 / N. Sverbeev//Zap. SOIRGO. - 1857. - Book III, otd. I. Researches and materials. - Page 1-78.
7. Chikhachev. About a new way from the Nikolaev post that on the Amur River, in the Russian jail, on the northeast coast near Sea of Okhotsk / Chikhachev//Zap. SOIRGO. - 1857. - Book III, otd. III. Mix. - Page 1-14.
8. Kropotkin, P.A. Poyezdka in Okinsky guard / Item. A. Kropotkin//Zap. SOIRGO. - 1867. - Prince 9, 10. - Publ. on: Pyotr Alekseyevich Kropotkin. Natural science works. - M, 1998. - Page 31-76.
9. Eagles, A.P. Soobshcheniye the full member A.P. Orlov about the excessive floods which were in 1869 in the Transbaikal region / A.P. Orlov//Izv. SOIRGO. - 1870. - T. I, No. 1. - Page 12-22.
10. Data on the Chukchi expedition//In the same place. - Page 30-31.
11. Dobrotvorsky. Southern part of the island of Sakhalin / Dobrotvorsky//Izv. SOIRGO. - 1870. - T. I, No. 23. - Page 18-34.
12. Dybovsky, Century. Etudes at the southwest tip of Baikal (physiographic notes) / V. Dybovsky, V. Godlevsky//In the same place. - Page 35-48.
13. Fritshe. The geographical, magnetic and hypsometric definitions made in 18681869 years by Mr. Fritshe in 22 points lying in Mongolia and Northern China / G. Fritshe//In the same place. - Page 62-63.
14. SOIRGO news. - 1871. - T. I, No. 4-5. - Page 6-34; 1877. - T. II, No. 3. - Page 7-28.
15. Nordenshild, A.E. Polar expedition of A.E. Nor-denshilda: Dokl. to its majesty to the king Swedish. 1-6 / A.E. Nordenshild. - Irkutsk: Type. N.N. Si-

nitsyna, 1879. - 24 pages - Enc. to gas. Siberia, 1879. - No. 38, 39, 41, 42, 45, 47.

16. Rovinsky, P.A. Soobshcheniye Mr. Rovinsky about a trip to Tunka and to Oka to Okinsky guard / P.A. Ro-vinsky//Izv. SOIRGO. - 1871. - T. I, No. 4-5. -

C. 31-52.

17. Russians in Central Asia: the lane with it. historiographer. etude by Friedrich von Gewald//Izv. SOIRGO.-1871. - T. I, No. 4-5. - Page 61-69.
18. Zeland, N.L. Kashgariya and Passes Tien Shan: traveling notes / N.L. Zeland. - Omsk: Type. Surrounding headquarters, 1888. - 212 pages

Material came to edition of 18.04.2005

Information about the author: Victor Albertovich Ehrlich is a candidate of historical sciences, the leading researcher, ph. (383) 266-26-30, e-mail: knigoved@spsl.nsc.ru

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